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THE Philosophy of the Mind has grown up, like other sciences, from small beginnings. Many propositions, coming too, in many instances, from able writers, have been thrown aside; truth has been sifted out from the mass of error, until at last a great number of important principles is ascertained. But while it is exceedingly necessary that our youth should be made acquainted with these principles, it is impossible that they should go through with all the complicated discussions which have been held in respect to them. Many of the books in which these discussions are contained have become exceedingly rare; and, if they were not so, no small number of students, who are now in the course of as thorough an education as our country affords, would not be able to purchase them. And besides, by placing before the student a mass of crude and conflicting statements, his mind becomes perplexed. To be able to resolve such a mass into its elements, and to separate truth from error, implies an acquaintance with the laws of the intellect, and a degree of mental discipline, which he is not yet supposed to have acquired; and hence, instead of obtaining much important knowledge, he becomes distrustful of everything.
Now these evils, saying nothing of the loss of time attendant on such a course, are to be remedied in the same way as in other sciences. In other departments of learning, ingenious men discuss points of difficulty; conflicting arguments are accumulated, until the preponderance on one side is such that the question in debate is considered
settled. Others employ themselves in collecting facts, in classifying them, and in deducing general principles; and when all this is done, the important truths of the science, collected from such a variety of sources, and suitably arranged and expressed, are laid before the student, in order that he may become acquainted with them. And this is what is attempted, to some extent, to be done in the present work, which is an abridgment of a larger work on the same subject. In the larger work, the principles of Eclecticism and Induction, which have just been referred to, are applied on a more extensive scale than in the present. I have been obliged necessarily to exclude from the abridgment many interesting and striking illustrations and facts, and some general philosophical views, which would have had a place if our limits had permitted. I indulge the hope, nevertheless, as the abridgment has been made with no small degree of care, that it will answer the purpose for which it is particularly designed; viz., the assistance of those youth who need some knowledge of Mental Philosophy, but are not in a situation to prosecute the subject to any great extent.
THOMAS C. UPHAM.
Bowdoin College, May, 1840.
THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING.
INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND.
CHAPTER I. h..
1. The mind susceptible of a threefold division
2. The Intellect susceptible of a subordinate division
4. Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin. 19
6. Further proof of the beginnings of knowledge from external causes
7. The same subject further illustrated
20. Of the sense and sensations of smell
21. Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations
22. Of the sense and the sensations of taste
CHAPTER III. .
THE SENSES OF SMELL AND TASTE.
17. Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
9. Sensation a simple mental state originating in the senses
10. All sensation is properly and truly in the mind
11. Sensations are not images or resemblances of objects.
12. The connexion between the mental and physical change not ca-
13. Of the meaning and nature of perception
14. Perception makes us acquainted with a material world
15. Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
26. Of the sense of touch in general and its sensations
27. Idea of externality suggested in connexion with the touch
28. Origin of the notion of extension, and of form or figure
THE SENSE OF SIGHT.
33. Of the organ of sight, and the uses or benefits of that sense
34. Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
35. Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
36. The idea of extension not originally from sight
37. Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight
38. Illustration of the subject from the blind
30. Of the sensations of hardness and softness
31. Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
32. Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified. 45
42. Of the estimation of distances by sight
43. Signs by means of which we estimate distance by sight
44. Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects
HABITS OF SENSATION AND PERCEPTION.
46. General view of the law of habit and of its applications
47. The law of habit applicable to the mind as well as the body
49. Of habit in relation to the taste
50. Of habit in relation to the hearing
51. Application of habit to the touch
57. Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine.
59. Meaning and characteristics of conceptions
60. Of conceptions of objects of sight.
61. Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
63. Of the subserviency of our conceptions to description
64. Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
65. Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
66. Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations
53. Habits considered in relation to the sight
54. Sensations may possess a relative, as well as positive increase of
55. Of habits as modified by particular callings and arts.
56. The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the
SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXNESS OF MENTAL STATES.
67. Origin of the distinction of simple and complex
68. Nature and characteristics of simple mental states
69. Simple mental states not susceptible of definition
70. Simple mental states representative of a reality
71. Origin of complex notions, and their relation to simple
72. Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings 87
73. The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood
77. Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas
78. Instances of particular abstract ideas
79. Mental process in separating and abstracting them
80. General abstract notions the same with genera and species
81. Process in classification, or the forming of genera and species
82. Early classifications sometimes incorrect
88. Of the general nature of attention
89. Of different degrees of attention
90. Dependence of memory on attention
91. Of exercising attention in reading
92. Alleged inability to command the attention
93. Definition of dreams and the prevalence of them
94. Connexion of dreams with our waking thoughts.
95. Dreams are often caused by our sensations
96. Explanation of the incoherency of dreams. (1st cause)
97. Second cause of the incoherency of dreams.
98. Apparent reality of dreams. (1st cause)
99. Apparent reality of dreams. (2d cause)
100. Of our estimate of time in dreaming
INTELLECTUAL STATES OF INTERNAL ORIGIN.
102. The soul has fountains of knowledge within
103. Declaration of Locke, that the soul has knowledge in itself
84. Of the nature of general abstract ideas
85. The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers, &c.
86. Of general abstract truths or principles
87. Of the speculations of philosophers and others.