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Five times the American fleet had erroneous. The moment of gloom steamed back and forth in front of the was dispelled in a twinkling, and at Spanish line of battle, and as yet there once all were eager to complete the was no evidence of great damage hav- work. That it could be done no one ing been done to the opposing squad- had the slightest doubt. ron. The Reina Christina had been .

During this interim, Commodore destroyed, and others of the ships had Dewey sent a flag of truce to the batbeen on fire several times, but so had teries at Manila announcing that if one of the American ships, and the they did not cease firing he would enemy's firing was still as vigorous as shell the city. This had the desired at the beginning of the action. At effect and the batteries were silent 7:35 o'clock, the Olympia displayed during the remainder of the action. the signal: Cease firing, and follow :

After a rest of three hours, the fleet the flag-ship.” In obedience to this again steamed down in battle order, -.

, command, the fleet silenced its guns the Baltimore this time in the lead. and withdrew out of range. This

It was then perceived that the work movement so astonished the Spaniards of destruction was almost complete. that they immediately cabled to Mad- the Spanish ships showing clearly the rid the defeat of the American fleet. fearful effect of the American guns. The cause of the withdrawal was a Only one of them, the Don Antonio de matter no less serious than a report lloa, was able to make effective refrom the ships that the ammunition sistance, and its guns were was running low. When the ships silenced. The shore batteries, howwere beyond the danger zone, orders ever, were still active, and two shots were given to pipe the men to break- from them did considerable damage to fast, much to the disgust of the gun- the Baltimore, wounding two officers crews who grumbled and expressed the

and six men. sentiment, “ To hell with breakfast!” Steaming up to a distance of less The order, however, brought a blessed than two thousand yards, the Amerirelief to the engineers, stokers, and can fleet in obedience to its order to magazine attendants, who had been capture or destroy, completed its working for two hours in a tempera- work, and soon the Spanish fleet was ture ranging from 110° to 160°. but a tragic array of battered hulks,

A conference of the captains was whose exploding magazines continued called by Commodore Dewey, and the devastation begun by the Ameriwhen their reports were brought in, to can shells. The ships directed to dethe delight of all it was learned that the stroy the arsenal and the batteries at ships were practically uninjured. In Cavité were no less thorough; the addition there had been no loss of life, battle virtually ceasing when a welland the rumor that the ammunition aimed shot blew up the powder magawas growing short was proved to be zine of the arsenal. At 12:40 the guns



of the enemy no longer made reply, and complete

possible.” white flags of surrender were flying These words might be taken from at Cavité and other points, so the sig- their context and applied to work of nal to cease firing and anchor at will the American fleet as a whole. The was displayed, and the battle of Man- battle of Manila in its far-reaching ila Bay was at an end.

results, in the perfection of the method In his report of the battle, Commo- adopted by Commodore Dewey, in the dore Dewey, referring to Commander insignificant loss of life experienced Wood, of the Petrel, who was detailed by the victors, and in the absolute to destroy the small gunboats behind thoroughness with which the task was the point of Cavité, says: “ This duty

“ This duty performed, was one of the decisive was performed in the most thorough naval battles of the world's history.




Difficulties in the mobilization of a large army - The navy better prepared than army - Size of

army on a peace basis — Reply to call for volunteers - Need for care in subjecting men to tropi. cal conditions Organization and training camps.

Owing to the fact that Commodore ceding the disaster at Bull Run. It Dewey was not permitted to make use was found that the entire organization of the cables running from Manila to of the war department was incapable Hong Kong, authoritative informa- of bearing up under the strain arising tion regarding the battle did not reach from the conditions of war, and the rethe United States until May 7. In the adjustments found imperative and exmeanwhile public attention was occu- periments that were made during the pied by the events taking place in the first days of the war resulted in delays Gulf of Mexico. At the outbreak of and perhaps disasters. the war rash statements had been In comparison with the navy, the made to the effect that 50,000 soldiers army presented to the public a very could be poured into Cuba within a shabby and discreditable spectacle. fortnight, and the Spanish army put And yet the people, in a way, were to flight within thirty days. It was responsible for the condition as it exsoon discovered, however, that mobil- isted. Soon or late, Congress always izing an army was no less a problem gives the people what they want, and in 1898 than it was in the days pre- as yet there had been no insistent de

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mand for an increased or more efficient teers many were raw boys, scarcely army. Pressure of circumstances and out of school, some were negroes, not popular opinion had been responsible a few were battle-scarred veterans for the building of the new American who had worn the blue and the gray navy, but there had been no call for during the '60's, whose eagerness to an army capable of doing more than fight side by side in this conflict with protect the country during the internal

a foreign foe revealed how truly was dissensions that might arise during

the nation a unity at last. A month times of peace. It was evident from the beginning another call for volunteers, and again

later (May 25) the President issued that the regular army of 28,143 men

the reply was as enthusiastic as bewould serve merely as the nucleus for

fore. Several hundred thousand rean army such as would be required in

sponded when only 75,000 were dethe conflict now imminent, and the

sired. The same caution, however, States were accordingly called upon

was exercised in this case as in the for their quota of volunteers. On April

first, and the final result was an army 23, two days after the opening of hos

of 200,000 recruits, raw, and mainly tilities, the President issued the proc

untrained in the elements of military lamation calling for 125,000 two year volunteers. The reply was a revela- science, but material out of which an

invincible army could be shaped in a tion to those who conceived that the

comparatively short space of time. martial spirit of America was passing,

The following table shows the volunfor instead of thousands, hundred of thousands offered to go to the front,

teer army as organized, with the numand it was only by the most rigid ex

ber of men supplied by each State: amination in order to eliminate cvery

General officers and staff... 1,010 1,329 one in the least physically or otherwise


3,061 unfit that the number was reduced

1,934 to the required point. The weak, the California

4,441 Colorado

1,076 underweighted, the the hollow-chested, Connecticut


2,436 and the puny were left out. The exami- Delaware

47 nations were as severe as those con

District of Columbia ducted in time of peace, and the result


142 3,389 was the selection of none but those

Illinois fittest for the task. It was the fittest,


5,564 alone, who would survive, for these

3,354 volunteers were to contend with foes

3,735 Kentucky

4,559 quite as merciless and far more in


2,255 sidious than the Spaniards: with heat,

61 1,444

Maryland malaria, yellow fever, and all the other

1,979 Massachusetts

5,515 evils of the tropics. Of these volun



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