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in time of war, I suppose I have a right to President closed the conference with take any measure which may best subdue

these the enemy; nor do I urge objections of a

pregnant words: moral nature, in view of possible conse- “Do not misunderstand me because I quences of insurrection and massacre at the have mentioned these objections. They South. I view this matter as a practical indicate the difficulties that have thus far war measure, to be decided on according to prevented my action in some such way as the advantages or disadvantages it may offer you desire. I have not decided against a to the suppression of the Rebellion." proclamation of liberty to the slaves, but

hold the inatter under advisernent. And I The deputation responded, urging can assure you that the subject is on my that an Emancipation policy would mind, by day and by night, more than any

other. Whatever shall appear to be God's greatly strengthen us in Europe, and will

, I will do. I trust that, in the freedoin would justify us in appealing to the with which I have canvassed your views. I God of the oppressed and down-trod- have not in any respect injured your feel

ings." den for His blessing on our future

The deputation had scarcely reefforts to crush the Rebellion. President rejoined:

turned to Chicago and reported to

their constituents, when the great “I adrnit that Slavery is at the root of the Rebellion, or at least its sine quiî non.

The body of the President's supporters ambition of politicians may have instigated were electrified, while his opponents them to act; but they would have been im in general were only still farther potent without Slavery as their instrument. I will also concede that Emancipation would alienated, by the unheralded appearhelp us in Europe, and convince them that ance of the following proclamation: we are incited by sornething more than am

“I, ABRAHAM Lincolx, President of the bition. I grant, further, that it would help United States of America, and Commandersomewhat at the North, though not so much, in-chief of the Army and Navy thereof, do I fear, as you and those you represent im; hereby proclain and declare that hereafter, agine. Still, some additional strength would be added in that way to the war, and then, for the object of practically restoring the

as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted unquestionably, it would weaken the Rebels

constitutional relation between the United by drawing off their laborers, which is of States and each of the States, and the great importance; but I am not so sure we

people thereof, in which States that relacould do much with the Blacks. If we were

tion is or may be suspended or disturbed. to arm them, I fear that in a few weeks the

“ That it is my purpose, upon the next arms would be in the hands of the Rebels; meeting of Congress, to again recommend and, indeed, thus far, we have not had arms the adoption of a practical measure tenderenough to equip our White troops. I will ing pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or mention another thing, though it ineet only rejection of all Slave States, so called, the your scorn and contempt. There are 50,000 people whereof may not then be in rebelbayonets in the Union army from the Border | lion against tho United States, and which Slave States. It would be a serious matter States may then have voluntarily adopted, if, in consequence of a proclamation such as

or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, immeyou desire, they should go over to the diate or gradual abolislıment of Slavery Rebels. I do not think they all would-not within their respective limits; and that the so many, indeed, as a year ago, or as six effort to colonize persons of African descent, months ago—not so many to-day

as yester- with their consent, upon this continent or day. Every day increases their Union feel- elsewhere, with the previously obtained ing. They are also getting their pride en

consent of the governments existing there, listed, and want to beat the Rebels. Let me

will be continued. say one thing more: I think you should

“That, on the first day of January, in admit that we already have an important the year of our Lord one thousand eight principle to rally and unite the people, in hundred and sixty-three, all persons held the fact that constitutional government is

as slaves within any State, or designated at stake. This is a fundamental idea, going part of a State, the people whereof shall down about as deep as any thing.”

then be in rebellion against the United The deputation again developed forever free; and the Executive Govern

States, shall be then, thenceforward, and and enforced their views; and the ment of the United States, including the

ܪ

LINCOLN'S FIRST PROCLAMATION OF FREEDOM.

253

dom.

and observed as such:

military and naval authority thereof, will ! Rebellion, nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto; recognize and maintain the freedom of such

and no person engaged in the military or nava! service of

the United States shall, under any pretense whatever, persons, and will do no act or acts to re- assume to deciile on the validity oï the caion of any press such persons, or any of them, in any person to the service or labor or any other person, or

surrender up any such person to the claimant, on pain efforts they may make for their actual free- of being dismissed from the service.'

“And I do hereby enjoin upon and order * That the Executive will, on the 1st all persons engaged in the military and day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, naval service of the United States to obdesignate the States and parts of States, if serve, obey, and enforce, within their reany, in which the people thereof respect- spective spheres of service, the act and ively shall then be in rebellion against the sections above recited. United States ; and the fact that any State, 6 And the Executive will in due time or the people thereof, shall on that day be recommend that all citizens of the United in good faith represented in the Congress States, who shall have remained loyal thereof the United States, by members chosen to throughout the Rebellion, shall (upon the thereto at elections wherein a najority of restoration of the constitutional relation the qualified voters of such State shall have between the United States and their reparticipated, shall, in the absence of strong spective States and people, if that relation conntervailing testimony, be deemed con- shall have been suspended or disturbed) be clusive evidence that such State, and the compensated for all losses by acts of the people thereof, are not then in rebellion United States, including the loss of slaves. against the United States.

“In witness whereof, I have hereunto set “That attention is hereby called to an iny hand and caused the seal of the United act of Congress entitled “An Act to make States to be affixed. . an additional Article of War,' approved “Done at the City of Washington, March 13th, 1862; and which act is in the

this twenty-second day of Septemwords and figures following:

ber, in the year of our Lord one ** Be it enacted by the Senate und Iouse of Repre

(L. s.]

thousand eight hundred and sixtysentatives of the United States of America in Congress (Lssembled, That hereafter the following shall be promul

two, and of the independence gated as an additional article of war for the government

of the United States the eightyof the Army of the United States, and shall be obeyed

seventh. ** Section 1. All officers or persons in the military

" ABRAHAM LINCOLN. or naval service of the United States are prohibited frorn

“By the President: employing any of the forces under their respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives from service

“WILLIAM H. SeWARD, Secretary of State." or labor who may have escaped from any persons to whom such service or labor is claimed to be due; and It has been alleged that the apany officer who shall be found guilty by a court-martial of violating this article shall be disinissed from tho pearance of this document was hast

* SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That this set ened by confidential representations shall take effect from and after its passage.'

from our Embassadors at the Courts Also, to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitledAn Act to Suppress Insur- of Western Europe, that a recognirection, to Punish Treason and Rebellion, tion of the Confederacy was immiand for other Purposes,' approved July 16, nent, and could hardly be averted 1862; and which sections are in the words otherwise than by a policy of Emanand figures following:

cipation. The then Attorney-Gen"SEC. 9. And be it further enacted, That all slares of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion eral *' has been quoted as authority shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, escaping for this statement; but it is still genfrom such persons and taking rofuge within the lines of the arıny; and all slaves captured from such persons, or erally regarded as apocryphal. It has deserted by them and coming under the control of the Government

of the United States; and all slaves of such been likewise asserted that the Presiby Rebel forces and afterward occupied by forces of the dent had fully decided on resorting United States, shall be deemed captives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude, and not again held as to this policy some weeks before the

*** SEC. 10. And be it further enacted, That no slave Proclamation appeared, and that he escaping into any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, from any other State, shall be delivered up, or only withheld it till the military in any way impedell or hindered of his liberty, except for crime, or some offense against the laws, unless the situation should assume a brighter the person to whom the labor or service of such fugitive aspect. Remarks made long afterborne arms against the United States in the present ward in Congress render highly

30 Edward Bates, of Missouri.

service.

slaves.

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1860-PRESIDENT. States

LINCOLN, AU othere. New York.... 362.646 312,510 New Jersey ... 58,324 62,801

208,412 Ohio...

231,610 210,831 Indiana.

139,033 133,110 Illinois.. 172,161 160,215 Michigan 88,480 66,267 Wisconsin

86, 110 66,070 Iowa..

70,409 57,922 22,069

12.668

probable the assumption that its There were some counterbalancing appearance was somewhat delayed, changes in the States of Delaware, awaiting the issue of the struggle in Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, Maryland, which terminated with as also in that of California, where the battle of Antietam."

the larger share of the Douglas vote Whether the open adhesion of the of 1860 was in ’62 cast for the Union President at last to the policy of tickets; but it was clear, at the close Emancipation did or did not contri- of the State Elections of that year, bute to the general defeat of his sup- that the general ill success of the porters in the State Elections which War for the Union, the wide-spread soon followed, is still fairly disput- and increasing repugnance to Conable. By those elections, Horatio scription, Taxation, a depreciated Seymour was made Governor of New Currency, and high-priced Fabrics, York and Joel Parker of New Jersey: I were arraying Public Sentiment supplanting Governors Morgan and against the further prosecution of the Olden; while Pennsylvania, Ohio, In- contest. Of course, the Opposition diana, and Illinois, also gave Opposi- inveighed against the management tion majorities; and Michigan, Wis- of the War and of the Finances, the consin, and most other Western treatment of Gen. McClellan, and the States, showed a decided falling off in general inefficiency and incapacity of Administration strength. The gene- the Administration; but the strength ral result of those elections is summed of that Opposition inhered in popuup in the following table :

lar repugnance to the sacrifices ex1862–GOV. OR CONGRESS acted by and the perils involved in a

293,897 806,619 prosecution of the struggle, though Pennsylvania.. 265,030

215,616 219,140 its most general and taking clamor 118,517 125,160 deprecated only “The perversion of

62,102 the War for the Union into a War

50,898 for the Negro.” Ignoring the solMinnesota

15,154 11,442 diers battling for the Union-of 1860—Lincoln's maj.—208,066. " 1862–Opp maj.—-35,181. whom at least three-fourths voted

The Representatives in Congress Republican at each election wherein chosen from these States were politi- they were allowed to vote at all; but cally classified as follows:

who had not yet been enabled to vote

in the field, while their absence cre

Hi ated a chasm in the Administration Pennsylvania.

vote at home it is quite probable

that, had a popular election been 1 held at any time during the year folo lowing the Fourth of July, 1862, on

the question of continuing the War

or arresting it on the best attainable changed materially, between 1960 and 1862, the number for Peace; while it is highly probaNOTE--A new apportionment under the Census of 1860 terms, a majority would have voted

120,116 136,662
68,716

66,801
3266,014

10 States,

1,498,872

1,290,806

1,192,896 1,228,677

New York.
New Jersey..

1860. REPUB. Demo 28

10 2

S 18

7
13

8
7
4
4
3
2
2

1962, ADNIN. Opp.

14 1

4 12

1

Ohio Indiana. Illinois. Michigan, Wisconsin. lowe. Minnesota..

9

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Total, 10 States...

12

37

57 67 1562—Opposition maj., 10.

si Fought Sept. 17th--Proclamation of Free Wisconsin Soldiers' Vote: Admn., 8,373; Opp., dom, dated 22d.

2,046. No other States had yet authorized their 32 Soldiers' vote: Admn., 14,874; Opp, 4,115. ) soldiers in the field to vote.

1860—-Lincoln maj.-41.

of Representatives from several of the States.

LINCOLN'S SECOND PROCLAMATION OF FREEDOM.

255

ble that a still larger majority would | States in time of actual armed rebellion have voted against. Emancipation. the United States, and as a fit and necessary

against the authority and Government of From an early hour of the struggle, war measure for suppressing said rebellion, the public mind slowly and steadily do, on this first day of January, in the year

of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and gravitated toward the conclusion that sixty-three, and in accordance with my purthe Rebellion was vulnerable only or pose so to do, pablicly proclaimed for the mainly through Slavery; but that full period of one hundred days from the

day first above mentioned, order and desconclusion was scarcely reached by a ignate as the States and parts of States majority before the occurrence of the wherein the people thereof respectively are New York Riots, in July, 1863. The this day, in rebellion against the United

to President, though widely reproached Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the with tardiness and reluctance in tak- parislies of St. Bernard, Plaquemine, Jeffer

son, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascening up the gage plainly thrown down sion, Assumption, Terre Bonne, Lafourche, by the Slave Power, was probably St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including ahead of a majority of the people of the city of New Orleans), Mississippi

, Alaba the loyal States in definitively accept- Carolina, and Virginia (except the forty-eight ing the issue of Emancipation or Dis-counties designated as West Virginia, and

also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac, union.

Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, PrinHaving taken a long step in the cess Anne, and Norfolk, including the cities right direction, he never retracted nor cepted parts are, for the present, left precise

of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and which exseemed to regret it; though he some- ly as if this proclamation were not issued. times observed that the beneficial re

“And, by virtue of the power and for the

purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare sults of the Einancipation policy were tliat all persons held as slaves within said neither so signal nor so promptly designated States and parts of States are realized as its sanguine promoters the Executive Governinent of the United

and henceforward shall be free; and that had anticipated. Nevertheless, on the States, including the military and naval auday appointed, he issued his absolute thorities thereof, will recognize and main

tain the freedom of said persons. Proclamation of Freedom, as follows:

“And I hereby enjoin upon the people so Whereas, on the 22d day of September, declared to be free to abstain from all vioin the year of our Lord 1862, a proclamation lence, unless in necessary self-defense; and was issued by the President of the United I recommend to them that, in all cases States, containing, among other things, the when allowed, they labor faithfully for reafollowing, to wit:

sonable wages. " That on the 1st day of Jandary, in the year of our

" And I further declare and make known Lord 1963, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall

that such persons, of suitable condition, will then he in rebellion against the United States, shall be

be received into the armed service of the then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive United States to garrison forts, positions, Government of the United States, including the military stations, and other places, and to man vesand naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts sels of all sorts in said service. to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.'

“And upon this act, sincerely believed to *** That the Executive will, on the first clay of January | be an act of justice, warranted by the Conaforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts stitution upon military necessity, I invoke of States, it any, in which the people thereof respectively the considerate judgment of mankind, and shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on the gracious favor of Almighty God. that day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States, by members chosen thereto at elec

“In testimony whereof, I have hereunto tions wherein a inajority of the qualified voters of such set my name, and caused the seal of the State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of United States to be affixed. strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not

“Done at the city of Washington, this then in rebellion against the United States.'

1st day of January, in the year of our “Now, therefore, I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, [L. s.] Lord 1863, and of the independence President of the United States, by virtue of

of the United States the 87th. the power in me vested as Commander-in- * By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN. chief of the Army and Navy of the United .: WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.'

:

=

On the abstract question of the the Union—an efficient instrument in the right of the Government to proclaim hands of the Rebels for carrying on the war

-a source of military strength to the Rebeland enforce Emancipation, Edward lion, and of danger to the Governinent at Everett, in a speech in Faneuil Hall, home and abroad, with the additional cer

tainty that, in any event but its abandonBoston, October, 1864, forcibly said : ment, it will continue in all future time to

work' these mischiefs, who can suppose it is “It is very doubtful whether any act of the duty of the United States to continue to the Government of the United States was recognize it? To maintain this would be a necessary to liberate the slaves in a State contradiction in terms. It would be to rewhich is in rebellion. There is much reason cognize a right in a Rebel master to employ for tho opinion that, by the simple act of his slave in acts of rebellion and treason, levying war against the United States, the and the duty of the slave to aid and abet relation of Slavery was terminated ; certain his master in the commission of the greatest ly, so far as concerns the duty of the United crime known to the law. No such absurdity States to recognize it, or to refrain from can be admitted ; and any citizen of the Uniinterfering with it. Not being founded on ted States, from the President down, the law of nature, and resting solely on posi- should, by any overt act, recognize the duty tive local law—and that not of the United of a slave to obey a Rebel master in a hosStates—as soon as it becomes either the tile operation, would himself be giving aid motive or pretext of an unjust war against and comfort to the enenıy.'

who

XII.

SLAVERY AND EMANCIPATION IN CONGRESS.

THE XXXVIIth Congress, as we the extra session, evinced a steadihave seen ' --while endeavoring to ly growing consciousness--steadily evade or to avert its eyes from the growing in the legislative as well as fact that it was Slavery which was the popular mind--that Slavery had waging deadly war on the Union- closed with the Union in mortal did yet give fair notice, through the strife—a struggle which both could guarded but decisive language of not survive.' some of the more conservative Re- Still, President Lincoln hesitated publicans, that, if the Rebellion were and held back; anxious that the persisted in, it must inevitably result Union should retain its hold on the in the overthrow of Slavery. And Border Slave States, especially on the action of that Congress, even at Kentucky; and apparently hoping Vol I., pp. 564-8.

by Gen. Scott, and apparently acceded to by the ? On the day after the Bull Run rout, the Cabinet, he proceeds: writer first heard this conviction openly deThe credit of the avowal belongs to er aspect, and be a short and bloody one.

to such a war--an anti-Slavery war-it seems Hon. Elisha R. Potter, of Rhode Island

to me we are inevitably dristing. It seems to

me hardly in the power of human wisdom to who may be fairly styled the hereditary chief of

prevent it. We may commence the war without the Democratic party of that State-made a meaning to interfere with Slavery; but let us speech on the War to the Senate thereof on the have one or two battles, and get our blood exci10th of August, 1861. After distributing the ted, and we shall not only not restore any more blame of inciting the war between the Northern slaves, but shall proclaim freedom wherever we and the Southern 'ultras,' dilating on the re

go. And it seems to me almost judicial blind

ness on the part of the South that they do not sources of the South, and elucidating the no

see that this must be the inevitable result, if fighting, “anaconda' mode of warfare proposed the contest is prolonged.”

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