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their deliverers from long-accumulating wrongs; flashing the light of divine ideas from columns of gleaming bayonets by day, and from cities of camp-fires by night, will live in the pages of history and romance while our country shall endure. For weeks enveloped in a cloud to the world around—even to the Rebels, mainly, who were often only ignorant when affecting to be reticent--tidings of the great expedition began to be anxiously awaited. A fleet, under Admiral Dahlgren, was, meanwhile, arriving off the coast, near Savannah, prepared to rejoin the long-broken line of communication with Washington.

The enemy had thrown up some rude earth-works at the railroad bridge across the little Ogeechee, but retired before the First Division of the Seventeenth Corps, deployed for the purpose, had come within attacking distance. The whole force of the enemy was found to be concentrated, on the 9th of December, behind intrenchments, in an apparently strong natural position, thirteen miles from Savannah. A gallant charge of the single division just named, through a swamp in front of the enemy's position-the men sometimes marching waist deepdrove him from his works, in spite of a heavy artillery fire, and they were firmly held by our forces. The Rebels retired within another line of works, three or four miles from the city, which were found, by reconnoissance on the 10th, to be covered by a more formidable swamp, artificially deepened by a canal cut from the Savannah to the Ogeechee river, and really impassable. Destroying the Charleston railroad to the Savannah River, and the bridge across that stream, the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps took position before the city. The Fif teenth Corps having crossed the Ogeechee at King's Bridge, had previously struck the Gulf Railroad, at a point seven miles from Savannah, and the Seventeenth Corps moved to the right to relieve the Fifteenth, which was advanced toward the sea.

On the evening of the 13th of December, the Second Division of the Fifteenth Corps, commanded by Gcn. Hazen, assaulted and carried Fort McAllister, at the point of the bayonet-a brilliant feat of arms, quickly executed, which opened

'communications with the fleet of Admiral Dahlgren, connecting the hitherto floating army with a secure base, and apprising the country of the success of "Sherman's march to the sca." Fort McAllister is four miles from the mouth of the Ogeechee river, where Dahlgren's fleet now lay.

During the next few days, there was some further destruction of railroads, and more or less shelling and skirmishing. The city of Savannah was taken possession of on the 21st of Decomber, with scme prisoners, and a large amount of cotton and other property. The enemy, under Hardee, mostly escaped across the Savannah river, toward Charleston. The grand culmination of this remarkable campaign gave joy to the nation, as the Christmas bells were sounding, giving new assurance of "peace," if not of "good-will," soon to be restored throughout the land.

Hood, who, aided by Beauregard, menacingly advanced into Tennessee, causing a temporary anxiety, had already ceased to be a subject of concern. The sanguine hopes of Davis in that direction had been terribly crushed. The movement of Hood westward, brought the scene of operations comparatively near the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, and their tributaries, so that re-enforcements and supplies were within easy reach of Gen. Thomas, while the cavalry of Grierson, and other forces, made destructive raids through the States of Mississippi and Alabama, in the enemy's rear. On the other hand, Thomas had a long line to defend, on portions of which annoying attacks were occasionally made by raiding parties. At Johnsonville, on the Tennessee, where he had a depot of supplies, Forrest made his appearance, planting batteries above and below the town, and capturing it on the 4th of November. Three "tin-clad " gunboats, a number of transports and barges, and a large amount of stores were destroyed. Near Bull's Gap, in East Tennessee, on the extreme left of Thomas' line, also, Gen. Gillem was attacked by a superior force and beaten, losing his trains and artillery, and falling back toward Knoxville.

The movement of Hood, after leaving Gaylesville, in Northeastern Alabama, to which place he was pursued by most of Sherman's force, had been southward to Jacksonville, from

whence, he took a north-west course toward the Tennessee river, marching on the 22d of October. He remained for some time in the vicinity of Tuscumbia, while a corps of observation, sent out by Thomas, was watching the enemy's movements, at Florence, nearly opposite. The advance of the Rebels northward began about the 20th of November. Gen. Schofield withdrew to Pulaski, seventy-three miles from Nashville, on the 21st, concentrating there his command, consisting of the Fourth aud Twenty-third Corps, with some other forces. The First and Third Divisions of the Sixteenth Corps, under the command of Major-Gen. A. J. Smith, which had been watching for any signs of the the enemy's advance upon Memphis, or other points on the Mississippi river, hastened eastward to join Schofield, on learning the direction of Hood's move


On the 22d, Hood was reported to be approaching, within twenty miles of Pulaski, which place he had flanked on the west, by moving directly on Gaynesboro from Florence Thereupon Gen. Schofield fell back to Columbia, on the south side of the Duck river. Hood rapidly pursued, moving across to Mount Pleasant and Spring Hill, on the opposite flank, while Schofield continued his retreat, carefully covering his long trains, to Franklin. The enemy's advance was beginning to press closely on the rear of our forces, and more or less skirmishing took place between Columbia and Franklin. At Spring Hill, on the 29th, an attack was made upon the Union. cavalry, which was driven in upon its infantry support, and the army was really in a critical condition, had Hood now been able to bring his main body of infantry into action. But this opportunity passed. Schofield's loss in the encounter was less than 300 men. He was not overtaken by the Rebel infantry south of Franklin, which place he reached about noon on the 30th. He had now fallen back for a distance of fifty-five miles, and was within eighteen miles of Nashville. He would have preferred to avoid a general engagement so far from the latter place, but it was now impossible. He accordingly formed his lines in a strong position, with Gen. Stanley on the right and Gen. Cox on the left, and prepared to give battle.

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At four o'clock in the afternoon of the same day (the 30th of November) Schofield was vigorously attacked by two corps of the enemy (Cheatham's and Lec's.) The action continued until after dark, the Second Division of the Fourth Corps being the most hotly engaged. Hood was repulsed at all points, with very severe losses, those on the Union side being comparatively slight. The Rebel dead densely covered the ground for fifty yards in front of portions of our lines. About one thousand Rebel prisoners were taken, among whom was Gen. Gordon. The enemy's killed and wounded exceeded 5,000, including Maj.-Gen. Cleburne and five Brigadier-Generals killed, and five general officers wounded, while the Union loss was about 2,000. The great disparity of these losses will not scem remarkable when it is known that the Rebels, in dense masses-four lines deep-charged upon Schofield's line of batteries several times, being fearfully mowed down at each desperate and persistent advance, by well-directed artillery and musketry firing, often at close range. The re-enforcements under Gen. A. J. Smith arrived most opportunely, about seven o'clock in the evening.

During the night of the 30th, the Government forces were withdrawn toward Nashville, and took up a new position about three miles south of that city. The Rebels, further emboldened by this retrograde movement, confidently advanced on the next day (December 1st), and skirmishing again commenced in the evening. The Rebel cavalry had already made an attempt to cut the Chattanooga road, but without occasioning any serious interruption. Gen. Thomas had a force on his left at Murfreesboro, which was well fortified and garrisoned, Generals Milroy and Rousseau being in command, and considerable re-enforcements were moved up from Chattanooga. Gen. Cooper's brigade, and a brigade of colored troops, which garrisoned Johnsonville before its evacuation, and had been cut off from the main army, when it retired from Franklin, arrived safely at Clarksville. This retrograde movement was conducted with great skill, throughout, and was completed without any loss to Schofield's trains or artillery.

Hood established his headquarters about six miles south of

Nashville, on the Franklin pike, while his front occupied the residence of Mrs. A. V. Brown, near the lines of Thomas. They also planted a battery on a hill near the Hyde Ferry road, and extended their line of counter fortifications before Nashville, plainly visible from the State House, and from high points in the suburbs. Hood's forces were so disposed as also to threaten Murfreesboro and Chattanooga, and to prepare the way for securing the co-operation of the forces in East Tennessee, under Breckinridge. A timely movement of Gen. Burbridge, however, on the flank of Breckinridge, by Bean's Station, compelled the latter commander to retreat through Bull's Gap, early in December. Generals Stoneman and Burbridge pressed on by way of Bristol into Virginia, reaching Glade's Spring, on the railroad, thirteen miles east of Abingdon, on the 15th of December, destroying the track, and afterward ruining the principal salt works in that region of Southwestern Virginia. This raid was one of the most successful ones of the war, severing communication between Richmond and East Tennessee, and depriving the enemy of important public property.

For several days, there was some skirmishing going on around Nashville, with occasional Rebel attacks on points along the railroad toward Chattanooga. On the 4th, and several succeeding days, there was some fighting at Murfreesboro, and in the vicinity, in which the Rebels were beaten by Rousseau and Milroy. By means of careful reconnoissances, the movements of the enemy were closely watched, it being for some time uncertain whether his appearance before Nashville was not a mere demonstration to cover some other design. No purpose of crossing above Nashville could be discovered; but a force, estimated at 4,000 men, under the Rebel Lyon, passed the Cumberland, twenty miles above Fort Donelson, about the 8th of December, going into Kentucky. It became manifest, before many days, however, that Hood's forces were concentrating in earnest before Nashville. This plan of operations was the one which, of all others, Gen. Thomas was best prepared to meet. He had looked well to the defenses of the city, heretofore, and had now a strong force within his defensive lines. His left

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