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the direction of all the forces hitherto under Sigel, Crook and Averill, and speedily organized a movement upon Lynchburg, which created no little alarm at that important strategic point and depot, drawing away a considerable force from the vicinity of Richmond. The advance of Hunter, however, did not commence until some days later than the date to which the operations under the immediate supervision of Grant have been brought down.

On the 19th of May, at about six o'clock in the evening, a sudden and furious attack was made by Ewell, on Grant's rearguard, this side of Spottsylvania, with the purpose of capturing his transportation train, and, by a flank movement, interposing a force between the National army and Fredericksburg. This assault was promptly met by the divisions of Birney and Tyler, aided by a portion of the Fifth Corps. The assailants were repulsed, leaving their killed and wounded on the field, and with a loss of about three hundred prisoners. The total Union loss was about seven hundred and fifty.

During the week intervening since the severe battle of the 12th, Grant had been receiving heavy reinforcements and pntting his army into good condition for the work still before it. More than twenty-five thousand veterans had been sent him since the commencement of the campaign, including a large force from the Department of Washington under Gen. Augur. As the present movement covered the national capital, a large force could thus be spared from the defenses of Washington, without endangering its safety. Mr. Lincoln had earnestly pointed out this advantage in the first campaign against Rich. mond, but his advice had been disregarded by the commander who, on that occasion, led the army of the Potomac to defeat and disaster. The native sagacity of Grant had led him to adopt this course at last, without dictation, however, or counsel from the President. This is not the only occasion during the campaign of 1864, in which the intuitive military judgment of President Lincoln was vindicated, and the fatal errors of his first subordinate general-in-chief, when differing in his opinions, were demonstrated. To roach the fortifications of Richmond without loss, and there to encounter the Rebel army not only

unharmed, but trebly intrenched, concentrated, and strengthened, was evidently no gain. The enemy was to be encountered, and his strength broken, sooner or later. While this must necessarily cost heavily, the plan of campaign pursued by Grant was such that his losses could be readily supplied and his numbers kept up, while the army of his opponent was crumbling away under constant attrition. The protraction of the struggle between the Rapidan and Richmond was thus telling no less positively on the final result—but rather the reverse—than a lengthened siege of Richmond. The test of comparative strength and resources might as well come here as elsewhere. It was thus no mere bravado, but the espression of sound practical wisdom, when Grant declared it to be his purpose to "fight it out on this line," though it should take all the summer.” It was for a campaign against Lee and Richmond, fought out in this resolute spirit, with no postponement or evasion of the struggle that must inevitably come at last, that the country had long been waiting. It was nothing less than this that could bring the war to a close. People had occasional misgivings. The loss of life was felt to be fearful. But, through all, there remained an abiding faith in the course pursued, and a conviction that unwise cconomy, even of life, at this juncture, could only end in more terrible sacrifices in the final aggregate.

On the evening of the 20th, Grant began the new advance which he had been preparing for, to Guiney's Station, on the Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad, and southward, flanking the enemy's strong lines at Spottsylvania. The movement was handsomely executed without opposition. The Rebel commander discovering what was transpiring, Longstreet's corps was started southward late the same night. Ewell's corps followed on Saturday, the 21st. The whole force of Lee made haste to get in a position, apparently heretofore fortified, between the North and South Anna, the rapid marches of Grant threatening an interception of his progress toward that stronghold. The Union army, on the other hand, proceeding by Guiney's Station and Bowling Green, reached Milford Station, the advance crossing the Mattapony, by the morning of the 22d. Warren's corps had the lead, following the telegraph road southward from Guiney's Station, and capturing some prisoners in occasional skirmishes with the rear of Ewell's corps.

Hancock had the advance on the Bowling Green road, and remained at Milford until the afternoon of the 22d, when his

corps moved on and took position next day on the left of Warren, who had now crossed the Mattapony and advanced to the North Anna. The enemy's rear, under Ewell, was found intrenched on both banks of that river. Skirmishing began the same evening. The batteries in the center of Hancock's corps, on the left, commenced shelling the enemy at 4 o'clock, while Birney's division, charging through storms of bullets from the rifle pits, and of shells from the batteries on the opposite bank of the river, drove the enemy across the bridge and secured its possession. At 5 o'clock, Warren, who had proceeded out a road leading to Jericho Ford, a mile or two farther up the stream, threw a force across to the south bank of the river, which immediately intrenched itself, and successfully resisted a heavy assault of the enemy on the same evening, repulsing the assailants with serious loss, who left their killed and wounded on the field. At dark, the corps of Burnside arrived, and took its place between the Second and Fifth Corps, preparatory to the general advance intended for the next morning. Wright took position near the Fifth Corps, having crossed at the same ford as Warren. The Union losses in these spirited engagements were comparatively light, probably not exceeding seven hundred in the aggregate of killed and wounded. The Rebel loss was hardly less, exclusive of a number of prisoners taken by Birney.

Early on the morning of the 24th a general advance was ipade to the south side of the river, when the fact was disclosed that the enemy had retired from his works, and no opposition was made. The impression, at first, prevailed that Lee was retiring beyond the South Anna, and hastening toward the Rebel capital. An order from Lee to Ewell directing him to fall back rapidly within the defenses of Richmond was found on the person of a captured orderly of the former general, but this appears to have been a ruse de guerre. In truth, Lee had

now taken up a stronger position than any he had held hereto. fore, since leaving Mine Run, and he desired Grant's entire force to cross the North Anna, to meet the unexpected reception which was thought to have been prepared for him.

The lines of Grant now extended from the Richmond ana Fredericksburg railroad, near Chesterfield Station, westward some miles, to Jericho Ford of the North Anna. Three miles south of the point at which the railroads cross this stream, is Sexton's Junction, where the Fredericksburg and Gordonsville roads intersect each other. The latter road runs nearly paral. lel with the river, about three miles southward therefrom, for the distance of fifteen or twenty miles. Directly south of the Gordonsville railroad, again, is a stream calied Little river, much of the way only two or three miles distant, though growing more remote as it approaches the point where the Fredericksburg railroad crosses. Further eastward it is crossed by the Gordonsville road, just before entering the North Anna, three or four miles above its junction with the South Anna, to form the Pamunkey. The complication of railroads and rivers in this vicinity is peculiar, remarkably well adapting this country between the Annas for defensive operations.

On the 25th, the firing between the two armies was chiefly by artillery. The enemy held his advance works north of the Little river quietly, for the most part, not caring to hasten an engagement-choosing, probably, in fact, to maintain the appearance of having only a feeble rear-guard left behind to delay pursuit. It was ascertained, however, by reconnoissances made beyond the Gordonsville road, that the three corps of Longstreet, Hill and Ewell were yet at hand. Meanwhile, the time was busily employed by detachments in destroying the Gordonsville road for several miles westward.

It now became manifest to Grant, if such had not from the first been his conviction, that an attempt to force the passage of fortifications and positions of such strength and complication, would involve too great a disadvantage to his army, and was to be avoided by drawing his opponent upon more equal ground. Under the cover of skillful demonstrations to the right and left, thereforo, Grant withdrew the main portion of

his army, and began a new flanking movement, which had nearly surprised Lee. On the night of the 26th, the Union forces recrossed to the north side of the North Anna, crossed over the Mattapony, and with that stream, and subsequently the Pamunkey, between itself and the enemy, marched rapidly southward, in nearly the reverse order of the advance from Spottsylvania, Hancock's corps bringing up the rear, and Wright's taking the van. The movement was directed toward Hanovertown, where the entire force was to cross the Pamunkey, and move forward to Richmond, which is about eighteen miles distant from the river at this point. Sheridan, with the First and Second Divisions of his cavalry, took possession of the Hanover Ferry at nine o'clock on the morning of the 27th, and the First Division of Wright's corps arrived an hour later, and held the place until the remainder of the army came up.

In throwing his vast army across the Rapidan, Grant broke altogether his communications with Washington by the Orange and Alexandria railroad. The communication was first reopened by way of Belle Plain and Fredericksburg, while the army remained in Spottsylvania county, and its base of supplies was next transferred to Port Royal, on the Rappahannock, as the advance was made to the North Anna. The new and adroit movement to the Pamunkey made a still further transfer necessary, the communication being now resumed by the York and Pamunkey rivers, with such railway helps as a further advance toward Richmond rendered practicable. The sick and wounded were all removed from the vicinities of Fredericksburg and Port Royal, and the large number of prisoners in our possession were taken to Point Lookout, Maryland, and elsewhere. Grant thus secured, whenever he moved, a secure base, with the least possible embarrassment and loss in the matter of transportation and movable property-showing a great improvement in the art of making war since the first disastrous campaign on the Peninsula, to which locality the Army of the Potomac had again arrived. Our forces were now in full strength and excellent spirit, and the immediate work in hand was again renewed, with such mortal injuries already inflicted op the opposing army as it had no means to recover from with

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