« PreviousContinue »
POPE DEFEATED AT GAINESVILLE.
back in confusion; the Confederates | Hood's two brigades again led the pursuing eagerly and joining battle charge, followed by the divisions of along the entire front, but struggling Evans, R. H. Anderson, and Wilcox, especially to overwhelm and turn sustained by those of Kemper and our left, where Schenck, Milroy, and D. R. Jones; the Rebel artillery Reynolds, soon rëenforced by Rick- doing fearful execution on our disetts, maintained the unequal contest ordered and recoiling infantry. At throughout the afternoon; while Por- dark, our left had been forced back ter's weakened corps was rallied, re- considerably, but still stood firm and formed, and pushed up to their sup- unbroken, and still covered the turnport; rendering good service, espe- pike which was our only safe line of cially the brigade of regulars under retreat. At 8 P. M., Pope sent writCol. Buchanan. Gen. Tower led his ten instructions to his corps combrigade, of Ricketts's division, into manders to withdraw deliberately action, in support of Reynolds, with toward Centerville, designating the eminent skill and gallantry; its con- route of each, and the position he duct being such as to elicit enthusi- was to take; while Reno was ordered astic cheers from our entire left wing. to cover the retreat; which was made Reno's corps, also, being withdrawn slowly, quietly, and in good order : from our right center, was thrown no pursuit across Bull Run being into action on our left, and displayed attempted." conspicuous gallantry.
Franklin's corps, from McClellan's But the fates were against us. army, reported 8,000 strong, was, The enemy was aware of his ad- unknown to Pope throughout this vantage, and resolved to press it to mournful day, a little cast of Centerthe utmost. Our attack on his left, ville. Pope reached that point beunder Jackson, for a time promised tween 9 and 10 P. m., and at once success; until our advancing troops made his dispositions for resisting a were mowed down by the cross-fire Rebel attack. But none was atof 4 batteries from Longstreet's left, tempted. Sumner, as well as Frankwhich decimated and drove them lin, from McClellan's army, joined back in confusion. Jackson, seeing him here, raising his total force to them recoil, immediately ordered an fully 60,000 men; which was probaadvance; which Longstreet supported bly more than the enemy could now by pushing forward his whole com- bring against liim. mand against our center and left. Pope evidently expected to be at33 Lee, in his official report, says:
enemy's right and intercept his retreat to Wash"The obscurity of night and the uncertainty | ington. Jackson's progress was ritarded by of the fords of Bull Run rendered it necessary the incleinency of the weather and the fatigue to suspend operations until morning; when the of his troops ; who, in addition to their arduous cavalry, being pushed forward, discovered th:t marches, had fought three severe engagements the enemy had escaped to the strong position of in as many days. He reached Little River turnCenterville, about four miles beyond Bull Run. pike in the evening, and the next day, SeptemThe prevalence of a heavy rain, which began ber 1st, advanced by that road toward Fairfax during the night, threatened to render Bull Run Court House." impassable, and impeded our
34 Pope, in his official report, says. Longstreet remained on the battle-field to engage the attention of the enemy, and cover the " About 6 P. M., I heard accidentally that burial of the dead and the removal of the Franklin's corps had arrived at a point about wo:inded; while Jackson proceeded by Sudley's four miles east of Centerville, and 12 miles in our lord to the Little River turnpike, to turn the rear, and that it was only about 8,000 strong."
tacked next morning in this strong sion, at once ordered a charge, and position; but Lee, not unmindful of was shot dead while leading it, the still recent and sore experience by a bullet through his head. His of Malvern Heights, was too good a command thereupon fell back in disGeneral to repeat his own blunders. order, uncovering the flank of Reno's Aware that a demoralized army. un- other division, which thereupon fell der an inapt commander may be back also. most safely and surely assailed on its Gen. Phil. Kearny, with his diviflank and rear-by blows that threat- sion of Ileintzelman's corps, now aden to cut off its line of supply and vanced and renewed the action, in retreat-he started Jackson north- the midst of a thunder-storm SO ward, with his own and Ewell's divi- furious that ammunition could with sions, at an early hour next morn- great difficulty be kept serviceable; ing," with instructions to turn and while the roar of cannon was utterly assail our right. Crossing Bull Run unheard at Centerville, barely three at Sudley Ford, Jackson took a coun- miles distant. Riding forward too try road thence to Little River turn- recklessly, Kearny, about sunset, was pike, on which, turning sharply to shot dead, when almost within the the right, he moved down toward Rebel lines, and the command of his Fairfax C. H.; and, toward evening division devolved on Gen. Birney, of the next day,38 when nearing the who promptly ordered a bayonetlittle village of Germantown, a mile charge by his own brigade, consistor two from Fairfax C. II., he found ing of the 1st, 38th, and 40th New his advance resisted. Pope, not even York. The order was executed by threatened with a front attack, had Col. Egan with great gallantry, and ere this suspected the Rebels of a the enemy's advance driven back fresh attempt to flank his right, and considerably; Gen. Birney holding had directed Gen. Sumner to push the field of conflict through the night, forward two brigades toward the burying our dead and removing our turnpike, while Gen. Hooker was wounded. Our total loss here canithat afternoon dispatched to Fairfax not have exceeded 500 men; but C. H. to support the movement. among them were Gens. Kearny and
Skirmishing commenced at 5 P. M. Stevens, and Maj. Tilden, 38th New Gen. Reno, near Chantilly, with the York, who fell in the closing bayonetremains of two divisions, poorly sup- charge. plied with ammunition, found him- Jackson's flanking movement and self confronted by Jackson's far su- attack, though wisely conceived and perior numbers, but composed wholly vigorously made, had failed to of infantry; the rapidity of his march achieve any material results. His having left his artillery behind on report claims no prisoners nor arms the road. Gen. Isaac J. Stevens, captured. ** commanding Reno's 20 or left divi- Pope's retreat from Centerville August 31.
38 Sept. 1.
were in position on our right and front, cover
ing his line of retreat from Centerville to FairEarly next morning, Sept. Ist, we moved fax Court House. forward; and, late in the evening, after reaching for ned-Gen. Hill's division on the right; Ox Hill, came in contact with the enemy, who | Ewell's division, Gen. Lawton commanding, in
87 He says:
Our line of battle was
THE LOSSES OF POPE'S CAMPAIGN.
had in effect commenced on the 1st, killed, beside those already named, when he found himself flanked by were Cols. Fletcher Webs er, son of Jackson; and was continued through the great Daniel, Roberts, 1st Mich., out that and the following day, with O'Connor, 2d Wisc., Koltes, 730 out further annoyance from the Pa., commanding a brigade, Cantenemy, until his whole army was well, 82d Ohio, and Brown, 20th drawn back within the intrench- Ind. Among our wounded on the inents which, along the south bank 30th, were Maj.-Gen. Robert C. of the Potomac, cover the approaches Schenck and Col. Hardin, of the to Washington; when he resigned Pa. Reserves. Among the Rebels his command, and was succeeded by wounded in these fights, were Brig.Gen. McClellan.
Gens. Field and Trimble, and Cols.
Forno and Baylor, commanding brigGen. Lee officially claims to have ades. captured, during his campaign against Pope, more than 7,000 pris- How far Pope's disasters are justly oners, beside 2,000 of our wounded attributable to his own incapacity, left in his hands, with 30 pieces of and how far to the failure or withartillery, and 20,000 small arms; holding of support on which he had while our losses of railroad cars, a right to calculate, it is time now to munitions, tents, and camp equipage, consider. In his report, he says: must have been immense. Lee's “ It seems proper for me, since so mnch Medical Director makes the Rebel misrepresentation has been put into circula
tion as to the support I received from tho losses in the two days' fighting on Army of the Potomac, to state precisely Manassas Plains, 1,090 killed, 6,154 what forces of that army came under my wounded : total, 7,244. Longstreet the active operations of the campaign.
coinmand, and were at any time engaged in reports his losses from the 23d to the Reynolds's division of Pennsylvania Re30th of August, inclusive, at 4,725. serves, about 2,500, joined me on the 230
of August, at Rappaliannock Station. The A. P. Hill reports the losses in his corps of 'IIeintzelman and Porter, about division, from the 24th to the 31st, 18,000 strong, joined me on the 26th and at 1,548. Probably the entire Rebel and 27th of August
, at Warrenton Junction.
under loss from Cedar Mountain to Chan- nolds, and Heintzelman's corps, consisting tilly did not fall short of 15,000 men ; rendered most gallant and efficient service
of the divisions of Hooker and Kearny, while Pope's, if we include that by in all the operations which occurred after stragglers who never rejoined their they had reported to me.
Porter's corps. regiments , must have been fully frequent and flagrant disregard of my
from unnecessary and unusual delays, and double that number. Among our orders, took no part whatever except in the center, and Jackson's division, Gen. Starke of Gregg, Thomas, and Pender were then commanding, on the left-all on the right of the thrown into the fight. Svon, a portion of turnpike road. Artillery was posted on an emi- Ewell's division became engaged. The conflict nence to the left of the road. The brigades of now raged with great fury; the enemy obstiBranch and Field, Col. Brockenbrough com- nately and desperately contesting the ground unmanding the latter, were sent forward to feel til their Gens. Kearny and Stevens fell in front and engage the enemy. A cold and drenching of Thomas's brigade; after which, they retired thunder-shower swept over the field at this from the field. By the following morning, the time, striking directly into the faces of our Federal army had entirely disappeared from our troops. These two brigades gallantly engaged view; and it soon appeared, by a report from the enemy; but so severe was the fire in front Gen. Stuart, that it had passed Fairfax Court and flank of Branch's brigado as to produce in House and had moved in the direction of Washit some disorder and fulling back. The brigades | ington city.”
the action of the 30th of Anguist. This the enemy's force between Pope and oursmall fraction of 20,500 men was all of the selves. Can Franklin, without his artillery 91,000 veteran troops from Ilarrison's
Harrison's or cavalry, effect any useful purpose in Landing which ever drew trigger under front? Should not Burnside at once take iny command, or in any way took part in steps to evacuate Falmouth and Acquia, at that cam;aign. By the time the corps of the same time covering the retreat of any Franklin and Sumner, 19,000 strong, joined of Pope's troops who may fall back in that me at Centerville, the origiual Army of Vir- | direction? I do not see that we have force ginia, as well as the corps of Heintzelnian, enough in hand to form a connexion with and the division of Reynolds, had been so Pope, whose exact position we do not much cut up in the severe actions in which | know. Are we safe in the direction of the they had been engaged, and were so much | Valley ?" broken down and diminished in numbers by
Half an hour later, he telegraphed : the constant and excessive duties they had performed, that they were in little condition “I think our policy now is to make these for any effective service whatever, and re- works perfectly safe, and mobilize a couple quired, and should have had, some days of of corps as soon as possible; but not to adrest to put them into anything like condition vance them until they can have their artilto perform their duties in the field.” lery and cavalry."
Gen. McClellan, we have seen, An hour later, he telegraphed was ordered on the 3d of August to again : withdraw his army from the Penin
I still think that we should first provide
for the immediate defense of Washington sula. 119 hesitated, and remon
on both sides of the Potomac. strated; but the orders were röite- “I am not responsible for the past, and rated more peremptorily; and he left cannot be for the future, unless I receive
authority to dispose of the available troops Ilarrison's Bar with his rear-guard according to my judgment. Please inforin on the 16th of August. Having wish to act in the dark.”
me at once what iny position is. I do not embarked and dispatched his corps
At 6 P. M., he telegraphed again: successively at and near Fortress
“I have just received the copy of a disMonroe, he left that post on the 23d, patch from General Pope to you, dated 10 arriving at Acquia creek on the 24th, A. M., this inorning, in which lie says: “All
forces now sent forward should be sent to removing to Alexandria on the 27th; my right at Gainesville.' on which day Halleck telegraphed “ I now have at my disposal here about
10,000 men of Franklin's corps, about 2,800
of Gen. Tyler's brigade, and Col. Tyler's “ • Porter reports a general battle immi- | 1st Connecticut Artillery, which I recomnent. Franklin's corps should move ont by mend should be held in hand for the defense forced marches, carrying three or four days' of Washington. provisions, and to be supplied, as far as “ If you wish me to order any part of possible, by railroad. Perhaps you may this force to the front, it is in readiness to prefer some other road than to Centerville. march at a moment's notice to any point To this, he replied, at 10:20 A. M. : you may indicate.
" In view of the existing state of things in I have sent orders to Franklin to pre- our front, I have deemed it best to order pare to march with his corps at once, and to Gen. Casey to hold his men for (from) Yorkrepair here in person to inform me as to his town in readiness to move, but not to send means of transportation.'
them off till further orders." At 1:15 P. M., he again tele- At 4:40 P. M. next day, Aug. 28th, graphed Gen. Halleck as follows: *
he telegraphed Gen. Halleck: • Franklin's artillery has no horses except
“Gen. Franklin is with me here. I will for four guns without caissons. I can pick up know in a few minutes the condition of arno cavalry. In view of these facts, will it tillery and cavalry. We are not yet in connot be well to push Sumner's corps here by dition to move; may be by to-morrow water as rapidly as possible, to make imme- morning. Pope must cut through to-day, eliate arrangements for placing the works in or adopt the plan I suggested. I have front of Washington in an efficient condition ordered troops to garrison the works at of defense ? I have no means of knowing | Upton's Hill. They must be held at any
MCCLELLAN MARKING' TIME.
cost. As soon as I can see the way to spare tion to accomplish much, if he meets with them, I will send a good corps of troops serious resistance. I should not have moved there. It is the key to Washington, which him but for your pressing order of last connot be seriously menaced so long as it is night. What have you from Vienna and held.”
Dranesville ??? At 4:45 P. M., he telegraphed At noon, he telegraphed again : again :
“Your telegram received. Do you wish “Your dispatch received. Neither Frank- | the movement of Franklin's corps to conlin's nor Sumner's corps is now in condition tinue? He is without reserve ammunition to move and fight a battle. It would be a and without transportation. Would it meet sacrifice to send then out now. I have your views to post the rest of Sumner's sent aids to ascertain the condition of the corps between Arlington and Fort Corcoran, commands of Cox and Tyler ; but I still where they can either support Cox, Frankthink that a premature movement in small lin, or Chain Bridge, and even Tenallyforce will accomplish nothing but the de- town? struction of the troops sent out. I repeat “Franklin has only between 10,000 and that I will lose no time in preparing the 11,000 ready for duty. How far do you troops now here for the field; and that wish this force to advance ?" whatever orders you may give, after learing what I have to say, will be carried out."
Gen. McClellan had already diTo these dispatches, Gen. Ilalleck, rected Franklin to halt his command at 8:40 P. M., responded as follows:
near Anandale; and, at 1 P. M. this “There must be no further delay in day, he telegraphed Gen. Halleck as moving Franklin's corps toward Manassas. follows: They must go to-morrow morning, ready or not ready. If we delay too long to get
“I shall endeavor to hold a line in adready, there will be no necessity to go at
vance of Forts Allen and Marcy, at least all; for Pope will either be defeated or vic
I wish to
with strong advancell guards. torious without our aid. If there is a want hold the line through Prospect Hill, Mackof wagons, the men must carry provisions all's
, Minor's, and Hall's Hill. This will with thein till the wagons can come to their give us timely warning. Shall I do as seems relief."
best to me with all the troops in this vi
cinity, including Franklin, who, I really At 10:30 of the following days— think, ought not, under present circumthe day of Pope's first indecisive stances, to advance beyond Anandale ?" battle at Gainesville or Groveton- Halleck, at 3 P. M., replied: McClellan telegraphed to Gen. Hal- “ I want Franklin's corps to go far leck as follows:
enough to find out something about the " Franklin's corps is in motion; started tion at Anandale as to prevent his going
enemy. Perhaps he may get such informaabout 6 A. M. I can give him but two
farther. Otherwise, he will push on towarıl squadrons of cavalry. I propose moving Fairfax. Try to gei something from direcGen. Cox to Upton's Hill, to hold that im- tion of Manassas, either by telegram or portant point with its works, and to push through Franklin's scouts. Our people cavalry scouts to Vienna, via Freedom Hill must inove more actively, and find out and Hunter's Lane. Cox has two squadrons where the enemy is. I am tired of guesses." of cavalry. Please answer at once whether this meets your approval. I have directed Fifteen minutes before, McClellan Woodbury, with the Engineer brigade, to had telegraphed the President as folhold Fort Lyon, however. Detailed last
lows: night two regiments to the vicinity of Forts Ethan Allen and Marcy. Meagher's brigade “I am clear that one of two courses is still at Acquia. If he moves in support should be adopted : 1st. To concentrate all of Franklin, it leaves is without any reliable our available forces to open communication troops in and near Washington. Yet Frank- with Pope; 2d. To leave Pope to get out of lin is too weak alone. What shall be done? his scrape, and at once use all our means to No more cavalry arrived; have but three make the Capital perfectly safe. squadrons. Franklin has but forty rounds “No middle ground will now answer. of aminunition, and no wagons to move Tell me what you wish me to do, and I wil
I do not think Franklin is in condi- do all in any power to accomplish it. I wish