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representative of modern Liberalism) against do with a bend of the neck. Neighbouring the possibility of the system which is exhib States are always in fear, and overwhelm him ited to him, we shall find a constantly rising with marks of their deference, for they never interest in the closeness and accuracy of know if any enterprise already prepared may the satire, — if satire that may be termed not be directed against them from one day to which, without humour, without wit, has all institutions and in my acts how careful I have
You may have seen in my the cruelty of an unfavourable photograph. always been to create appearances; these are It is impossible to say that it is not the very needed in words as in acts. The height of skill image of modern Cæsarism which we have consists in making men believe in one's frunkunder our eyes, but with that indescribable ness, whilst keeping a Punic faith. Not only difference between the living reality and its shall my designs be impenetrable, but my
words representation whereby the malice of Phe- shall signify almost always the contrary of bus Apollo — indignant no doubt at being what they shall seem to indicate. Only the incompelled to turn limner at the beck and itiated will be able to penetrate the sense of call of every simpering snob and frowsy
those characteristic sayings which at certain damsel — anticipating on the ravages of When I shall say 'My reign is peace,' it will be
moments I shall let drop from the throne. time, shows us, without altering a line or a war; when I shall say that I appeal to moral feature, in the beauty of to-day the dowdy means,' I shall be about to use forcible ones. of twenty years hence, and hardens the You have seen that my press has a hundred handsome young Guardsman into a middle- voices, that they are all incessantly speaking of aged martinet.
the greatness of my reign, of the enthusiasm of The effect of M. Joly's work depends so my people for their sovereign ; that they put at greatly on the accumulation of small touch the same time into the mouth of the public the es, put in one by one with the patience of a
opinions, the ideas, the very formulas which are miniature-painter, that it is difficult to give that my ministers are untiringly astonishing the
to inspire its conversations ; you have seen also a sufficient idea of it by mere extracts. The public with the incontestable evidences of their most telling portions of the book indeed to labours. As for me, I would rarely speak; once a Frenchman are precisely those which a year only, and here and there on great occawould carry the least amount of meaning to sions. And so every one of my manifestations the general foreign reader, who would miss would he received, not only in my kingdom, but most of the allusions and lose himself amid in all Europe, as a real event. details. In quoting therefore as a sample a passage of a more general character, the So the writer proceeds, in level style, uncritic is bound to point out that such passa- flagging, merciless. You have seen this beges do not give the best idea of M. Joly's fore, and that; at one time or other, this or powers of political vivisection :
that portion of the machinery of imperial oppression has been analyzed aud denounced
in far more scathing language. But the wri"Machciavelli. --- I have only now to indicate ter's patient gathering up of details under to you certain particularities in my mode of act- their respective heads ends by exercising a ing, certain habits of conduct which shall give fascination of its own over the reader, bringits last characteristic trait to my government. ing one by one back to his mind all the halfIn the first place, I mean my designs to be im: forgotten criticisms of the past, and prepenetrable, even for those who shall most nearly senting to him in its reality that marvellous approach me.
I miy projects only to order them to be executed, tissue of oppression, supple seemingly as a and I would only give my orders at the glove, and yet riveted with iron — fine last Doment. :: I have the gift of im- often as gossamer, and yet strong as adamobility. My end is yonder; I am looking in mant, — which the “Wayland Smith” of no other direction, and when that end comes with contemporary policy has thrown around the in reach I turn suddenly round and dart on my limbs of the greatest of Continental naprey before it has had time to utter a cry. You tions, and whereby the crafty magician subcould not believe what prestige such a power of dues its mighty life to its own dark ends. dissimulation gives to a man. When it is joined to vigorous action, a superstitious respect the Second Empire has done wisely or un
On the whole it is difficult to say whether surrounds him. His counsellors ask one another in a whisner what is about to come out of wisely to suppress M. Maurice Joly's book. his head ; the people place all their trust in him ; There were certainly ten chances to one he personifies in their eyes the unknown ways that it would remain unread by all but a few. of Providence. When they see him pass, they But what if the many had taken to readthink with involuntary terror of what he might ing it?
From the Spectator. acters he has brought together in his tales, CLARISSA.*
Richardson accompanies slowly in his state It is almost as much a change of air to tion with which he occupies his story. No
coach the slow march of the single temptaturn from the lively rattle of our railway doubt there are very few even of modern novels to the solemn coach-and-six of Richardson's full-dress genius, as to exchange miscellaneous incident as Mr. Trollope, but
writers who travel over so much ground of London for the old towns of Germany, where the outside dress of the middle ages
even those who adhere most closely to the still abides, even within hearing of the ex- development of a single story, take care to press trains. What a gulf, for example
, be- give a constantly changing attitude to the tween Richardson and Mr. Trollope! "And principal actors in relation to it; they do the difference is not exactly in the rate of not magnify a single moral attitude with their own movement as authors, for Mr. Trol- Richardson's magnificent pertinacity and lope is tranquil and minute enough, and on hausted its significance and sculptured it,
microscopic minuteness till they have exproper occasion Richardson can be as lively and effervescent as any novelist of
as it were, in solid marble ; rather do they The difference is in the movement of the give a series of successive sketches of the world which they describe. A hundred
same characters in different aspects. As modern interests ripple the mind of to-day
we have implied, much of this fixity of for every one that swept across that of manner may be due to the time. In that Richardson's day, and hence he studied the less busy age, the leisurely classes made a breaking of a single wave with as much great deal more of one purpose than we do care and art as a modern artist would give selves were less mobile than now, fell into
of many, and hence the characters themto a whole storm at sea. Richardson made men and angels lay aside their proper con
stiffer moulds, brooded more over a few cerns, — almost brought the whole world to subjects, and made more solemn and elabo
rate preparations for given effects. a standstill, - to gaze on the trial of woman's virtue. Every one whom he in- still if a Richardson would be more surpris
troduces, he introduces only with relation ing than ever in the present age, he was a Vto this one purpose. Clarissa's own family
curious literary phenomenon even then, alhave their meaning only in Clarissa. They
most as strong a contrast to Fielding as to live but to persecute her into dangers from our modern writers. His imagination was which she cannot escape, and to mourn over focus to its object-glass as a microscope. If
microscopic, and required as definite a their own lite as a wreck when their stupidi. ty and obstinacy have borne their natural any family nowadays could by any chance fruits. Lovelace, superior as he is as a girl to a disagreeable alliance which the
devote the time to breaking in a refractory dramatic creation to Clarissa and every Harlowes devoted to attempting to force other character, exists only to tempt and Mr. Solmes on Clarissa, certainly no other betray her; Miss Howe only to receive her confidences and sustain her by her sympa- with the patient exactitude of Richardson.
artist could reproduce those tedious months tly; Belford but to show what was her Precisely three months given up to family persuasive power over a dissolute heart. Enormous as
councils, voluminous letters, interviews, are the proportions of the narrative, one centred more completely in negotiation, diplomacy, protests, protocols
, one figure, and almost in one attitude of
threats of war, and this only the introducthat figure, is nowhere else to be found. tion to the real story! The first two volThe long eight volumes in which it was Schleswig-Holstein blue-books, only that
umes of the old edition are exactly like the formerly published are wholly occupied Mr. James Harlowe, junior, was much more with an account, the full size of life, of every incident which contributed to or im- peremptory than Lord Russell. And this peded and delayed the dénouement. While
is all prelude. Clarissa does not take up Áfr. Trollope travels, rapidly and lightly signs to sculpture her till after her flight
the attitude in which Richardson really deover hundreds of little incidents which are from home, till after the rash step when, almost independent of each other, and relateil only as illustrating the various char. as she pathetically wails in her letter to
Miss Howe, “ your Clarissa is gone off with
.” Then, the delicate but respectful C'arissa: or, the History for at Younge Lady inflexibility with which she has resisted the Comprehending Concerns of Private Life, and particularly showing the Distress mixed prayers and bullyings of the family es ta muy attend the Misconduct both of Parents league, is changed into an equally keen but and Children in Relation to Marriage. By $. Richardson. Complete iu # vols. Tauchnitz: Leipzig. more proud and suspicious resistance to
Lovelace's gay frauds and deep scheming mirers :-"I could wish, if it might be passion. Yet even in the introduction, she avoided without making ill-will between is thrown into the attitude which Richard- Mr. Lovelace and my executor, that the son thought the most characteristic of femi- former might not be permitted to see my nine purity, - one of perpetual guard corpse. But if, as he is a man very unconagainst masculine encroachments; but while trollable, and I am nobody's, he insist upon the earlier struggle is a mere test of per- viewing her dead whom he once before saw tinacity under almost brutal pressure, the in a manner dead, let his gay curiosity be engagement with Lovelace is one which gratified. Let him behold, and triumph calls for subtlety, skill, vigilance, and the over the wretched remains of one who has courage of despair.
been made a victim to his barbarous perIt is easy to criticize Richardson's con- fidy, but let some good person, as by my ception of a paragon of feminine excellence desire, give him a paper while he is view. V in Clarissa. 'Her notion of purity is clearly ing the ghastly spectacle, containing these legal, her humility is far from genuine; she few words only, Gay, cruel heart! Behold is evidently as conscious as her biographer here the remains of the once ruined yet that she is a spectacle for angels and for now happy Clarissa Harlowe! See wliat men, and her demure saintship, when she thou thyself must quickly, be, and Redevotes herself with almost the relish of an ' PENT!' Yet to show that I die in periect epicure to dying in the way that may heap charity with all the world, 1 do most sinthe most glowing coals of fir on her per- cerely forgive Mr. Lovelace the wrongs he secutors' heads, though never without a has done me. That is, she forgives bim in certain transparent beauty and sweetness, the sense of reserving to herselt the comiis still full of didactic triumph. Then, in plete monopoly of wounding bim by verbal spite of the real sweetness, there is a drop taunts and stings, posthumous or otherwise. of feminine venom, of which Richardson That privilege, even though it require little himself is scarcely aware, at the bottom of theatric arrangements over her coffin, she Clarissa's character from beginning to end. cannot give up. But all this is only critiIn her very first letter, before her sister cism on Richardson's conception of teminine Arabella has begun her malignities, Clarissa perfection, not on the picture of Clari:sa, dissects the vanities and radical vulgarity which is studied with absolute consistency of her sister's mind to her friend Miss Howe and wonderful nicety throughout. She is with the most unflinching hand. And at brought up to think herself the centre of the very last, though she professes to have the universe, - grandfather, father, mothforgiven all her enemies, she launches little er, uncles, brother and sister, servants, poisoned arrows at them in her pious will every one bowing down before her, even and farewell letters which render the title as a child, as the sheaves of Joseph's brethso often applied to her of “divine lady ren bowed in his dream towards his own not a little amusing. This, for instance, sheaf. Her“ friends and favourers," as in is the red-hot coal she bequeaths to ber the time of her adversity she writes to Dr. sister's maid, Betty, who harassed her much Lewin, one of her principal “ favorers,” through the preliminary home persecution : bave a sort of right, she thinks, to know —“To my sister's maid, Betty Barnes, I the history of her trials and of her glorious bequeath ten pounds, to show that I resent justification. She is fully aware of all the not former disobligations, which I believe gifts. Did I not,” she writes to Miiss were owing more to the insolence of office Howe, “ did I not think more and deeper and to natural pertness than to personal! than most young creatures thiuk; did I ill-will.” That is a pretty effectual retalia- not weigh; did I not reflect; I might pertion for a saint to launch at a waiting-maid haps have been less obstinate. Delicacy from the tomb. Towards her bei rayer, (may I presume to call it?), thinking, weighiLovelace, of course something of natural ing, reflection are not blessings, – (1 häve horror might fairly be mingled with her not found them such), - in the degree I Christian forgiveness, but tlie actual state have them. I wish I had been able in some of her mind seems to us to have in it more very nice cases to have known what indifof lingering spite and less of Christian for. ference was; yet not to have my ignorance giveness or profound pity than the author imputable to me as a fault. Oh my dear ! wished to delineate. The nice little dra- the finer sensibilities, it I may suppose mine matic scene in which she intends her own to be such, make not happy." Yet in spite corpse shall play the most impressive part, of all this didactic egotism in Clarissa, not looks to us rather more like feminine re- unmingled with a resentment to those who venge than it seemed to Clarissa's ad- do not recognize her merit which has often
a touch of spite, there runs a delicacy of about him, the temper of a man who fibre ---(purity meant something quite dif- sees only mischief in ruining women, and ferent in Richardson's day and in our own), has never had a glimpse of the meaning of - a sweet persuasiveness, and a high-bred sin ; – then there is an absolute candour feminine mettle, which fascinates us almost in his treatment of himself to his friend ; against our will. In letter after letter, vol- though he will contrive any lie, however ume after volume, she is represented almost elaborate to effect his purpose, he palliates in the same attitude of half-affrighted, half- nothing in confessing himself, though he resentful feminine pride, longing to trust confesses with a levity and verve of a mind and finding no one near her to trust, think- unable to realize the monstrous nature of ing deeper than most young creatures his own guilt. His own purposes, once think,” half detecting falsehood by the taken are so completly a law to him that slightest and most uncertain signs, waging they obliterate all moral objections; but dangerous war with the most prolific and then where candour does not stand in the unscrupulous schemer ever represented in way of his ends, his candour is perfect. English fiction, and overwhelmed at last Altogether a more extraordinary conceponly to rise with keener and more statu- tion of crimes and sins almost beyond the esque pride out of the struggle. The moral possibility of pardon springing out of a selfperfection Richardson attributes to Clarissa willed and mischief-making, rather than a few modern readers will concede. Her diabolical spirit, was never realized. The family early took the right way to make man's brilliant nature seems to dance in the her self-sufficient and pragmatic, and there- buoyancy of its tormenting inventiveness, in, in spite of her natural sweetness, they and yet his truthfulness concerning himself fully succeeded. But no one can deny the to himself never fails him, and his eye for rare delicacy of conception and finish in moral beauty is never clouded. He seems the execution of the figure, though few will driven by the mere swelling of his irresissubscribe to the sculptor's standard of moral tible impulse to dishonour Clarissa, because beauty.
he feels her so worthy of all honour; his But if the central figure is striking, the complete horror of a constraining law and secondary one is infinitely more so. Rich- absolute repulsion to anything like legal reardson is said to have borrowed the notion straint is vexed within him by her conspicof Lovelace from Lothario in Rowe's Fair uous legality. The diablerie within him Penilent, and Dr. Johnson asserted that the leaves him no rest till he breaks down the superiority of the great novelist lay in the barrier. His evil is all wantonness. Richmore effectual rendering of Lovelace's evil ardson assuredly did not and could not hate qualities, so that the reader loses his won- this villian, and even throws out a vague der at the man's irrepressible elasticity hope of his final penitence. The wit, and gayety in indignation and hatred. But spring, and vivacity of the character, this is a very false criticism the reverse contrasting strikingly as it does with Rich
of the real truth. Rɔwe's “ Lothario" is a ardson's formal and ceremonial style, 7 less guilty but also a much less distinguished evidently endeared it to him, for the favour
profiigate than Lovelace. He is almost a ite child' is frequently the one most unlike common-place rake, with little more than a the parents. Yet nowhere is there the hint of the wonderful diablerie and shining faintest approach to embellishing his vices. qualities of Richardson's greatest dramatic It is the enormous surface-vitality, not the creation. The wonderful element in that license, that Richardson is proud of: He creation is that though so treacherous, hard- makes Miss Howe in one of her lively hearted, selfish, cruel, fertile in plots, Rich- letters draw this happy conjectural sketch ardson never does make Lovelace hateful, of Lovelace as a child, which sufficiently although he never gives the slightest false shows what Richardson intended to be the colour of attractiveness to his vices. There root of his levity and license; — "I have is a strange buoyancy about him, which supposed Lovelace a curl-pated villain, full makes his various attempts to subdue his of fire, fancy, and mischief; an orchard rob“ dearest creature," as he calls Clarissa, ber, a wall climber, a horse rider, without to his will, seem almost more like the onset saddle or bridle, neck or nothing; a sturdy of a leaping wave than the wickedness of a rogue, in short, who would kick and cuff, perverted conscience. His worst crimes and do no right, and take no wrong of anyare more like a gay demon's wanton tricks body; would get his head broke, then a than a devil's delight in guilt. His plot- plaster for it, or let it heal of itself; while ting nature overflows involuntarily; there he went on to do more mischief, and if not is the permanent exaltation of high spirits to get, to deserve broken bones.” It is the
want of any purely evil motive, though with acter, and her ingrained impertinence to all a complete absence of any good motive, who attempt any control over her except the intrinsic wilfulness of Lovelace's pur- Clarissa ; then, her mother, who in spite of poses, which cannot give up their own tyran- her own vulgar vanity and stinginess is really nous desire to prevail, and are not sufficient- wrapt up in the daughter, whose more free ly impressionable by the wishes of others to and generous nature she so profoundly adbe moved by pity or sympathy, — which a mires, -even Mr. Brand, the pompous culittle palliates Lovelace's iniquities to Rich- rate, with his string of classical quotations, ardson and his readers. His evil is due to a and Joseph Leman, the semi-hypocritical sort of physical levity, to the playing of a man-servant who delights to call himself a gay fountain of pure self-will, that sparkles“ plain man,” -- all are chiselled out with away in the sun, like a natural spring that wonderful fidelity and often with a humour has no responsibility for its own course. which ought to have gained Richardson a
Nor are any of the minor figures in this place with Fielding and Smollett in Thackewonderful book less completely finished. ray's English Humourist. Though they all have their centre and unity Clarissa is a book in which the lines are in the paragon Clarissa in a manner highly cut so much deeper than any novelist cares improbable and irritating, nothing can be to cut them now, the whole treatment is so more minute than the characteristic finish completely the size of life, without being given to each ; — the obstinate, selfish, im- (after the first two volumes) in any degree perious brother, whose intelligence is so dull, that though no one character except inferior to his pertinacity; the vain, spiteful that of Lovelace reaches to the highest sister, who almost enjoys her sister's dis- standard of originality, they together form a honour, but is overwhelmed with grief at group impressed with the manners of the her death ; the weak, the fond mother, who seventeenth century, which takes its place dare not assert her own will to save her amongst those most vivid of all memories daughter; the gouty, querulous father, which we retain some vague impression of who is persuaded he is doing it all himself having derived from personal experience. when he is the mere instrument of his son; It is a strange and somewhat quaint result the uncles, equally weak, but after so dif- of Richardson's didactic design that he sucferent a fashion, - - one with all the tender- ceeded in making for ever memorable a ness of a soft nature, the other with all the wanton being without any very distinct bustle of a vulgar plump soul,” as Miss trace of a conscience, and gave the artistic Howe calls the retired naval officer; Miss triumph at least to his villain, instead of to Howe, again, the piquant auburn beauty, the paragon of excellence whose character with her lively wit and knowledge of char- he had so painfully and minutely laboured,
Health OF LONDON. - It appears from the last four weeks having been 22, 25, 27 and 38. return issued by authority of the Registrar-Gen- Its development assumes more formidable dieral, that in the week that ended on Saturday, mensions at a more advanced period of the sumJune 3, the births in London and ten other large mer; but at any time it may be controlled by towns of the United Kingdom, were 3,389 ; the a due regard to the wholesome condition of deaths 2,542. The annual rate of mortality in houses and localities, and by the judicious manthe week in those eleven towns was 23 per 1,000 agement of young children to whom the compersons living. In London the births of 969 plaint is chiefly fatal. The deaths from typus boys and 891 girls, in all 1,860 children, were in the week were 44. This disease has been registered in the week. In the corresponding less fatal since April. At the Royal Observaweeks of ten years, 1855–64, the average num. tory, Greenwich, the mean height of the baromber, corrected for increase of population, was, eter in the week was 27.707 in. The barome1,871. The deaths registered in London were, trical reading fell to 29.44 in. on Friday, and 1,187. The average number for the 22d, that rose to 29.90 in. on Saturday. The mean temis, the corresponding week in ten years, correct- perature of the air in the week was 58.3 deg., ed for increase of population, is 1,183. There is which is 1.7 deg. above the average of the same a very close agreement, therefore, between the week in 50 years (as determined by Mr. Glaishresult and that obtained by calculation. The er). The highest day temperature was 73.8 mortality from diarrhea increases as is usual, deg., and occurred on Monday. The lowest night with that disease, under summer heat; but the temperature was 47.2 deg., and occurred on
is not rapid ; the deaths from it in the Thursday.