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expressions and I believe that there is no collection of hymns of similar bulk with our liturgy, in which we should not find ten times as many passages, which are unsuitable to the use of mixed congregations.
Truth is elicited by amicable discussion among those who are agreed in their great object, while they differ upon minor points; and I hope that none of my remarks will tend to grieve any of your readers, and least of all, the devoted and diligent compilers of the Bristol Sunday School Hymn Book.
A SYSTEMATIC mode of TEACHING WRITING.
.. THE following plan of teaching writing has been found useful, and I should be obliged to you to insert a short account of it for the benefit of those Sunday Schools, in which writing is taught once or twice in the week. The letters are of a large size, and are written on half a sheet of foolscap paper. The copy is suspended to an upright standard so as to be seen, and used by about 10 children at once. The following is the copy which the children write from in beginning to learn.
The following letters in writing are formed from the above. abdhil m no prt u v w y The following are irregular, though some of them are partly formed from the first copy.
с e f g j k q
I have found it the best plan to teach the children thoroughly to write the first copy; from this they proceed to the letters formed from it, which thus become very easy: then they write the irregulars. After having learned to write all the letters quite well, I commonly set them their own names, which they feel a pleasure and pride in being able to write; and then they proceed, without any intermediate join-hand, to the scriptural copies published by the Sunday School Union. These may likewise be placed on a board, on the collective plan, and when a number of children are writing in a class, the same copy, it is a great stimulus to emulation. On the plan mentioned, one
teacher, with the assistance of a monitor, may instruct 100 children in writing. The slates are cut into lines, ready to write: on the one side large-hand, and the other small: roundhand I conceive to be superfluous. The children of a Sunday School will learn to write sufficiently well upon a slate without pen and ink, and copy-books, which are very expensive.
A Plan for TEACHING the first RULES of ARITHMETIC. TO this exercise we admit all the Scholars twice a week, who are capable of reading the second spelling-book, beginning of course with teaching them the forms of the nine digits. Copies of these are suspended on a kind of cross (†) erected at each end of the desk. All the figures being marked very strong, and about two inches in length, so that they are very discernable by one half of the desk, who are directed to look at the copy hanging at the left hand, while the remainder take their instructions from the opposite: our desks are double ones, that is with a seat on each side, so that about 20 Scholars are accommodated at each, who are attended by a monitor. Hav ing learned to make the figures tolerably, we proceed to their junction in tens, hundreds, &c. the teacher calling the several uns, while the monitor keeps walking round, to see that all are correct. This being accomplished pretty readily, we commence addition in this way, the teacher taking a slate or paper in his own hand, calls aloud and distinctly, several figures at his pleasure, marking them off on his own table to determine the amount: the children are required to do the like, and a prize awarded to him or her who first declares the total. Lest this should be misunderstood, permit me, Mr. Editor, to give an example: the teacher then is supposed to give out the following numbers, 15-37-24, making a short pause between each to give the children time to mark it; he then proposes a ticket to him or her who first declares the total correctly, running it up speedily himself, in order to be ready to receive their reports; I say speedily," for I as sure you our children have been so delighted with what they have considered an amusement, as sometimes to be beforehand with me, reckoning the different amounts as the figures are given out, and declaring the total immediately upon hearing the last, before they have put it upon the slate.
After this the teacher calls his numbers as tens, thus, 24
-42-36-51-22.. When the monitor giving
notice that all have the figures correct, the first child begins by saying loud enough for all at that desk to hear, 2 and 1 are 3, the next child takes it up, 3 and 6 are 9, another proceeds, 9 and 2 are 11, then 11 and 7 are 18,-18 and 4 are 22; the succeeding child says, put down 2 and carry 2 to the next line, the Scholars then continue in the same manner with the lefthand column, until the whole is compleated. Every child is expected to have his pencil upon the figure under notice, in order that each may be observing the operation, and the monitor keeps walking round the desk to see that they are thus attentive: if the pencil is not upon the proper figure it subjects the defaulter to the penalty of one ticket, and in order to ascertain whether all understand the business, two or three are indiscriminately fixed upon, who each in turn stand upon the form and perform the work in the hearing of all. This too serves to make them attentive as no one knows who may be thus called upon, each therefore endeavours to be prepared.
So much, Sir, for the initiating part of our plan: having made this progress, their further instruction goes on in profound silence, by means of lessons suspended at each end of the desk, from which they copy the several sums to be added; as the construction of these are entirely new, I must add a few specimens. (The total in the copies are omitted in course.)
Now, Sir, the utility of lessons thus constructed, will appear if you observe the last line but one of the several sums, which being doubled or multiplied by 2, adding to the tens of the left hand, (if any) as many as there are columns of figures it gives the exact total of the whole. But then, Mr. Editor, you will immediately perceive that not even a monitor, no, not a confidential one is to be entrusted with the important secret, or all is lost. While this is preserved, the teacher can walk up and down the desk, and with a single glance observe if all be right or no, without the trouble of reckoning the whole. I used to put the line to be doubled the last in the row, but was afraid
* Would it not be more simple and easy to place the figure to form the total on the left hand at the end of the top line, or some other situation?
the children would at some time or other discover the amount to be just twice its value: if placed at top, the eye does not so quickly catch it; if any should think it is now too near the total, about the middle might serve as well. I hope, Sir, all this is understood; in case I have not been sufficiently explicit, I will request you to look at the first sum 1 as the last figure but one, twice is 2, then add at the left hand for the number of the row, and you have the total. Again, in the second sum, twice 3 is 6, and twice 2 is 4, adding two for the number of the row, the total is 246. Again, twice 6 are 12, set down 2 and carry 1, then twice 5 are 10, and 1 I carry makes 11, set down 1 and carry 1, twice 9 are 18 and 1 I carry makes 19, set down 9 and carry 1, then add 3 (the number of columns) to the 1 last carried, this makes it 4, and the whole is completed. Upon the same plan sums may be formed of five, six, or seven figures wide, which will be found increasingly difficult in the addition as they advance, on account of the necessity of using the higher figures more frequently; any one sitting down to draw up a few will quickly discover this. *
I have now to say, that the rapidity of improvement by this method has been astonishing. The attendance of the teacher does not deserve the name of labour; I have alone and unattended had the charge of 80, a great part of whom in about three weeks would be very ready at common addition. I must not, however, onit one rule, it is, that a single word uttered by any Scholar, be the occasion what it may, subjects him to removal from the desk for that evening; all is so profoundly silent, that the working of their pencils on the slates is distinctly heard.
N. B. We use no writing paper, and all sharpen their pencils on leaving. IUCOD.
An ADDRESS to the TEACHERS of SUNDAY SCHOOLS, by the REV. H. G. WATKINS, M. A. Rector of ST. SWITHIN, LONDON STONE,
THIS address is the substance of a sermon preached before the Teachers of the Sunday School Union, in London, Mr.
• We should be obliged to Juced to send us a complete and correct copy of We have for sometime adopted a plan somewhat similar to that mentioned, and have found that it both lessens the labour of the teacher, and expedites the progress of the learner. Subtraction, multiplication, division, and indeed the other rules of arithmetic may likewise be taught from boards.
Watkins appears to feel peculiarly interested in the Sunday Schools; hence he enters into many of the minuter parts of the subject, with a knowledge more resembling that of an experienced Sunday School teacher than a minister. He feels quite at home on this occasion, and gives such instructions as cannot fail to be useful, in a plain and affectionate manner.
After introducing the subject by a few remarks on the religious aspect of the present period, and the beneficial influence of Sunday Schools, when conducted by gratuitous teachers, Mr. Watkins directs the attention of teachers to themselves and their services.
The following sentiments on the private conduct of instructors can hardly be too often repeated:
"What is said by St. Paul, in the second chapter to the Romans, is equally applicable to all teachers and instructors. What public ministers are exhorted to regard, other teachers will not act wisely if they neglect. "Take heed to thyself, as well as to thy doctrine." Such portions of Scripture imply, that all instructors of babes may not themselves be practically taught, or experimentally understand the lessons they teach others. Teaching Christ Jesus the Lord, is one thing, but feeling my sinfulness, and my need of a Saviour, and loving our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, is another thing. The first may be done, even while the other is unknown. Hence said St. Paul, "I keep under my body and bring it into subjection, lest, after having preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. Satan endeavours to make preachers and teachers satisfied with a professional sort of religion; and thus to substitute chaff for wheat."
The importance of constant secret prayer, and the influence of an instructive spirit and example upon his children are then enforced. One remark we trust will not escape the attention of our younger readers.
"Conduct yourselves therefore in the presence of the children with gravity and seriousness. Let them not witness any levity of manners, either toward your fellow teachers or the children; for on this observance your usefulness will much depend."
The evils of jealousy, envy, pride, and censoriousness in teachers are then mentioned, and several important hints dropped, calculated to preserve from these sins. The remarks on the necessity of a cautious reserve towards the other sex, and attention to propriety in dress, are dictated by prudence and experience.