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other items, as to all of which you shall Aylmer. He had said that she would be his have a proper account. When you want sister, and she would take from him any asmore, you bad better draw on me, till things sistance that a sister might properly take are settled. It shall all be done as soon as from a brother. possible. It would not be comfortable for She went down stairs and met Captain you to go away without money of your own, Aylmer in the sitting-room. He stepped up

suppose you would not wish that he to her as soon as the door was closed, and should pay for your journeys and things she could at once see that he had determinbefore you are married.

ed to forget the unpleasantnesses of the pre“Of course I made a fool of myself yes- vious evening: : He stepped up to her, and terday. I believe that I usually do. It is gracefully taking her by one hand, and not any good my begging your pardon, for passing the other behind her waist, saluted I don't suppose I shall ever trouble you any her in a becoming and appropriate manner.

Good-bye, and God bless you. She did not like it. She especially disliked “ Your ever affectionate cousin, it, believing in her heart of hearts that she

would never become the wife of this man “ WILLIAM BELTON. whom she had professed to love,

— and

whom she really had once loved. But she “ It was a bad day for me when I made could only bear it. And, to say the truth, up my mind to go to Belton Castle last sum- there was not much suffering of that kind to

be borne.

Their journey down to Yorkshire was Clara, when she had read the letter, sat very prosperous. He maintained his good down and cried, holding the bundle of notes humour throughout the day, and never in her hand. What would she do with once said a word about Will Belton. Nor them? Should she send them back? Oh did he say a word about Mrs. Askerton. no; -- she would do nothing to displease" Do your best to please my mother, Clara," him, or to make him think that she was he said, as they were driving up from the angry with him.

Besides, she had none of park lodges to the house. This was fair that dislike to taking bis money which she enough, and she therefore promised him had felt as to receiving money from Captain that she would do her best.


We have lost within one week two accom-, and for the most part well. Mary Barton, the plished authoresses, Lady Theresa Lewis, the first of the cotton-mill class of novels, is a tale sister of Lord Clarendon, and Mrs. Gaskell. of great power, and Cranford (probably her They were both novelists, Mrs. Gaskell the finest literary effort, unless her last book Wives more remarkable of the two, while Lady and Daughters, surpasses it in its own line) is Theresa Lewis had done other valuable work, a study of “still life” of exquisite workmanincluding Lives from the Clarendon Gallery, and ship. Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Miss Brontë, too, quite recently edited Miss Berry's memoirs. though not without grave defects, is a piece of Her novels, the Semi-Detuched House and the biography not likely soon to be forgotten. We Semi-Allached Couple, especially the former, hope it may prove that Wives and Daugthers, were full of wit and lively observation. She which was to be concluded in the January died while on a visit to the Principal of Braze- number of the Cornhill, had received the final nose College, Oxford, having survived her touches from its author's hand. Mrs. Gaskell husband only two years. Mrs. Gaskell's death had quite recently contributed several papers of was still more sudden. It took place at Alton true humour to the Pali Mall Gazette. - Speclast Sunday, while she was sitting and reading tator, 18th November. with her daughters. She had written much,


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From the Spectator, 11 Nov. migrants imported from India and used THE INSURRECTION IN JAMAICA.

up at a frightful pace, and refuses justice,

education, and a sound system of conveyWe are still without precise intelligence ance. That Assembly is elected by less from Jamaica, but enough is known of the than 2,500 voters in a population of 441,000, condition of the island to justify us in a blank and legislates exclusively in the interest of denial of the assertions that the negroes said the planters. These latter are as a body to be in insurrection are influenced by Hay- inheritors of the slaveholding ideas, and tian agitators, and are themselves only too sometimes of the slaveholding morality, and well off. They are badly off, so badly off that they have refused all measures in the interthe island has for months been a perplexity ests of the blacks, wasted half a million sterto the Colonial Office, and that for seven ling on coolies, who die like sheep, passed a weeks at least the Secretary of State has ex- whipping Act which recalls the tone of the pected news of an attempted insurrection. old Black Code, and imposed enormous duLetters are even now in town from Jamaica ties on English imports, duties so heavy in which the alarm of the local Government that, as was publicly stated in the Assembly and the strange movements among the the negroes were falling back upon nakedsquadron are noticed either with ridicule ness to avoid the cost of clothing as raised or apprehension, and the few persons still by the last tariff. They could pay in kind, keenly interested in the colony are well but they cannot in cash, and they have no aware of a discontent which a trifle may means of raising more. The planters will have sufficed to blow into a flame. This dis- not buy of them, the dealers do not like the content has been growing for years, and half-cleaned produce which is all they as finds its ultimate root in two causes, one of cottier cultivators can offer, and in many which is ineradicable, except perhaps by cases the right of eviction is used as in Benlong-continued prosperity, while the other gal, to compel the tenantry to cultivate paris within the reach of Parliamentary action. ticular articles and sell them to the owner The two are the increase of population and at a fixed price. Of one such case we have the character of the Legislative Assembly. the details, as of others which prove that The negroes, always prolific, as very poor the true substitute for slavery, fair wages races are everywhere apt to be, have since the for fair work, has not yet entered the island emancipation multiplied with extraordinary imagination. The greatest grievance of all, rapidity. The climate suits them, the re- however, is the refusal of justice. Jamaica lease from forced labour has increased the has been organized on the country-gentlehealthiness of the women, early marriage man system, the owners being the sole mag. has been fostered as an antedote to the istrates, and the owners are said to be unfair immorality customary in slave colonies, and towards the coloured population. It does not though there is a terrible amount of licence matter much in a political point of view remaining, it is not of a kind or degree to whether this charge is true or not. Observcheck greatly the increase of population. ers like Dr. Underhill

, a cool, shrewd man, The pressure for subsistence becomes yearly whose evidence is distrusted because he is greater, while the means of procuring it Secretary to the Baptist Mission, but who grow yearly less. Sugar, the grand staple is a layman and not a negrophile, think it of the export trade, cannot be cultivated to has foundation, the planter even when advantage without scientific appliances, that upright being swayed by a feeling of race is, without capital, and capital has for years engrained into his very heart. Successive been leaving Jamaica, till only some 30,000 Governors, too, have thought it, and have persons are now maintained by the ancient pleaded for stipendiary magistrates, but the cultivation of the island. Other planting Assembly is jealous of its electors' power, scarcely exists, and the negroes therefore and absolutely refuses to change the system. are driven to hire little plots of ground, Whether however the charge is true or upon which they grow their food and some false, it is believed to be true, and that belittle tobacco, but scarcely anything else lief is fatal to any confidence between which can be converted into money. The Governors and governed. The negro when island is therefore practically populated by injured will not apply to the magistrates, cottiers, as poor as Irish cottiers, as depend- and when summoned accepts his sentence ent upon the harvest, and if it be possible as a “white oppression,” while all civil constill more unenlightened.

tracts fall hopelessly out of gear. Knowing To this population, over-numerous, pover- that he has to deal with a poor employer, ty-stricken, and ignorant, the Legislative the negro refuses to make a binding conAssembly adds a number of coloured im-tract, and when engaged by the day bolts,


unless regularly paid. He cannot recover of the Imperial Government to re-organize his wages by law, and therefore can and the land, if necessary by measures of revo will give no credit

, while the planter who lutionary breadth. The old order of things wants him only for half the year is often has broken down. The Assembly, convened unable to pay until the crop is in, that is, on a plan two hundred years old, is a nest until the negro has abandoned his own crop of jobbers, and the planting class is alike for the uncertain chance of obtaining his by hereditary feeling and by circumstances employer's wages. There are no county disqualified for the possession of absolute courts available, and the negró finding no power. If they were angels they would be redress from the civil law, believing in none disqualified by the ineradicable distrust from the criminal law, ignorant by legisla- among those they govern, begotten by two tive defect, and self-indulgent from the ab- centuries of misrule, and being what they sence of result to his self-restrant, falls back are, average Englishmen, with strong preabsolutely upon the little plot which is not judices, declining capital, and the moral his, to which he can get no lease, and which tone of a passed-away state of society, are he is not permitted by the conveyancing entirely unable to attract the confidence of system to buy. When that plot fails the those beneath them. On the other hand, world falls from beneath his feet, and for there is no class in the country to whom the past two years it has failed from drought, their power can be transferred. The mufailed till the people were in places actually lattoes are not educated, and encourage race without food there is no poor law — till batreds of their own, and the negroes must they, among the vainest of races, leave their be educated before they can be trusted children without clothing, till in places they with the franchise. There is no iron nedeliberated whether they, like their fathers, cessity, as in the Southern States of Amerihad not better fly to the mountains. The ca, for giving them power in order that accidental publication of a letter from Dr. they may not be trampled on, for an authorUnderhill to Mr. Cardwell, which had so ity exists in the island competent to secure impressed the Secretary that he forwarded justice. The Queen's representative, and it to Governor Eyre for a report, blew the he alone in Jamaica, possesses at once the discontent into a flame, and meetings of requisite knowledge, the needful confidence, coloured men were held, demanding higher and the indispensable freedom from class wages, education, better representation, an interest, and to him all power should, as in end to immigration, and the exemption of Ceylon, be temporarily confided. If Mr. raw materials from import duties. None of Cardwell doubts as to the condition of the these demands were complied with ; the island, let him send out a royal commission Governor, though admitting the badness of of inquiry, or if, as is probable, he knows the governing class, condemned the negroes, facts as strong as any commission could and an unlucky placard was published by gather, let him at once propose to Parliaauthority, headed “The Queen's Advice," ment the conversion of Jamaica into a and containing in other words the answer Queen's colony. Ceylon, with its hostile which Pharach gave to the children of Is- races and labour difficulties, prospers under rael, “ Ye are idle, ye are idle.” This in- that régime, and any Governor who has served creased the irritation to its height, and some in the Mauritius, or Ceylon, or India would be accidental circumstance, most probably a able to re-arrange society upon the double movement anong the West Indian Regi- bases of peasant proprietorship and swift rements, who are principally liberated Afri- dress for civil or military injury. There is cans, has, we doubt not, caused the explo- no danger to the planter in such a change, sion which has led to the demand for troops. for the Governor would be a white, and the It cannot be a very formidable one, for the stronger the laws against fraud, the greater negroes have no arms, and unless the black the influence of capital and ownership. soldiers have joined it, it is difficult to see Transform most of the taxes from customs why they alone were not strong enough to duties into direct imposts, as Earl Grey recput it down.

ommended, and the negro must work to The first duty of the Government, it is earn them, while a npw tenure for the waste clear, is to put down the insurrection. land, a system of compulsory education, and Whatever the evils inherent in the present a little increase in the means of communicasystem, and they are many, the violent up- ting between the interior and the sea, will rising of an ignorant population is not the speedily give him means of payment. The remedy for them, and they must if needful talk about negro indolence is pure rubbish. be reduced to order by the strong arm. There is no settled race upon earth which That done, however, it will become the duty is indolent, the Bengalee slaving nine hours a day, and the Neapolitan tilling his land measures of repression, which in Ireland with as much assiduity as a Dutchman, and we should not have, in the small force at the negro is only lazy because he never the disposal of the Governor when the outreaps the reward of labour. Ten years of break first occurred. But whatever the strict, equal government, administered by truth may be, a rebellion which has proa man who can press hard when needful onvoked and still more, if it were possible either race, and who will attend to physi- to speak of it as a rebellion, which has cal improvement, will, we believe, make the justified the summary execution of hunisland as prosperous as Ceylon, where, with dreds of her Majesty's subjects, in an island no slavery and a native population which whose whole population is not larger than will not work for wages, the people import that of a first-class manufacturing town, European goods to the extent of a pound a and this when the rebellion did not to all head per annum, and the Treasury is so over- appearance even touch more than a tenth flowing that the Colonial Office has quar- part of the population, cannot, after its relled with the planters by issuing an order suppression, be passed by without searching that they shall pay for their own troops. inquiry into causes and remedies, What Nothing short of a radical change like this has happened in Jamaica is probably equivcan, we are convinced, save the island, alent to the reckless shooting or hanging which is full of natural resources, from sink- by court-martial of upwards of 200, pering finally into the condition of a great trop- haps nearly 400, persons for insurrection in ical pauper warren, hopelessly insolvent, a population not larger than that of Derby, and requiring to be garrisoned with at least - for it is pretty clear that the rebellion five thouşand men. A possession of that kind had not extended to the west of Kingston, is worse than useless, and it rests with Mr. and has not affected anything like the Cardwell to avoid a calamity which may yet whole population to the east of it. Some interfere with the prosperity budgets of of the despatches of the officers charged many years. He has a great opportunity with the suppression of the rebellion have, before bim, and may yet prove to the public too, been written in a tone of vindictive that he possesses the one quality opinion and vulgar triumph over their bloody measdoes not attribute to him - governing ures. Colonel J. Francis Hobb, of the 6th force.

Royals, writes in a style which, if it had

been adopted by a Northern General in From the Spectator, 18th November. the late war, would have been held up to The rebellion in Jamaica, and its bloody public loathing. Thus :-“I have Paul suppression, at the cost of 200, or as some Bogle's valet for my guide, a little fellow of reports say, near 400 lives, some of them extraordinary intelligence. A light rope women's, taken with no further security for tied to the stirrups, and a revolver now and justice than court-martial trials, – which then to his head, cause us thoroughly to unpractically mean of course trials without derstand each other; and he knows every any defence for the criminal, - must at single rebel in the island by name and face, least produce that thorough investigation of and has just been selecting the captains, colour system of government in Jamaica which onels, and secretaries out of an immense yang would have been deferred for years but for of prisoners just come in here, whom I shall such an outbreak. Had the Fenian out- have shot to-morrow morning.Now either break really occurred in Ireland, England these bloody measures were due to a comwould scarcely have tolerated the summary paratively legitimate panic in which case infliction of capital punishment on hundreds the danger must have been fearful, and the of prisoners, without any conviction before rebellion therefore one exciting universal a criminal tribunal, even if the outbreak enthusiasm among the black population, had begun with atrocities such as were and then, we think, it will be pretty clear threatened in the letters of the Fenian that the system of government must be conspirators, or such as have apparently both improved and strengthened ; or, as is been inflicted on some of the upper classes pretty clear, they were beyond what the of Jamaica. In the present state of our circumstances justified, and taken in the knowledge of what has actually occurred, violent passion of caste-hatred and revenge it would almost seem that there have been for the outrages committed by the negroes, ten times as many executions of rebels as and in that case there can be little doubt crimes of personal violence committed by that justice demands a thorough investigathem. That of course may be a false in- tion. The calamity is great in any case. ference, due to the insufficiency of our But we may trust that it will force upon us news, and there may be excuses for violent, the consideration of measures not only


and cemented with them by the fixed ice method of treatment, sometimes not rising lining the shores; the whole crushed togeth- above a level which has been reached by er, by the action of wind and tides in a con- many other English story-tellers for whose fined area, into a perfect wilderness of gi- books a very moderate tenure of popularity gantic ice masses, through or round which may be predicted, sometimes one-sided in sa no progress can often be made without ac- cial views, sometimes indiscreet in following tual quarrying. Such is its roughness for her personal impulses too blindly, Mrs. Gas. sledge travelling, that fourteen days were kell has yet achieved a success which will occupied by Dr. Hayes in effecting a jour- live long after her, and in which all conney across the ice of 40 miles. The north- nected with her may well feel an honourawest coast, for land-sledging, is not more ble pride. promising. It is mountainous and interrupt- Fictions composed, as Mary Barton and ed by another strait, bearing west, nearly North and South were composed, to inculopposite the Great Humboldt Glacier, be- cate a particular doctrine or point a definite tween the parallels of 79o and 80°. Dr. moral for the benefit of a purblind or obstiHayes, however, writes with the most per- nate age, are apt to spoil their case by fect confidence of the accessibility of the overstatement; and, even apart from their Pole, but adds his conviction to that of oth- chances of exaggeration, they necessarily laer navigators that the next attempt should bour under a drawback, as permanent works be by way of Spitzbergen. If by sea, in of art, by their didactic tone. Mrs. Gaskell the month of August, when the seas are the wisely perceived, before she had written most open. If by sledge, in the month of many novels, that the highest end and aim March, before the ice is broken up. of novel-writing was not to improve the out

W. E. Hickson. side world into a juster sense of the rights of Athenæum.

the operative or any other special class, but to produce a picture of some phase of human life which should be intrinsically

true. She gained the knowledge that the From the Saturday Review.

power of the novelist to impress a lesson

lies in the perfection of the art with which MRS. GASKELL.

the lesson, whatever it may be, is kept out The unexpected announcement of the of sight; and in ceasing to write for an obdeath of Mrs. Gaskell will have been re-ject, she acquired a more comprehensive ceived with genuine regret by many who and stronger command of the interest and did not enjoy personally, the pleasure of sympathy of the general public. Mary Barton her acquaintance. It is a loss to a wide cir- will be comparatively forgotten, for all its cle whenever a justly favourite writer dies power and its pathos, when the two novels in the fulness of energy and the maturity of which mark as it were the opposite poles of power; and this was the position which Mrs. Gaskell's powers in writing – CranMrs. Gaskell occupied before the public at ford and Sylvia's Lovers — are still eagerly the time of her decease. She had written read and widely admired. herself into a well-deserved popularity, not Cranford is, in its way, the most perfect confined to Great Britain alone ; her later of Mrs. Gaskell's creations, and we do not fiction, gave no reason to fear that her imag- hesitate to say that it is the most perfect ination was wearing threadbare, or her man- little story of its kind that has been pubner growing conventional; and she seemed lished since the days of Miss Austen. It is not likely to lose for many years to come, a picture of the very small and peculiar sothe power or the inclination to write. Since cial circle of an English village, drawn with the appearance of Mary Barton some seven- minute and accurate, but never wearily mis teen years ago, few seasons have gone by croscopic, observation. The extreme quietwithout leaving some record of Mrs. Gas- ness of the life which it describes is carefulkell's literary industry, although she never ly suited with a narrative style of singular fell under the imputation of publishing too purity and simplicity, which increases its rapidly: The list of her works given in this charm in reading very considerably, and week's journals is not quite a complete one, will materially assist in maintaiņing its popbut it is correct enough to remind contem- ularity to a later time. Of actual story there porary critics how gradually and honestly is very little; the placid movement of life the authoress had worked her way into per- in such a village as Cranford could scarcely manent public favour. Without being co-exist with’anything like a crisis of passionunique, or in any sense extraordinarily ate or active interests in the minds or fororiginal in her range of subjects or in her tunes of the individual members of its peace

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