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less, latitude. Thus the word dixalos sometimes comprehends the whole of our duty to God, our neighbour, and ourselves ; sometimes it includes only the virtue of justice. When 'o dixaloe is opposed to fol novrpoi, the former is the case, and it is better to render it the righteous, and dixaloovun righteousness ; but when δικαιoς or δικαιοσυνη occur in a list with other virtues, it is better to render them just or justice. Sometimes the word is employed in a sense which has been called forensic, as being derived from judicial proceedings. He that justifieth the wicked, says Solomon 18, and he that condemneth the just, even they both are abomination to the Lord. The word wicked, means no more here than guilty, and the word just, guiltless of the crime charged. In like manner odlotns, in one or two instances, may be found in the New Testament, in an extent of signification greater than usual. In such cases it may be rendered sanctity, a word rather more expressive of what concerns manners than holiness is.
, is not synonymous with חסיד word
$ 18. But, as a further evidence that the Hebrew
, kadosh, and consequently neither focios with dylos, it must be observed, that the abstract on chesed, is not once rendered by the Seventy foolotns, or, by our interpreters, holiness, though the concrete is almost always rendered 'oolos in Greek, and often holy in English. This substantive, on the contrary, is
133 Prov. xvii. 15.
translated in the Septuagint, & eos, denuoo vun, AixTELPnua, etus, zapis, or some such term ; once, indeed, and but once, 'oola. In English it is translated kindness, favour, grace, mercy, loving-kindness, pity, but never holiness. The analogy of language, (unless use were clear against it, which is not the case here) would lead us to think, that there must be a nearer relation in meaning than this, between the substantive and the adjective formed from it. Yet worthy does not more evidently spring from worth, than 700 chasid, springs from 700 chesed. Of the term last mentioned it may be proper just to observe, that there is also an anomalous use (like that remarked in kadosh), which assigns it a meaning, the reverse of its usual signification, answering to avouia, overdos, flagitium, probrum. But it is only in two or three places that the word occurs in this acceptation.
$ 19. I SHALL conclude with observing, that chasid or hosios is sometimes applied to God; in which case, there can be little doubt of its implying merciful, bountiful, gracious, liberal, or benign. The only case, wherein it has an affinity in meaning to the English words saint or holy, is when it expresses pious affections towards God. As these cannot be attributed to God himself, the term, when used of him, ought to be understood, according to its most frequent acceptation. The Psalmist's words, which, in the common version, are 184, The Lord
194 Psal. cxlv. 17.
is righteous in all his ways, and holy, chasid, in all his works, would have been more truly, as well as intelligibly and emphatically rendered, The Lord is just in all his ways, and bountiful in all his works. There is not equal reason for translating in the same manner the Greek hosios, when applied to God in the New Testament. Though hosios, in the Septuagint, commonly occupies the place of chasid, it does not always. It is sometimes employed in translating the Hebrew words On tham, perfect, and ne ja sher, upright. Once it is used for this last term when applied to God 185. Those words, therefore, Ott uovos 'bolos 186, in an address to God, ought to be translated, for thou alone art perfect, rather than bountiful or gracious. The addition of uovos to the other epithet, is a sufficient ground for this prefe. rence.
The context also favours it. But, in the more common acceptation of the term 'oolos hosios, there is this difference between it and 'ayros hagios, as applied to God, that the latter appellation represents the Deity as awful, or rather terrible; the former as amiable. The latter checks all advances on our part. We are ready to cry with the men of Bethshemesh 387, Who is able to stand before this holy God? The former emboldens us to approach. Thus they are so far from being synonymous in this application, that they may rather be contrasted with each other. As to their import, when applied to
185 Deut. xxxii. 4.
186 Rev. xv. 4.
i Sam. vi. 20.
men, the word å ylos, in the best sense, still retains so much of its origin, as to appear rather a negative character, denoting a mind without stain ; whereas the term colos is properly positive, and implies, in its utmost extent, both piety and benevolence.
$ 20. In regard to the manner of translating kadosh in the Old Testament, and hagios in the New; when all circumstances are considered, I think it safest to retain very generally the common version holy. The same remark holds nearly also of the conjugates. It is very true that the sense of the original, in many places, does not entirely suit the meaning which we affix to that word. But it is certain, on the other hand, that we have no one word that answers so well in all cases. To change the term with each variation in meaning, would be attended with great inconveniency, and, in many cases, oblige the translator to express himself either unintelligibly, and, to appearance, inconsequentially, or too much in the manner of the paraphrast. On the other hand, as the English term holy is somewhat indefinite in respect of meaning, and in a manner appropriated to religious subjects, nothing can serve better to ascertain and illustrate the scriptural use than such uniformity ; and the scriptural use of a word hardly current in common discourse, cannot fail to fix the general acceptation. But this would not hold of any words, in familiar use, on ordinary subjects. With regard to such, any deviation from the received meaning would, to common readers,
prove the occasion of perplexity at least, if not of
But chasid in the Old Testament, and hosios in the New (except when used substantively, where it may be rendered saint), ought, when it respects the disposition towards God, to be translated pious ; when it respects the disposition towards men, gracious, kind, humane.
Κηρυσσειν, ευαγγελιζειν, καταγγελλειν, AND διδασκειν.
The only other specimen I shall here give of words supposed to be synonymous, or nearly so, shall be κηρυσσειν, ευαγγελιζειν, καταγγελλειν, and διδασκειν, all nearly related, the former three being almost always rendered in English to preach, and the last to teach. My intention is, not only to point out exactly the differences of meaning in these words, but to evince that the words whereby the two former are rendered in some, perhaps most, modern languages, do not entirely reach the meaning of the original terms ; and, in some measure, by consequence, mislead most readers. It happens, in a tract of ages, through the gradual alterations which take place in laws,