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astrous storms, one of which had re- prophetic of better days to follow. sulted in a loss of 38 lives and $5,000,- The army played a major part in the 000 worth of property (1886), but she ceremonies, the military parade being had not heeded, and now the hand of the largest seen in Washington since destiny seemed so strong that it was the epoch of the Civil War. proposed to abandon the site of the For President McKinley, however, city. The citizens, however, were dis- it was climax and completion of his inclined to desert a situation that had career. Few of those in the great ' so many redeeming features, includ- multitude that acclaimed his second ing the finest harbor on the Gulf elevation to the position of supreme coast. With grim determination they honor in the gift of his country went to work to build a city that dreamed that before six months had would endure, however hard the ele- passed he would be the victim of an ments might beat against it. The assassin's bullet. On May 20, the streets were cleared of debris, new Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, buildings gotten under way, and New York, opened its doors to the plans were made for the construction public. This exhibition was intended of a great sea-wall which would pre- to represent and intensify a spirit of vent a repetition of the disaster of mutual interest that had been growSeptember 8. This was done at a cost ing between the United States and of more than a million dollars, and the republics of Latin-America. To to-day Galveston is one of the most this movement President McKinley prosperous, safest, cleanest and best

had given his cordial support, and governed cities in the United States.*

accordingly was made the guest of the President McKinley's second inau- Exposition, September 5–6. On the guration was a splendid pageant, and former date he made an address bein its excess indicated the national

fore an audience of 50,000 people in desire to do him honor. The day, too,

which he summed up the ideals of his was symbolic of the experiences of

nation as he conceived them. The the nation during the last few years, closing words of his last public utterfor although it was stormy for a

ance contain a message that should while, as is its wont on March 4, yet

be treasured, coming at the time they the sun shone from time to time as if

did, at this time with a special bene* (ralveston was the first city in the country

diction: to adopt the commission system of government, the success of which has caused other cities to Gentlemen, let us ever remember that our follow her example. During the eight years suc

interest is in concord, not conflict, and that our ceeding the disaster, the breakwater was

real eminence rests in victories of peace and not atructed, the city was raised 17 feet above the

in those of war. We hope that all who are repformer level and rebuilt, but the indebtedness resented here may be moved to higher and nobler of the city was sensibly diminished by an honest effort for their own and the world's good, and and business-like method of city government. that out of this city may come not only greater




commerce and trade for us all, but more essential zation, but acted on his own initiative. than that, these relations of mutual respect,

He had been impelled to his insane confidence and friendship, which will deepen and endure.

deed by the teachings of Johann Most • Our earnest prayer is that God will gra- and Emma Goldman,-a deed that he ciously vouchsafe prosperity, happiness and

expiated by his death October 29, peace to all our neighbors, and like blessings to all the peoples and powers of the earth.”

1901. This was the final

It was thought at first that the the final message of President's wound was not serious, William McKinley to the American

and favorable reports were given to people. The next day, at a public re

the public, but soon it was seen that ception given in his honor at the Tem

his chances for life were growing less ple of Music, he was shot down by an

each day, and on September 14, Presianarchist, Leon Czolgosz, who ap- dent McKinley had passed away. His proached under the pretense of body was laid in state in Buffalo, and greeting him, as thousands

in the capitol at Washington, and was doing at the time. Czolgosz, it ap- finally laid to rest in his home town, pears, was not the agent of an organi- Canton, Ohio.





President McKinley and President Roosevelt — The Trusts — Collisions of labor and capital - The great anthracite strike -- Intervention of President Roosevelt - Friendly advances of Germany

· The Panama Canal — The campaign of 1904 and re-election of Roosevelt.

It would be difficult to conceive two form the solid, resisting material of personalities more strongly in con- the American people. The Roosetrast than those of William McKinley velts, on the contrary, had been city and Theodore Roosevelt. By origin, dwellers from the days of New Amtraining, and by instincts they were sterdam, gaining generation by genantithetical. The former was born of .

eration the accretion of wealth and a Scotch pioneer family that had culture arising from such environsought, like many others, the Great ment. Yet strange to say the boy West, finding there the freedom de- born in the little Ohio town, later nied by the older communities. became possessed of the characterisNeither rich nor poor, the McKinleys ties assumed to mark the aristocrat, were of that sturdy middle-class who while his successor, more intellectual,

VOL. X - 15

perhaps, nevertheless appeared to re- might never have attained the Presiact from his type and take on the dency, and it may be that the price ideals and traits of the pioneer. In paid was a shutting of his eyes to cermany other ways their careers were tain tendencies just then revealing strangely at variance with their tem- themselves in the social and economic peraments, for it was destined appar- fabric of the state. The debts made ently that McKinley, a man of peace in 1896 are drawing interest to this and compromise, should be the na- day. The social conflict that was imtion's executive in time of war; while


minent at that time was aborted by Roosevelt, with ideals quite opposed, the Dingley Law, the war with Spain, should control in times of peace. It but above all by the yielding of a free doubtless is fortunate that such was hand to industrial forces and interthe case; the cautious nature of the ests that have since assumed a magformer served as a restraint upon nitude that almost overshadows the rash and unwise spirits; while the state itself. These were the problems radical and impetuous disposition of and conditions McKinley's successor the latter drove him to exert his ener- had to struggle with during the seven gies against those social abuses that years of his presidency. arise and develop in times of greatest

Mr. Roosevelt was

sworn in at peace and prosperity.

Buffalo, September 14. After taking President McKinley was not a man

the oath of office he turned to the of genius, yet the very adaptability members of the Cabinet who stood of his nature permitted him to attain around him, and stated his policy in his point when a more inflexible per- ' the following words: “In this hour sonality would have failed. This of national bereavement, I wish to quality, too, explains the remarkable state that it shall be my intention and development he apparently experi- endeavor to continue, absolutely unenced after he became the nation's broken, the policy of President Mcexecutive. During the earlier years Kinley, for the peace and prosperity of his career, his affiliations and his of our beloved country.” He then rerecord indicate that his horizon was quested that each of his predecessor's that of the average American politi- official advisors retain his place as cian, but the stress of great events

his own. These words and this act and great necessities appeared to did much towards restoring the conbroaden and deepen him, until the fidence of those who were at first dispolitician became transformed into mayed by the sudden elevation of the statesman. Yet in spite of this he what they conceived to be a rash owed much to his friends, and it is no young man. His initial ast thus was

. secret that had it not been for the instrumental in gaining for him the financial aid and personal efforts of good will of many who had previone in particular, Mark Hanna, he ously opposed him.

He knew very

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