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might reasonably, at such a period, say to the moderate tone in which it is expressed. himself that there was neither cause nor He does not consider Atticus as setting a party worth fighting for that honour wholesome or a laudable example to good could only be purchased by corruption, and citizens; but he denies him to have been, as probably also by crime. But this, accord- others have maintained, an utterly selfish ing to M. Gaston Boissier, was not the view man. His great humanity to all his actaken by Atticus. He was ambitious, but quaintances, his active services to all his it was of wealth, and not of perilocs hon- friends, redeem his name in great measure
Once a rich man, distinction would from such an putation. Selfish he may follow, but it must be such distinction as have been by temper and on system; but neither bludgeons nor swords would pur- his care for his own interest cost no man chase. Accordingly, Atticus invested his position, good name, or life, and, compared patrimony in the rich pastures of Epirus, with the selfishness of Pompeius and Cæsar, and spent his rents in training troops of or with the personal vanity of Cicero, his gladiators, whom he let out for the arena, neutrality almost assumes the dignity of a or in educating slaves as copyists, book- virtue of his memorable friendship he binders, and decorators, whose wages reaped a full and well-merited recompense brought in to their owner a considerable -a name that posterity will not let die. income. Neither did he disdain the less Justly has Seneca observed, and were there dignified character of a money-lender, in a statue of Pomponius Atticus his words which line of business he was remarkably would meetly be inscribed on its pedestal: strict in exacting 'bis dues. Absent from -"Nomen Attici perire Ciceronis epistolæ Rome for twenty years, he returned to it a non sinunt; nihil illi profuisset gener great capitalist, unconnected with any party Agrippa, et Tiberius progener, et Drusus in the State, and not expected to mix him- Cæsar pronepos; inter tam magna nomina self in any question or faction of the day. taceretur, nisi Cicero illum applicuisset.” Yet, though he stood thus aloof from the A separate, but shorter, chapter is asvortex of politics, he became intimate with signed to another friend and correspondent every political leader. He passed from the of Cicero — Cælius. And the selection is house of Crassus to that of Pompeius, from judicious, for he was a type of the creature the house of Cicero to that of Clodius, from engendered by revolutions. He would have Bibulus to Cæsar, and was welcomed by been in Paris'in 1789 what he was in Rome them all with impartial respect. His own eighteen centuries earlier. With good abiltable resembled that of Sir Joshua Rey- ities, with great personal gifts, without any nolds; the fare was simple, the attendants fixed principles moral or political, Cælius were few, but the guests were the noblest was one of the men who follow on the heels and the most conspicuous men of the age. of partisan leaders, and bring disgrace alike To Atticus alone it was permitted to be on them and their cause. In earlier and the friend of all men, without incurring the better days he would have stood among the anger of any; nay, to such an extent was young Claudii and Fabii whose insolent dehis exemption carried, that he became the meanour towards the Commons of Rome friend of Octavius, although only a few was, even more than direct oppression, the months earlier he had clasped the hands of cause of 'secession from the city and of sanBrutus and Cassius.
guinary tumult in its streets. In his own M. Boissier shows that Atticus, notwith-day he belonged to the profligate coterie of standing these privileges as a neutral in a which Catullus and Calvus were the poets, time of fierce and infinite division, was at and Clodius and Antonius the informing heart a republican of the old stamp, and spirits. made no secret of his aversion to the designs It is not to be expected that Cicero's earof Cæsar. Possibly his dislike or alarm pro- ly reputation will ever revive ; that there ceeded rather from his knowledge of Cæsar's will ever again be a Ciceronian sect or worfollowers than from personal hostility to the ship; that he will ever again be extolled great and humane Dictator himself. One above Cæsar; or that a Sir William Jones who had so much to lose as he had might will peruse annually his Opera Omnia, or well distrust ruffians like Milo, and prodi- refuse Octavius his imperial title becausegals like Cælius and Dolabella. Neither he was consenting to Cicero's murder. Yet, could the refined and philosophical Atticus although he has ceased to be an idol of the find much pleasure in the conversation of learned and the companion of statesmen in rude and illiterate tribunes of the legions. their closets, it does not follow that he was M. Boissier's view of this remarkable char- “ a slight unmeritable man,” much less that acter is the more likely to be accepted from he was the low-minded intriguer, the desul
tor partium, the political turncoat, the cow- ly with reason, to have settled the sites of ard or the braggart of some recent books. Ai, Nob, Gath, Hazor, Hazar-Enan, and We cannot, however, here enter upon his some other places hitherto doubtful or undefence, and indeed, to readers of the vol- discovered. * But the chief value of the volume before us, it is unnecessary to do so. ume is that part of it which describes jourM. Gaston Boissier is no Tulli fuútor ineplus. neys through districts in which few travelHe does not deny that Cicero was some- lers since the time of Burckhardt had pretimes weak, always irritable and vain, and ceded him — Bashan and the Eastern Wiloccasionally mistaken, and indeed mischiev- derness, and the north border of the Holy ous, in his public conduct. But, admitting Land. We may add, on the testimony of so much, he also shows that at Rome in any one of the (almost equally few) travellers age, and more especially in a revolutionary who have hitherto followed his steps, that era, a novus homo, a man without a train of his accuracy may be entirely depended on, clients and without family connection, could The great want is that of a map. not rise to high place except at some extraordinary crisis, and by singular ability and We must premise that there are a few energy alone. Cicero had rendered himself mistakes about the book, which, however necessary to the oligarchy, but the necessity pardonable in works of slight merit or trandid not mak: him strong. He tried to com- sitory interest, Mr Porter should set to pensate for the want of a comitatus, first by work seriously to correct, simply because a temporary union of the Senate and the his is a book which deserves to last. It is Knights, and afterwards by playing off the not expedient, for instance, to call the ruins heads of factions against each other. But of a Roman theatre, whenever they occur, in each case he leaned upon a rush; in each a “rustic opera;” nor to talk about the he became the sport of those in whom he olives in Gethsemane forming an arbour,”, put trust; and we should perhaps rather and elsewhere an “oratory," " for Jesus ;”. admire the pertinacity with which he clung nor to speak of the “ Tyropean (sic) valley”. to his position, than condemn the arts or in- as though the former word were a sort of. trigues by which he balanced himself upon adjective, like European. Certain ecstatit. The difficulties of that position are ics, again, might be spared which occur at clearly and succinctly shown by M. Boissier intervals throughout, but perhaps reach in the chapter entitled “ César et Cicéron.” | their bathos in sentences like the following
(he is surveying the southern half of
Haste, give me the glass,” I said. I turned
it upon the spot. Yes, I was right; a plough "The Giant Cities of Bashan and Syria's and yoke of oxen were there at work." JereHoly Places” is magniloquent enough to
miah's prophecy.was fulfilled before my eyes
“Zion shall be ploughed like a field.” — (xxvi. presage a very washy performance. We only beg that no one into whose hands this little volume may fall will be deterred from
Besides the odd taste of this kind of ebulreading it by its title. In the compass of lition, one gets a notion of the pursuit of about 350 pages of excellent type, on thick creamy paper, and illustrated by a few prophecy under difficulties, which is most striking engravings from photographs
, Mr. unfortunate in a volume which gives more Porter has given a thoroughly satisfactory fulfilled than can be found perhaps in any
instances of definite prophecies distinctly account of Jerusalem and its neighbourhood, other. The Holy Land, in truth, in its very the valley of the Jordan from its sources, Philistia and the plain of Sharon, Galilee, aspect, in the salutations and even the meals and Esdraelon. In all these, however, he of the inhabitants, authenticates at every is in some degree a compiler, keeping aloof turn and as one may say) identifies the
Bible as much as may be from the paths and dis
-and especially its minuter touches coveries of others , and filling in excellent travel-book that puts one fairly in the posi
in a way that nothing else can; and the details everywhere, and these from original tion of an eye-witness may safely leave the exploration. He claims, e. g., and apparent- reader to verify the prophecies for himself
*The Giant Cities of Bashan, and Syria's Holy There is also here and there something Places. By the Rev.J. L. Porter, A. M., Author of even less pleasant than ecstacies — a sort of "Five Years in Damascus," Murray's Hand-book writing which we can only designate as for Syria and Palestine," "The Pentateuch and the Gospels,” &c. London: T. Nelson & Sons, 1865.
When we are told, Irish pseudo-poetics.
“The poor Jew may now truly exclaim, as to say that nobody has said before; but, as he looks down on his squalid dwelling on we have observed, its especial value lies in the brow of Zion
its account of Bashan. Not that this is en
tirely new (though in part it is) to the Our temple hath not left one stone,
readers of his former, volumes; but not one And mockery sits on Salem's throne traveller in a hundred goes eastward of the
Jordan valley, except, perhaps, for two or one is apt to think he might easily find three days' tour in Moab or an excursion more profitable occupation then talking from Beyrout to Damascus, and therefore questionable grammar in unquestionable the stay-at-home reader knows nothing of doggrel; but what on earth is one to think the intervening district but what his rewhen a description of Gethsemane ends as membrances of his school-maps tell him follows?
namely, that a broad white space of nobody
knows how many hundreds of miles of desert Who can thy deep wonders see, Wonderful Gethsemane !
runs all the way to the Euphrates. We beThere my God bare all my guilt ;
lieve that very many persons will be much This through grace can be believed ;
surprised to learn that from the borders of But the horrors which he felt
Syria to the Euphrates is only about as far Are too vast to be conceived.
as from London to York, and that the counNone can penetrate through thee,
try east of the Jordan is, for miles and Doletul, dark Gethsemane !
miles, as rich grazing land as can be de
sired. This (whoever may have been its author) Its two great peculiarities are, first, that we take to be unequalled of its kind. But it is almost uninhabited, save here and there we venture to believe that we express the by a few Druse tribes who live in perpetual feeling of nine readers out of ten when we terror of Bedouin raids; and next, the sinrequest the omission, in all future editions, gular good fortune which has preserved its of extravagances like the above, of endeav- ruins almost unchanged for more than 3,000 ours (which are far too frequent) to re- years. Bashan is probably more crowded write Scripture narratives with the help of with ruins, and those ruins of large and popsensational superlatives, and of Anglo-Irish ulous towns, than any other district in the fine writing in general. Finally, we cannot world. The“ sixty great cities” (Deut. iii. suppress a little surprise that a writer who 4, 5, 14) of one of its little districts (Argob, knocks over Dr. Colenso's mares’-nests un- the Roman Trachonitis, some thirty miles scrupulously whenever they come across by twenty, and the most rocky part of the him (and some of them
as e.g. the one country) are all there still. You can about the over-populousness of the Prom- hardly ascend a bill without seeing a dozised Land - admirably) should have gravely en or two at a view. Here and there, told us that the angel of death who destroy- as at Kufr, the stone gates, about ten feet ed Sennacherib's army was very possibly a high, remain in their places to this day, simoom
for no apparent reason except Everywhere the eye meets with Roman and that Mr. Porter fell in with one and found Saracenic superstructures, and not unfreit very disagreeable -- and should have in- quently with a series of inscriptions that dulged in remarks about “ the sins which make a sort of stone chronology among them, led to David's ill-assorted and badly-trained telling how, on foundations" visibly older family” as glibly.as Ewald or the last new than those of Solomon's temple, so-and-so philosopher. Mr. Porter's heroics and spas- the Roman built a temple to Jupiter, which modics are only excusable on the supposi- three or four hundred years afterwards tion that they are intended for a class of read- Bishop Gregorius converted into a church, ers, not yet wholly extinct, who rejoice in and which has now been for many centuries Watts's Divine and Moral Songs, and get a ruined mosque. The roads to this day their notions of the world from the Record. are Roman, almost everywhere; but the And now we have done with fault-finding houses are of far earlier date, and are as If we had not a real belief that the volume habitable at this moment as when they is of far more value than perhaps any other were deserted by their possessors. They of its size on the subject of which it treats, are deserted, but they are in no sense ruinwe should not have troubled ourselves to ed : inflict these fidelia vulnera amantis.
In its matter the book is good throughout. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of BaAbout the most hard-worked routes and fa- shan are perfect, as if only tinished yesterday. miliar places Mr. Porter still finds something The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, the
doors and even the window-shutters in their pla- | rather in Mr. Robson's, “had it not been ces. Let not my readers think that I am tran- for Abd-el-Kader, and a few others, the scribing a passage from the Arabian Nights. “But how,” you ask me,
slaughter would have been much greater can we account for
than it was.” the preservation of ordinary dwellings in a land
And, except tñat they were of ruins ? If one of our modern English cities personally kind to himself, we cannot unwere deserted for a millennium, there would derstand his somewhat extravagant laudascarcely be a fragment of a wall standing.” The tion of the Druses. One gets a slight imreply is easy enough. The houses of Bashan pression of one-sidedness in these parts of are not ordinary houses. Their walls are from the narrative for which there may be reafive to eight feet thick, built of large squared sons with which the author has not made us blocks of basalt; the roofs are formed of slabs acquainted. But this is a matter, after all, of the same material, hewn like planks, and on which Mr. Porter must be a better judge reaching from wall to wall; the very doors and than most other persons can be. Of the window-shutters are of stone, hung upon pivots projecting above and below. Some of these value of the book altogether there can be ancient cities have from two to five hundred no two opinions. houses still perfect, but not a man to dwell in them. On one occasion, from the battlements of the castle of Salcah, I counted some thirty
From the Spectator, 25 Nov. towns and villages dotting the surface of the
GOVENOR EYRE'S DESPATCH. vast plain, many of them almost as perfect as when they were built, and yet for more than It is but natural that the proceedings in five centuries there has not been a single inhab- Jamaica should excite violent party feeling itant in one of them.
in this country, nor do we complain that
the criticisms we have passed upon the proLet us append to this, just as a specimen of ceedings taken to suppress the rebellion the way in which references to Scripture have been somewhat vehemently criticized should be handled, a sentence or two from in their turn. We are told on many sides Mr. Graham, “the only other traveller that we have apologized for the mob who since Burckhardt who traversed Eastern fired the Court House at Morant Bay. Is Bashan ” until Mr. Porter's time :
that because we took special care to approve When we find, one after another, great stone all who were known to be concerned in it?
cordially the execution of Paul Bogle and cities, walled and unwalled, with stone gates, We are assured that it is part of the proand so crowded together that it becomes almost a matter of wonder how all the people could have gramme” of our journal to take the side lived in so small a place; when we see houses we have taken, and that "justice may strive built of such huge and massive stones that no in vain to change its tone, -an accusation force which can be brought against them in that which, if it means anything, means, we supcountry could ever batter them down ; when we pose, that it is part of our programme to find rooms in these houses so large and lofty that plead for those who appear to have suffered many of them would be considered fine rooms in injustice, for those wbo have many powera palace in Europe; and, lastly, when we find fui enemies and few powerful friends, when some of these towns bearing the very names
an accusation which we which cities in that very country bore before the they need it, Israclites came out of Egypt, i think we cannot have no desire to deny. But assuredly we help feeling the strongest conviction that we care nothing for the negro quâ negro. We have before us the cities of the Rephaim of would say nothing to palliate a negro's guilt which we read in the Book of Deuteronomy. in any crime or brutality he has committed.
The only offence of which as far as we know We are obliged to leave unnoticed all that we have ever been guilty in this respect is Mr. Porter says of the northern border of a humble desire to see black men dealt the Promised Land ; and also a curious ac- with exactly as white men of the same count of the massacres of 1860 at Damas- moral and mental characteristics would be cus and in the Lebanon, drawn from the dealt with, — so much, and no more. What narratives of eye-witnesses - Mr. Graham, we desire to see in Jamaica, — what we are Dr. Meshakah, and Mr. Robson. His es- indignant at not seeing, is the same spirit timate of the Arabs, wherever he falls in in dealing with rebellion which would be with them, is a good deal different from shown if the rebels were Fenians, instead that of Lady Duff Gordon; and perhaps of negroes. We have a faint impression what he heard of their doings in Damascus, that if Colonel Hobbs had kept "an intelliand saw of them in Bashan, entitles his gent little valet” of Mr. Stephens's close to judgment to considerable weight. Still we his saddle bow, with a pistol to his head, cannot forget that, in his own words, or and had ordered him, under that compul
sion, to point out the various responsible measures. Officers, instructed to prevent officers of the Fenian organization in a at any cost the massacre of the whole white crowd of Irishmen, and had hanged or shot population, could not be expected not to all so pointed out the next day, the Irish forestall, even at the cost of scme innocent 'members, not to say the English members, lives, anything like menacing movements of the House of Commons, could have made of negro troops. But then what is the use a good deal of fuss about that summary pro- of sending out Englishmen unconnected ceeding. We are inclined to suppose that with our colonies to rule them at all, if they had the O'Donoghue been seized in London cannot keep their heads sufficiently above for writing seditious letters and making se- the prevalent excitement to judge what is ditious speeches, tried hastily by court-mar- an emergency justifying extreme measures, tial in Dublin, and hanged within forty-eight and what is not ? We might as well leave hours, we should have scarcely heard a pan- Jamaica to be governed by a leading plantegyric on Lord Wodehouse's promptitude, er, as send out a brave and enterprising or had articles in the Times heartily approv- Englishman who will accept all that the ing the energy and successful severity of wbite inhabitants around him say of the nethe Lord-Lieutenant. The true suppresseul cessity of desperate measures on any emerpremise at the bottom of all these indignant gency. The greatness of Lord Canning's protests against our very moderate line of administration in India was that he stood thought, is the assumption that a hundred like a rock between the natives and the setnegroes' lives are of less value than one tlers when an enormous native army had white life; that even the duty of securing or- mutinied. In this case there was no native dinary civil justice to a light mulatto like army to mutiny. The danger was immeasMr. Gordon, who takes part with negroes, urably less in every respect, and the power cannot weigh for a moment in the scale of the Government in relation to that danagainst even a risk of danger to pure Eng- ger immeasurably greater. What does Govlishmen,- that, in short, proceedings which ernor Eyre — who, as we have shown elsewould be thought utterly savage in Ireland where, is not only a brave man, but a man are praiseworthy in Jamaica. That women, almost unrivalled on the earth for courage, without arms or a chance of arms, should in some sense both moral and physical be hanged by court-martial for admitting say in his despatch to justify the astounding that they had been present at meetings at measures, the responsibility of all of which, which oaths of secrecy were enforced, is down to the campaign of Colonel Hobbs surely a somewhat startling form of British and the court-martialing of Mr. Gordon, he justice. Not even the panic of imminent deliberately and very honourably assumes ? universal rebellion would be now held to As far as we can judge, absolutely nothing. palliate such a proceeding in Ireland. In Of course he shows enough to justify instant Jamaica, however, the laws of justice and capital punishment for all engaged in the mercy are of course widely different. Morant Bay murders. No one that we
But, it is said, there was the pressing fear know of has ever disputed the justice and of a universal massacre in Jamaica, to justify wisdom of prompt severity with respect to this attempt to paralyze the vast numerical those who had any share in that act. But majority of the population by striking a sud- what does Mr. Eyre show to justify the inden terror into them. Was there? That discriminate slaughter of the other so-called is the only point on which we were quite “rebels'? Nothing stronger than the actuncertain when we wrote last. Had it been ual possession of arms by some of these so, it does not seem to us that it could have rebels, - not even the use of them, still less justified, though it might partially have pal- any organized use of them, least of all any liated, proceedings such as the letting loose efficient use of them. “ No stand," writes of the Maroons on the black population, Mr. Eyre, “has ever been made against the the distinguished campaign of Colonel troops, and though we are not only in comHobbs, and the court-martialing of Mr. Gor- plete military occupation of, but have travdon, a member of the Legislative Assembly, ersed with troops, all the disturbed districts, not even accused of any part in the Mo- not a single casualty has befallen one of our rant Bay massacre, who had surrendered soldiers or sailors, and they are all in good himself to justice, - but doubtless every one health.” Even Colonel Hobbs, in that would have felt that it did palliate the in- great night march, on the exciting nature justice, and, so far as there was cruelty, the of which he was so eloquent, had no more cruelty of such proceedings. A Governor se formidable adversary than the storm; and the riously fearing, on good grounds, that the col- rebels whom he captured, and executed on ony might be wrested from his grasp by insur- the evidence elicited by a pistol pointed at rection, ought not to be very particular in his I the head of the intelligent little valet” of