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step, is rarely the mind to show most dis- culiar class of men who may be called sincrimination in choosing amongst several the gle-purpose men, who drive straight true end to hunt down. Profoundly as we away to the one goal before them, even if admire, and wonder at, the qualities Mr. they have to cut that way through hall-aEyre showed in his great expedition, we dozen other equally important ends. We must suy we think that, in the actual state believe that, as a rule, the one great advanof his own previous convictions and that of tage which aristocratic governors in India his tellow-colonists, there never was a less and elsewhere have had over middle-class justifiable sacrifice and risk incurred in all men of otherwise equal ability, and often the noble records of perilous discovery. If greater energy, has been their power of it was really his mere annoyance that he weighing complex social and political ends, should have persuarled the colonists to divert and resisting the tendency to drive away at the funds voted for the useless western ex- one thing at a time. Lord Canning, for inploration to the (as it proved) equally use- stance, saw that, though to repress the Indiless northern exploring expedition, which an rebellion was his first duty, there were made him resolve that their original intent many other great duties to be associated should not be thwarted, — though they with it, - the greatest being to repress it themselves wished it to be abandoned, without injustice to the natives, and he got then, this shows a mind far too sensitive to the name of Clemency Canning. Sir John the imputation of having disappointed the Lawrence, on the other hand, is, if we mispublic hope. As we read Mr. Eyre's take him not, a little too much of the singlecharacter, hel et a mere feather's weight purpose class, who can carry through a great of fanciful feeling determine him to risk administrative work, but cannot so well everything for nothing. The mere fact govern an empire. But Mr. Eyre is, to all of thinking that he had persuaded the appearance, the very type of this class. His public to alter their plan and had dis- purposes are long straight grooves, out of appointed them, was sufficient to make which he does not get till he gets to the him take his own life and his friend's life end of them. He does not weigh and bala in his hand, and throw them away on a ance the various influences he has to exer. sandy desert. In the same way no doubt, cise, but gives himself up to one tyrannical if he got the idea that the Jamaica whites object at a time. His mind is even unscruhad trusted him, and trusted him in vain, he pulous after it enters one of these grooves he would have been spurred on by a similar till it gets out of it again. He is possessed moral gad-tiy to crush all sign of rebellion, by his aim. Negroes, members of legislaat any cost, however great, to himself or tive council, all must die, rather than that those who were thwarting his purpose. he shall not succeed in the idea thus hauntThese men of iron purpose, with inadequate ing him. That is, at least, how we reconjudgment in selecting their purpose, are cile the wonderful courage, fortitude, and, the most dangerous of rulers. When Mr. in a smaller sense, presence of mind that he Eyre was protector of the blacks on the has shown, with the unscrupulous arbitrariSouth Murray River, he was responsible for ness, and want of presence of mind in the only one trust, — the protection of the larger sense, which seem to us to breathe Blacks to the best of his ability. And with through his great Jamaica despatch. one clear and simple trust before him, no doubt he did, as Nir. Henry Kingsley says, battle for it with a n ble and unwearied pertinacity. But in Jamaica he was not

From the Economist, 28 Oct. protector of the Blacks, but Governor of the whole island, he had therefore a number of THE POLICY OF THE PRESIDENT IN THE different and in some respects conflicting

SOUTH. interests amongst which to choose, and so It is one of the many evils of the Ameriwas, we think, pretty sure to make a tem- can Constitution that it induces politicians porary idol of that duty which for the mo- to examine every utterance or reportel ut, ment seemed most imperative. The blacks terance of the President with overstrained were murdering white men. He thought anxiety. Ilis opinion is as important as that of nothing but the most drastic measures of an English Premier, while he can no for repressing that tendency on the part of more be cross-questioned than an English the negroes, and lost view of that com- Sovereign. He has no representative in Conplexity of the judicial duty which is of the gress, and only one constitutional mode of essence of a governor's functions.

communicating with the people he rules, Mr. Eyre seems to us to be one of the pe- / which one is very seldom employed. Poli

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ticians are reduced, therefore, to watch him from Kentucky after the people of that State as despotic sovereigns are watched, to study had refused to insert the necessary provihis casual utterances, and letters on com- sion in their constitution, and no convention mon-place subjects, and replies to deputa- at all having been called in Texas. The tions, if by any means they may thence ex- Governor reports that it would as yet be tract some clue to his real designs and will. dangerous, and Texas therefore is not pressThis is, we imagine, the secret of the im- ed. With the exception of that State, howportance attached to President Johnson's ever, the entire South will by December be remarks to the deputation from South Caro- absolutely free from military control, and lina, and to the coloured regiment which at liberty, to remodel their legal system recently

passed through Washington. The as they please, without interference from first series of speeches really reveal noth- Washington. Commerce is already reviving. ing except that the President is disposed The specie hoarded during the war is comto treat all prisoners, including Mr. Davis, ing out, the railways are under reconstrucwith great clemency, that he is inclined to tion, and there exists a strong probability a stringent vagrant law pressing equally on that the Southern members, if admitted to whites and blacks, and that he defines liberty Congress at all, will be so powerful, as, as simply the right to work and enjoy the pro- with the aid of the President, to be virtual ducts of labour, a very limited definition. rulers of the Republic. They will have, it But the conversation, though it throws some must be remembered, the right of electing light on his views, indicating, for example, members not only for themselves

, but for that he would accept negro testimony, the blacks; for while the latter, like women, quantum valeat, throws none on his policy, have no votes, they are, like women, countnone, for example, on the point whether he ed in the electoral census according to which will insist on such testimony being receiv- members are apportioned. The Southerners, ed. The speech to the negroes is equally will have many allies among the democrats obscure. He told them, indeed, that the and the sympathy of the mercantile class, United States was their country as much as and even if not possessed of a majority, will anybody else's, a remark received with dis- hold the position the Tory party holds in the approbation by many of the white men stand- present Parliament. Their exclusion, though ing round, and that they must respect mar- threatened by the Republicans, is, we think, riage, and that they should improve them- improbable. Supported by the whole peoselves, but gave no hint as to the extent to ple, that party might venture on such a dewhich the freedom necessary to those ends fiance of the feeling in favour of State rights, should be secured. He evidently reserves but supported only by a section, though any detailed expression of his views and de- the more numerous section, and opposed cisions for his message to Congress to be to an irremovable Executive Government, delivered in the beginning of December, they would run too much risk of seeing their and meanwhlle it is by his acts he must be acts to be declared illegal, and themselves judged. Those acts show, in our opinion, dis- an imperfect Congress. Besides, a party tinctly that Mr. Johnson has made up his which is in the majority is sure to believe mind to reconstruct the Union by pushing the that it can use its majority in a popular asprincipal of State rights to its logical conclu- sembly without expelling its foes. sion without any guarantees for the coloured W cannot, as dispassionate observers, population other then the bare prohibition of look forward to this prospect with anything legal slavery. If any State chooses to grant like complacency. No man who has studied full civil rights to its black inhabitants well, the history of the last four years in America but if it chooses to refuse them well also; if will think himself justified in assigning limits it passes laws binding the negro to the soil to the American power of overcoming politthat is no reason for interference, or even ical difficulties, but the Government of the for official remonstrance, Accordingly orders Union appears to us to be preparing most have been issued disbanding all colored troops serious dangers for itself, and it may be for except a few to be employed in unhealthy the world. The Southerners, if masters at garrisons, the Freedmen's bureaus are being home and powerful in Washington, are cerrapidly abolished, governors are accepted no- tain to rebuild society on the aristocratic toriously hostile to the negro, the right of vot- base, - that is, to reinvigorate the main ing is not demanded, and though the Pres- element of political discord between the two ident advises the reception of negro testi- sections, and thus lay the seeds of a future mony, he has not made it a condition. In- war, are certain to reassert, in almost its deed, in two States slavery itself is not old strength, the dangerous doctrine of abolished, martial law having been withdrawn State Sovereignty, and are nearly certain

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VOL. XXXI.

to tamper in some way with a debt con- tives. Most men will fight well when victracted to ensure their own subjugation. tory is the only way to avoid massacre, and Mr. Morgan, the democratic candidate for Anglo-Saxons, under such circumstances, the governorship of Pennsylvania, advised seem lifted altogether out of themselves. repudiation on the ground of the severity The Southerners fought splendidly, but if of the terms on which the loans were rais- they had the conviction which flashed on ed, and though he found little support he Anglo-Indians after Cawnpore, and had must have expected adhesion from sympa- fought as they did, the South might have thizers with the South. It would be diffi- been conquered, but not its inhabitants. cult to conceive an event which would be more disastrous to the cause of freedom throughout the world than a repudiation of this war debt, and the immense privileges ac

From the Daily News, 30th November. corded to the South. certainly increase the risk of its being repudiated. These things THE NEGRO MASSACRES IN JAMAICA. are independent of the negro, but it is im- The further intelligence which the West possible to pass in silence over the fate of India mail brings from Jamaica must infour millions of human beings. Apart al- tensify the anxiety with which the acts of together from sentimentalism, it is certain the authorities there have been regarded that the experiment of allowing him free- throughout England. We obtain no furdom, had it been fairly tried and succeeded, ther insight into the evidence of a plot by would have been of incalculable benefit to which the massacre of the alleged rebels has the world. It would have proved to a dem- been said to be justified. On this head everyonstration that the principles of civil and thing still stands on the footing of rumour, political freedom

are applicable to the of hearsay evidence, of statements that “it inferior races, a proposition still denied with is said ” there was a conspiracy. Considerbad results in Africa, India, and Turkey. ing the constant sitting of courts-martial, Even if it had failed, the world would have the surrender of so many voluntary prisongained experience where it now has only a ers, the torturing by the lash on every side, theory, and the higher races might have and the final admission that order is now retained the guidance of the lower with so far secured that an amnesty has been much clearer conscience, and, therefore, issued, it is certainly incredible that, if firmer purpose. To interrupt such an ex- overwhelming evidence of such a conspirperiment is in any case an evil, but to inter- acy exists, it should not have oozed out, rupt it by allowing the slaveholders to subject and should not have been published in the their freedmen to laws menacing to their hap- newspapers of the island. But in these piness, injurious to the competition of free set- sources of information, as well as in the ilers, and hostile to the principles upon which Governor's speech to the House of Assemthe nation has been founded and has grown bly, we search in vain for it. We find great, is excusable only on a plea which the column after column filled with recapitulaPresident does not put forward — a para- tion of the particulars of the first horrid mount necessity. We cannot but fear that outbreak in Morant Bay; we find a statewhen the troops are all withdrawn and the ment by each survivor of all he .saw and Southern States all reconstituted, and the all he suffered; we find the despatches of Southern members reseated in Congress, the several commanders of parties, and the North will look round and find that the copious details of every event by correfruits of the great war in which it has been spondents of the press. But of evidence victorious have been most of them thrown of this deep-laid, all-embracing plot, this away. It would have been wiser to wait. • volcano” on the brink of which, the Gov

Of course none of these objections apply ernor tells the Legislature, the colony has to the President's resolve to show clemen- been - this determination “ to make Jacy to individuals. The world has decided, maica a second Hayti”- we are furnished without much thinking on the matter, that with not one tittle that would bear a mo. excessive severity to political crime is im- ment's examination in an English court of moral, and whether the world is right or not justice. it is quite clear that it is unwise. If the dis- But the character of the evidence on affected are few persecution, only makes which this alleged plot rests is to be seen them martyrs, and if they are many, it is perhaps most clearly from what has been well to deprive them of the stimulus to ener- published as conclusive proof of Mr. G. W. gy contained in the conviction that con- Gordon's guilt. We yesterday laid before quest or execution are the only alterna- our readers an address which had been

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published by that .gentleman prior to a number killed by the rioters on the 11th meeting of St. George-in-the-East, called October was sixteen, and two planters were by the Custos himself, in July last. This killed next day. For these deaths the vendocument is furnished by the paper we geance taken by courts-martial in the town have already quoted from as a specimen of of Morant Bay alone is stated, by a correhis speeches and proclamations by which spondent who seems to have been at pains to “ the masses were inflamed.” And what be accurate, as “ up to date,” on 26th Ocdoes this seditious incitement and evidence tober, 102 rebels executed. The courts. of treasonable conspiracy contain ? An martial were still, however, in full swing, invitation to the people to attend the meet- and on the 27th eighteen more were sent to ing the authorities had called - a recom- the gallows, on the 28th eleven more, and mendation that Mr. Cardwell's “ very in on the 30th sixteen more. At this period discreet despatch" should be " well-handled the despatch closes. But while thus the in a loyal spirit” - an assurance that number executed in the town alone was 147,

the same careful correspondent adds — " It “We know that our beloved Queen is too may not altogether be uninteresting to your noble-hearted to say anything unkind even to readers to know that slightly over 1,050 rebher most humble subjecis, and we believe that els have been hanged and shot in the parish Mr. Cardwell and her Majesty's other ministers of St. Thomas up to date.” These, however, are gentlemen too honourable and honest in their intentions wilfully to wound the feelings are only the executions in the form of mar

tial law. of her Majesty's colonial subjects; but we fear

Of how many were shot down in they have been deceived and misled, and the the bush, or slain on the ashes of their homes, consequence is a serious grievance to our peo- no account can ever be given; only we ple; but we advise them to be prudent yet firm know that rivers are described as foul with in their remonstrances, and we have no doubt the pollution of the dead boʻlies that are that truth will ultimately prevail.”

festering on their banks, that whole districts

are described as impenetrable from the And then an earnest and passionate, yet stench of corpses, and that certain roads are surely most loyal and constitutional en- described as fringed with carcases of “rebtreaty :

els." We are told by the Colonial Standard

of Nov. 6, that " Mr. Justice Kirkland, the “People of St. Ann's, Poor people of St. only acting authority at Bath, received a Ann's, Starving people of St. Ann's, Naked verbal order to shoot prisoners, but did not people of St. Ann's, you who have no sugar estates to work on nor can find other employ consider that authority enough for such a ment, we call on you to come forth. Even if proceeding. He sent off to Morant Bay for you be naked, conie forth, and protest against a confirmation, but delayed, from some the unjust representations made against you cause, starting his despatch, so much so that by Mr. Governor Eyre and his band of cus- the prisoners have increased to between 120 todes. You don't require custodes to tell your and 150 in the meantime.” But when there woes; but you want men free of government was no ground for either shooting or hanginfluence - you want honest men — men with a sense of right and wrong, and who The same paper tells us flogging is going on

- you want ing prisoners, the cat was always available. can appreciate you. Call on your ministers to from morning to night. Many women and reveal your true condition, and then call on children detected as robbers are catted and Ileaven to witness, and have mercy.”

let go daily. The greater criminals are Is this evidence which we in England can sent on to Morant Bay to be hanged or shot. be asked to accept of a deep-laid plot for Details are furnished of the jests of the sailthe massacre of every white man at Christ- ors on the sufferings of the miserable wretchmas, under the auspices of the G. W. Gor- es on whom they are performing this hidedon who writes such words? Was there ous office. Nay, with the last refinement any wilder perversion of honest meaning and of cruelty the lash is applied, before trial, to legal acts found in the mouths of the infam- those who are set apart for trial, and who ous informers who two centuries ago batch- are afterwards shot ! . ed the Popish plot, than in the production But we cannot pollute our columns with of such a document as damning evidence of more of such appalling details. If but a the writer's ferocious treason ?

thousandth part of such tales as form the But while such is the evidence of crime, staple of the Jamaica newspapers - and so far as during a month of trials and which are narrated with heartiest applause slaughtering it has been made public, the are true, hell itself has broke loose in evidence of its punishment is very differ- that wretched island. But the demons are ent. It will be remembered that the total not the blacks, who burst into the sudden fury of a single day, and never afterwards | ration for nearly half an hour, during which offered the remotest show of resistance. time there was a profound silence, and each one They are the white men, who, for week af- drew in his breath in fearful suspense in anticiter week, have been holding their feast of pation of the future. At the order, “ Open the blood ; who have, by form of law, taken fifty court,” given to the Provost-Marshal, every lives for each one that they themselves listening, and one could almost fancy that the

eye was bent forward ; every ear was eagerly lost; who have, on pretence of a future in- beating of every heart was heard in the room. surrection, made a whole region barren But this fearful suspense was heightened still with extermination, and uninhabitable with more by the voice of the President of the Court the pestilence of putrifying bodies ; who gloat pronouncing only the words, “ This Court is and jest over the tortures they inflict ere dissolved.” The prisoner was then taken charge they mercifully slay ; who tlog naked women ot' by the Provost-Marshal, and led back sepaand children ; and who blaspheme Almighty

rate from the other rebels under the ProvostGod with their thanks for his mercies vouch- Marshal's charge at the station. I have full safed in delivering their enemies into their ted to forward them for publication until leave

notes iaken of the trial, but I am not permithands. It is no longer buman nature that is given me to do so by the Brigadier-General. exists in that land; drunk with blood and The charges against George William Gordon maddened with cruelty, our soldiers and were : 1st, high treason and sedition against sailors have become as wild animals, and her Majesty the Queen; 2nd, inciting to murhave lost every vestige and sentiment of der and rebellion. humanity, while they bandy compliments on their common triumphs over panic-stricken The sentence of the court-martial was not and fugitive wretches, over a foe who has told to Mr. Gordon until Monday, one hour never crossed a sword with them in fight, before its execution. He occupied that time nor ever fired a musket-shot in their“ glori- in writing an affecting letter to his wife, who ous campaign.”.

is an educated English lady. The line toThis awful business must be stopped if wards the close, which

says

" the General we would not have all civilization rise to has come,” indicates the arrival of the exexecrate the name of Englishmen.

ecutioners :

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“My beloved Wife,- General Nelson has just

been kind enough to inform me that the courtMR. GORDON'S TRIAL AND EXECUTION. martial on Saturday last has ordered me to be the trial of Mr. Gordon, from which it ap this world of sin and sorrow. The following is all the account given of hung, and that the sentence is to be executed

in an hour hence; so that I shall be gone from

I regret that my pears that notes of the evidence on which he was sent to execution were withheld cannot be helped. I do not deserve this sen

worldly affairs are so deranged; but now it from the public :

tence; for I never advised or took part in any

insurrection. All I ever did was to recommend “ About twelve o'clock on the 20th of Octo- the people who complained to seek redress in a ber prisoners, among them George William legitimate manner; and if in this I erred or Gordon, were brought out and lined in front of have been misrepresented, I do not think I dethe wharf where the courts-martial were about to serve the extreme sentence. It is, however, be held. In order to save time two courts were the will of my Heavenly Father that I should formed — the one composed of Colonel Lewis, thus suffer in obeying his command, to reliere of the St. Catherine's Militia, Captain Espent, the poor and needy, and to protect, as far of the Kingston Militia, and Captain Astwood, as I was able, the oppressed. And glory be of the Kingston Cavalry; the other composed to his name; and I thank him that I sutier in of Second Lieutenant Brent, commander of such a cause. Glory be to God, the Father of our the gun-boat Nettle, Second Lieutenant Her- Lord Jesus Christ; and I can say it is a great rington, commander of the gun-boat Onyx : and honour thus to suffer, for the servant cannot Ensign Kelly, of the 4th West India Regi. be greater than his Lord. I can now say with

Paul, the aged,' The hour of my departure is at At two o'clock the same day (Saturday) the hand, and I am ready to be offered up. I have trial of George W. Gordon commenced. He fought a good fight, I have kept the faith, and was tried before the military court, presided over henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of by Second Lieutenant Brent. He was given a righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous very patient trial, and was allowed to cross- Judge, shall give me.' Say to all friends an examine all the witnesses through the Presi- affectionate farewell, and that they must not dent of the Court, and, above all, was permit- grieve for me, for I die innocently. Assure Mr. ted to enter into a lengthy defence. The trial Airy and all others of the truth of this. Comlasted till past candle-light, when the court was fort your heart. I certainly little expected ordered to be cleared. The court sat in delibe- this. You must do the best you can, and the

ment.

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