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to know what my orders and authority are. wagon trains to move to Pope with the least I ask for nothing, but will obey whatever possible delay.' orders you give. I only ask a prompt deci

Gen. Halleck, at 9:40 A. M. on the sion, that I may at once give the necessary fatal 30th, telegraphed McClellan : orders. It will not do to delay longer.” To which the President, at 4:10 Franklin's march of yesterday, considering

“I am by no means satisfied with Gen. P. M., responded as follows:

the circumstances of the case. He was very "Yours of to-day just received. I think wrong in stopping at Anandale. Moreover, your first alternative—to wit: 'to concen

I learned last night that the quartermaster's trate all our available forces to open com

department would have given him plenty of munication with Pope'—is the right one.

transportation if he had applied for it any But I wish not to control. That I now leave time since his arrival at Alexandria. He to Gen. Halleck, aided by your counsels.

knew the importance of opening communiA. LINCOLN."

cation with Gen. Pope's army, and should

have acted more promptly." But McClellan had already not

At 11 A. M., McClellan responded : only arrested Franklin's march at

“ Have ordered Sumner to leave one Anandale, but sent Sumner's corps brigade in the vicinity of Chain Bridge, and northward toward Arlington and to move the rest, via Columbia pike, on

Anandale and Fairfax Court House, if this Chain Bridge, instead of toward the is the route you wish them to take. He enemy. At 7:50 P. M., Halleck tele- and Franklin are both instructed to join graphed him thus :

Pope as promptly as possible. Shall Couch

move also when he arrives ?" “You will inmediately send construction

To which Halleck, at 12:20 P. M., train and guards to repair railroad to Ma

Let there be no delay in this. I responded as follows: have just been told that Franklin's corps “I think Couch should land at Alexanstopped at Anandale, and that he was this dria and be immediately pushed out to Pope. evening in Alexandria. This is all contrary Send the troops where the fighting is. Let to my orders. Investigate and report the me know when Couch arrives." fact of this disoberlience. That corps must

Franklin's and Sumner's corps push forward, as I directed, to protect the railroad and open our communications with were now actually pushed forward, Manassas."

and found Pope without difficulty, McClellan, at 8 P. M., telegraphed defeated and driven back on Centerto Halleck :

ville. Had they been there two days “It was not safe for Franklin to move earlier, and had Porter now and then beyond Anandale

, under the circumstances, condescended to obey an order, that until we knew what was at Vienna. Gen. Franklin remained here until abont 1 P. M., defeat might have been transformed endeavoring to arrange for supplies for his into a victory. It seems clear that command. I am responsible for both these circumstances, and do not see that either neither McClellan, nor any of his was in disobedience to your orders. Please devoted lieutenants, was anxious that give distinct orders in reference to Frank

victory, under such auspices, should lini's movements of to-morrow. At 10 P. M., Gen. McClellan tele- be achieved. Pope's appointment to

the command, and his address to his graphed again :

“Not hearing from you, I have sent army on opening the campaign, had orders to Gen. Franklin to place himself in been understood by them as reflecting communication with Gen. Pope by advanc- on the strategy of the Peninsular caming, as soon as possible, and, at the same time, cover the transit of Pope's supplies. paign; and this was their mode of Orders have been given for railway and resenting the indignity.

See page 173.

LEE'S ADVANCE INTO MARYLAND.

193

IX.

MY MARYLAND'-LEE'S INVASION.
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selves.

GEN. MCCLELLAN had already “ HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTIIERN been verbally charged with the com

VIRGINIA, NEAR FREDERICK,

“Sept. 8, 1862. mand of the defenses of Washington; "To the People of Maryland: and was, upon fuller advices of Pope's

“It is right that you should know the disasters, invested by the President purpose that has brought the army under and Gen. Halleck with the entire State, so far as that purpose concerns yourcontrol, not only of those fortifica

“The people of the Confederate States tions, but of all the troops for the have long watched with the deepest symdefense of the capital,” in obedience pathy the wrongs and outrages that have to the imperious demand of a large monwealth allied to the States of the South

been inflicted upon the citizens of a Commajority of the surviving officers and by the strongest social, political, and comsoldiers. Pope's original army had mercial ties, and reduced to the condition

of a conquered province. in great part been demolished; while “Under the pretense of supporting the that brought from the Peninsula by Constitution, but in violation of its inost McClellan had been taught to attrib- arrested and imprisoned, upon no charge,

valuable provisions, your citizens have been ute the general ill-fortune not to the and contrary to all the forms of law. tardiness and heartlessness wherewith

" A faithful and manly protest against

this outrage, made by a venerable and illuisPope had been rëenforced and sup- trious Marylander, to whom in better days ported by their leaders, but to his no citizen appealed for right in vain, wils own incapacity, presumption, and treated with scorn and contempt.

“The government of your chief city has folly. McClellan at once ordered a been usurped by armed strangers; your concentration of his forces within the Legislature has been dissolved by the un

lawful arrest of its members; freedoin of defenses of Washington; where they the press and of speech has been supwere soon prepared to resist the ene- pressed; words have been declared offenses my, but whither Lee had no idea of by an arbitrary decree of the Federal Exec

utive; and citizens ordered to be tried by following them. Having been joined military commissions for what they may by D. H. Hill's fresh division, from dare to speak. Richmond, he sent that division at possess a spirit too lofty to subinit to such

Believing that the people of Maryland once in the van of his army to Lees à Government, the people of the South have burg; thence crossing the Potomac foreign yoke, to enable you again to enjoy

long wished to aid you in throwing off this and moving on Frederick. Jackson the inalienable rights of freemen, and restore followed with a heavy corps, consist the independence and sovereignty of your ing of A. P. IIill's, Ewell's, and his • In obedience to this wish, our army has own divisions, embracing 14 brigades, come among you, and is prepared to assist crossing* at White's Ford and mov- the rights of which you have been so un

you with the power of its arms in regaining ing on Frederick, which was occu- justly despoiled. pied on the 6th, without resistance.

This, citizens of Maryland, is our misGen. Lee, with the rest of his army, straint upon your free will is intended---no

sion, so far as you are concerned. No rerapidly followed, concentrating at intimidation will be allowed within the limFrederick; whence he issued the fold its of this army at least. Marylanders shall

once more enjoy their ancient freedom of lowing seductive address :

thought and speech. We know no enemies Sept. 1.

Sept. 2. Sept. 2. * Sept. 5. Roger B. Taney, to wit.
VOL. II.-13

State.

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among you, and will protect all of you in | tomac to replenish their wasted and every opinion. “It is for you to decide your destiny

inadequate resources. freely and without constraint. This army

Gen. McClellan was early apwill respect your choice, whatever it may prised of the disappearance of the be; and, while the Southern people will rejoice to welcome you to your natural

Rebels from his front, and soon ad

position among them, they will only welcome vised that they were crossing into you when you come of your own free will,, Maryland. His several corps were “R. E. LEE, General Commanding."

accordingly brought across the PotoThe fond expectations which had mac and posted on the north of prompted this address were never Washington; which city he left' in realized. The Marylanders had no command of Gen. Banks, making his gluttonous appetite for fighting on headquarters that night with the 6th the side of the Union; still less for corps, at Rockville. He moved slowrisking their lives in support of the ly, because uncertain, as were his Confederacy. All who were inclined superiors, that the Rebel movement to fighting on that side had found across the Potomac was not a feint. their way into the Rebel lines long But his advance, after a brisk skirbefore; there being little difficulty mish, on the 12th entered Frederick, in stealing across the Potomac, and which the Rebels had evacuated, none at all in crossing by night to moving westward, during the two Virginia from the intensely disloyal, preceding days, and through which slaveholding counties of south-west- his main body passed next day. ern Maryland. In vain was Gen. Here he was so lucky as to obtain a Bradley T. Johnson—who had left copy of Lee's general order, only Frederick at the outset of the war to four days old, developing lis proserve in the Rebel army—made Pro- spective movements, as follows: vost-Marshal of that town, recruit- “HIEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTHERN ing offices opened, and all man

“ VIRGINIA, September 9, 1862.

The army will resume its march toner of solicitations to enlistment set

morrow, taking the Hagerstown road. Gen. forth. The number of recruits won Jackson's command will form the advance; to the Rebel standard while it floated and, after passing Middletown, with such

portion as he may select, take the route toover Maryland probably just about ward Sharpsburg, cross the Potomac at the equaled its loss by deserters--say from most convenient point, and, by Friday night,

take possession of the Baltimore and Ohio 200 to 300.

Railroad, capture such of the enemy as may The conduct of the Rebel soldiery be at Martinsburg, and intercept such as was in the main exemplary. Hun- may attempt to escape from Harper's Ferry.

“Gen. Longstreet's command will pursue gry, ragged, and shoeless, as they the same road as far as Boonsborough, often were, they rarely entered a

where it will halt with the reserve, supply, house except by order, and never

and baggage trains of the army.

“Gen. McLaws, with his own division abused women; but cattle, horses, and that of Gen. K. H. Anderson, will foland everything that might contribute low Gen. Longstreet; on reaching Middle

town, he will take the route to Harper's to the subsistence or efficiency of an Ferry, and, by Friday morning, possess himarmy, were seized by wholesale, not self of the Maryland Heights, and endeavor only for present use, but thousands to capture the enemy at Harper's Ferry and

ܪ MCCLELLAN'S BLUNDER AT FREDERICK.

vicinity. of animals were driven across the Po- " Gen. Walker, with his division, after

. Sept. 3.

* Sept. 7.

195

accomplishing the object in which he is now clear not only that Harper's Ferry engaged, will cross the Potomac at Cheek's

was Lee's object, and that Jackson's Ford, ascend its right bank to Lovettsville, take possession of Loudon Heights, if prac- corps and Walker's division were ere ticable, by Friday morning; Key's Ford on this across the Potomac in eager his left, and the road between the end of the mountain and the Potomac on his right. quest of it, but that only McLaws's He will, as far as practicable, cooperate corps--20,000 men at the utmostwith Gen. McLaws and Gen. Jackson in in

was now between our whole army tercepting the retreat of the enemy.

“Gen. D. H. Hill's division will form the and the coveted prize. Our corps rear guard of the army, pursuing the road happened then to be mainly concentaken by the main body. The reserve artillery, ordnance and supply trains, &c., trated around Frederick ; but Frankwill precede Gen. Hill.

lin's division--nearly 17,000 strong " Gen. Stuart will detach a squadron of

was some miles southward, and cavalry to accompany the commands of Gens. Longstreet, Jackson, and McLaws, thus nearer to Harper's Ferry, and and, with the main body of the cavalry, will in front of McLaws. Had McClellan cover the route of the army, and bring up all stragglers that may have been left behind.

instantly put his whole army in mo* The commands of Gens. Jackson, Mc- tion, marching by the left flank on Laws, and Walker, after accomplishing the parallel roads leading directly toward will join the main body of the army at the Potomac and the Ferry, and Boonsborough or Hagerstown.

sending orders to Franklin to adEach regiment on the march will habitually carry its axes in the regimental ord

vance and either force his way to the nance wagons, for use of the men at their Ferry or engage whomsoever might encampments, to procure wood, &c.

attempt to resist him, assured that By command of Gen. R. E. LEE. "R. H. CHILTON,

corps after corps would follow swift“ Assistant Adjutant-General. ly his advance and second his at“Maj.-Gen. D. II. HILL, Com’ding Div.” tacks, McLaws must have been

McClellan had thus, by a rare utterly crushed before sunset of the stroke of good fortune, become pos- 14th, and Harper's Ferry relieved by sessed of his adversary's designs, midnight at farthest. That, instead when it was too late to change them, of this, McClellan should have adand when it could not be known to vanced his main body on the road that adversary, at least until devel- tending rather north of west, through oped by counteracting movements, Turner's Gap to Boonsborough and that he had this knowledge, and was Hagerstown, rather than on roads acting upon it. Lee had ventured leading to Crampton's Gap and to the hazardous maneuver of dividing the Potomac, is unexplained and inhis army in a hostile country, and explicable. placing a considerable and treacher- The South Mountain range of ous, though fordable, river between hills, which stretch north-eastwardly its parts, while an enemy superior in from the Potomac across Maryland, numbers to the whole of it hung are a modified continuation of Virclosely upon its rear. Such strategy ginia's 'Blue Ridge,' as the less conmust have been dictated by an in- siderable Catoctin range, near Fredeffable contempt either for the capa- erick, are an extension of the ‘Bull city of his antagonist or for the most Run' range. Between them is the obvious rules of war.

valley of Catoctin creek, some ten The order above given rendered it I miles wide at the Potomac, but nar

rowing to a point at its head. Seve- / six of his brigades, under Anderson, ral roads cross both ranges; the best had been sent to cooperate with Mcbeing the National Road from Balti- Laws against Maryland Heights and more through Frederick and Middle- Harper's Ferry. This left only D. town (the chief village of the Catoc- H. Hill's division of five brigades to tin Valley), to Hagerstown and Cum- hold Turner's Gap and the adjacent berland.

passes, with such help as might be Lee, having divided his army in afforded by Stuart's cavalry; Stuart order to swoop down on Harper's having reported to Hill, on the 13th, Ferry, was compelled by McClellan's that only two brigades were pursuquickened and assured pursuit, based ing them. He was undeceived, howon the captured order aforesaid, to ever, when, at 7 A. M. next morning, fight all our army with half of his Cox's division of Burnside's corps own-reversing the strategy usual in advanced up the turnpike from Midthis quarter; for, if McClellan's ad- dletown, preceded by Pleasanton's vance were not impeded, Harper's cavalry and a battery, and opened Ferry would be relieved. So, Gen. on that defending the Gap; while by Pleasanton, leading our cavalry ad- far the larger portion of the Army of vance on the road to Hagerstown, the Potomac could be seen, by the encountered some resistance at the aid of a good field-glass, from a facrossing of Catoctin creek in Middle- vorable position on the mountain, town; but, skirmishing occasionally either advancing across the valley or with Stuart's cavalry, pressed on, winding down the opposite heights backed by Cox's division of Burn- into it. side's corps, to find the enemy in Hill reports his division as but force before TURNER's Gap of South 5,000 strong; and even this small Mountain, a few miles beyond. force had been somewhat dispersed This

gap is about 400 feet high; in pursuance of the orders of Lee the crests on either side rising some and the erroneous information of 600 feet higher; the old Hagerstown Stuart. The brigade of Gen. Garand Sharpsburg roads, half a mile to land, which was first pushed forward a mile distant, on either side, rising to meet our advance, was instantly higher than the National Road, and and badly cut up, its commander bematerially increasing the difficulty of ing killed; when it retired in disorder, holding the pass against a largely and was replaced by that of Andersuperior force.

son, supported by those of Rhodes Lee, in his eagerness to grasp the and Ripley, who held the pass firmly prize whereon he was intent, and in for hours against the most gallant efhis confident assurance that McClel- forts of Cox's Ohio regiments. But, lan would continue the cautious and meanwhile, our superior numbers, hesitating movement of six or seven backed by desperate fighting, enabled miles a day by which he had hither- us steadily to gain ground on either to advanced from Washington, had side, until the crest of the heights on pushed Longstreet forward on Jack- the left of the pass was fairly ours, son's track to Hagerstown,' whence though one of our batteries had 8 Sept. 13.

Sept. 11.

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