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and marching power. All the sick were into the territories of such foes as France sent back. Non-combatants were driven encounters in Algiers and England in India. off from the camp. All impediments, such The nearest approach to Sherman's moveas horses, tents, chairs, tables, were left be- ment was the famous flank march after the hind, Gustavus in Pomerania, Napier in Alma, when the allies broke up their camp Scinde, was not more peremptory than and passed from their base at Old Fort and Sherman in Georgia. But the great gen- set off in search of a new one at Balaclava. eral never asked a soldier to put up with It was a dangerous feat, contrary to rule, worse fare and worse lodging than he re- and has been sternly condemned.

Yet served for himself. He slept in his blanket this change of base was an affair of a day; on the ground. He fed on hard tack; and the French and English ships were at hand; when the Secretary-at-War, his guest, dined and the materials of war were all on board. with him at Savannah, he apologized for Sherman had no supplies to fall back on. the appearance of potted meats and fruits between him and the sea lay three hundred on his table as luxuries unbecoming a sol- miles of savannah, swamp, and sand. A hundier's mess. The troops had that undoubt- dred watercourses crossed his path. He ing faith in his genius which Napoleon in. would have roads to make, morasses to turn, spired in his army and Nelson in his fleet. rivers to bridge and cross. Where was he When he ordered things to be done which to find food for that mighty host ? " Does they could scarcely understand, they merely manna grow on the beach and in the pine said, “ Well, he can't make a mistake,” and woods ?” asked one of his aides-de-camp. then they did it.

With thirty days' rations in stock, he was All the posts were drawn in, all the posi- going in search of his enemy and his suptions abandoned, all the communications cut. plies. It was an original and daring advenA last message, the three words “ All is ture; one to have puzzled a martinet like well,” was sent to General Thomas and the Raglan, and enough to have driven Aulic North, and then the great army, severed Councillors mad. ®But the officers and men from its base, became a gigantic moving of the Northern army put their trust in the column; a thing with a new piece of histo- man who in their belief could not make a ry to make for itself. It might be a glori- mistake. “ Where he puts us,” they would ous surprise of victory; it might be a terri- say to each other, “ we are going in, and ble tragedy of ruin ; but in either case it we are dead sure to whip the rebs — sure.” was sure to be a story in which the human It is the spirit in which battles are won and element of interest would be great. Ex- republics saved. cept the squadrons which charged at Wor- As he rides out of Gaylesville on this cester and Naseby, no army was ever set in desperate seeming enterprise we catch a the field like that of Sherman. Many of glimpse of Sherman. A tall, slim, ironthe rank and file were gentlemen ; poets, built figure, all nerve and sinew, with not writers, advocates, preachers, bankers, land- an ounce of flesh to spare from his long lords : such men as would mix in London limbs and body; a large head, long and society and be members of Pall Mall clubs. conical, with slanting brow, crossed and cut Many of the cavalry rode their own mares; by furrows; eyes of a dark brown colour; many of the infantry had bought their own hair of the same hue, cropped close to the arms. They were persons of estate, accus- skull; a sandy beard and moustache, trimtomed to good houses and rich living. They med close and short; a big mouth, and lips had friends in high places, and luxurious pressed firmly on the stump of a cigar; an homes awaiting their return. Some of the expression of countenance kindly and even best regiments of Massachusetts and the humourous ; but also, at the same time, keen, Western States were in the camp. And they anxious, vigilant, suspicious :- such is the were strong in number as in spirits ; 70,000 outward, visible hero of the Great March. fighting men of the best blood in America, He is forty-seven years old. He rides a counted after all the non-effectives had been powerful, but uncanny brute. His staff is left behind. What were they going to do? smaller than that of any brigade commandOne thing was clear; they were going to er in the service. He denies himself and defy all military rules, and at the risk of his staff the luxury of a house. He has their lives to enlarge the art of war. fewer servants, fewer horses, than the regu

Nothing like this flinging of an army of lations allow. He has just refused the com70,000 men from their base into a vague mission of Major-General in the regular field of operation bad ever been seen. A army on the ground that such exalted rank movable column is at best a perilous trial, should be kept in reserve by the authorities even when formed on a small scale and sent until the war is over, when the Government will be able to compare and judge men's Slocum entered the streets. On the 13th services with greater coolness. As he of December he stormed Fort M*Allister, comes plunging along, we see the man's and a week later, he entered the evacuated character in the way in which he rides. city of Savannah. About this time clever The road is occupied by a brigade in mo- critics began to see that, instead of Sherman tion; he turns into the fields dashing through being lost, he had really and finally conbrush and briar, wading through streams, quered the South. foundering into swamps, so long as these As we have ventured to hint just now, will yield a way; and when forced to take the human interest of this story is greater the road again, you see that be pulls up than the military, and the best merit of a his horse and halts until the brigade has buok like Major Nichols’s is, that it offers us passed. The smooth path, he says, is for a glimpse of the daily life of men in the the man on foot. Men with rifles and kits, camp, as well as a record of great events. not the general and his staff, have the first We like to sit by the pine-log, and see how right to the road. Can we wonder at the the Boston poet and the western farmer trust in which sharp lawyers and solid farm- play at the game of war; catching, mayers follow such a man? One day, looking hap, at pictures which help us to under. back, the men saw a line of bridges in their stand the camp lile of our own great Civil rear in flames. “Guess, Charley,” says a Wars. We bear the halt called, and watch trooper, " Sherman has set the river on fire.” the divisions take up their ground. Tents To which Charley answers, “ Well, if he are pitched for the night near a spring or has, reckon it's all right.".

watercourse ; a few sticks, two or three The first stage from Gaylesville was At- logs of pine, are gathered; a fire is lighted; lanta; now become useless to Sherman, and the kettle is soon bubbling for tea; then doomed to be by him abandoned and de- come books, music, long yarns, cockfights, stroyed. The railways had made it; the negro dances, and the nine o'clock bugle. factories bad ruined it. In Sherman's plans Every one is early abed, - if a roll of flanit was an obstacle to be removed, -- a rest- nel on the grass can be called a bed, — for ing-place on his way to Savannah, to Co- every one knows that the army will be in lumbia, and to Richmond. Having served motion before the sun is well up. “ At its purpose, it was given up to the flames, three o'clock,” we read, "the watch-fires are that its workshops might never again be burning dimly, and but for the occasional employed in casting shot and shell for the neighing of horses, all is so silent that it is destruction of Northern lives. The rails dificult to imagine that twenty thousand had been torn up, the people sent away, men are within a radius of a few miles. and torches were now applied to the stores The ripple of the brook can be distinctly and magazines. A space of two hundred beard as it breaks over the pebbles, or acres was soon on fire, and as the army winds petulantly about the gnarled roots marched away from it gaily towards Savan- The wind sweeping gently through the tall nah, the most prosaic minds were touched pines overhead only serves to lull to deeper with wonder and sadness at the calamity repose the slumbering soldier, who in his which had overtaken a city once the pride tent is dreaming of his far-off Northern of Georgia, and only recently transformed home. But in an instant all is changed. from a rose-garden into a magazine of arms. From some commanding elevation the clearA New-England brigade was left in the toned bugle sounds out the réveillé, and place until the fires had spread beyond the another and another responds, until the power of man to arrest their work, and then startled echoes double and triple the clarion these Puritan troops marched out of the calls. Intermingled with this comes the doomed and burning city with solemn beating of drums, often rattling and jarring tread, their band playing the wild anthem on unwilling ears. In a few moments the of “ John Brown's soul goes marching on.” peaceful quiet is replaced by noise and tu

The army was divided for the march into mult, arising from bill and dale, from field two wings, General Howard commanding and forest. Camp-fires, hitherto extinct or the rigbt, General Slocum the left. Gener- smouldering in dull gray ashes, awaken to al Kilpatrick handled the cavalry under new life and brilliancy, and send forth their Sberman's orders.

sparks high into the morning air. AlOn the 13th of November Sherman's though no gleam of sunrise blushes in the communications with the North ceased; east, the harmless fames on every side light eleven days later he had captured Milledge- up the scene, so that there is no disorder or ville, capital of Georgia, from which the confusion. The æsthetic aspects of this sudLegislature had only just time to fly before den change do not, however, occupy much


of the soldier's time. He is more practically their muskets, and taking their rest at ease, engaged in getting his breakfast ready released from their knapsacks. These short The potatoes are frying nicely in the well. halts are of great benefit to the soldier. larded pan; the chicken is roasting deli- He gains a breathing-spell

, has a chance to cately on the red-hot coals, and grateful wipe the perspiration from his brow and fumes from steaming coffee-pots delight the the dust out of his eyes, or he pulls off his nostrils.” It is the old story in a new form. shoes and stockings to cool his swollen, Romance is the condition of youth, and the heated feet, though old campaigners do not offspring of exalted passions. Haidee has feel the need of this. He munches his bit no eyes except for the sunset and for Juan's of hard bread, or pulls out a book from his face; but Zoe, knowing that youth has a pocket, or oftener a pipe, to indulge in that sharp appetite, bethinks her of frying eggs greatest of luxuries to the soldier, a soothand taking bread and butter from her ing, refreshing smoke. Here may be seen basket. Foragers go off to right and left; one group at a brookside, bathing their seizing all ducks, geese, pigs, sheep, calves, beads and drinking; and another, crowded poultry, they can find. Mostly tl.ese fora- round an old song-book, are making very gers get in advance of the moving column, fair music. One venturesome fellow bas and wait by the road until their brigades kindled a fire, and is brewing a cup of cofcome up, the subject of endless jokes to the fee. All are happy and jolly; but when marching.. “Wall, you there! Whar did the bugle sounds • Fall in ” and “ Forward," you steal them pigs ?" says the funny man of in an instant every temporary occupation the passing company.

" Steal!" retorts is dropped, and they are on the road again." the sentinel; “ perhaps you would like to By these liglits we see the army on its have one of them pius yourself," and the march. Then comes the halt, the camping, line moves on, to a burst of_laughter. the night's amusements, the early tattoo, There is a halt in the column. ** The officer and the taps – Lights out! The fires burn in charge of the pioneer corps, which follows low, and the soldiers are asleep. “ Around the advance guard, has discovered an ugly the slumbering host the picket-guards kept place in the road, which must be cordu- quiet watch, while constant, faithful hearts royed' at once, before the wagyons can in Northern and Western homes pray that pass. The pioneers quickly tear down the the angels of the Lord may encamp around fence near by, and bridge over the treach the sleeping army.”. erous place, perhaps at the rate of a quar- One of Sherman's objects in the Great ter of a mile in fifteen minutes. If rails are March was to destroy all warlike stores and not near, pine saplings and split logs supply means of transport, including railways, their place." These faults in the road occur bridges and canals. Everything that could very often, and the mending goes on from serve an army in the field was set on fire; day to day. Col. Poe, of the Engineers, re- but nothing else was harmed save only ported to his chief in Washington, that be- dogs. On these instruments of tyranny the tween Atlanta and Savannah he had to soldiers had no mercy. Mastiffs, bloodcorduroy four hundred miles of bad road. hounds, terriers, every class of dogs that No account was kept of such trifling as the could be used for hunting negroes and for erection of trestle-bridges; but the pontoon- tracking Federal fugitives were shot. bridges measured 7,720 feet - a length of When they had taken possession of Saone mile and a quarter! Such works could vannah the troops were soon at bome. hardly have been made on march, in front Very few of the citizens left their houses, of an active enemy, in so short a time, ex- and the troops, with the ready wit which cept for the fact, that almost every Ameri- characterizes all Americans, built themcan is more or less of a mechanic, born to selves wooden huts in the public squares, the forest and the swamp, accustomed to and took to oysters, flirting, capons, and deal with rough roads, and handy with the champagne with the alacrity of men who spade, the hammer, and the saw. So far as had been used for weeks to hard tack, male possible the troops were spared from unu- society, and muddy streams. Lots of them sual labour, halted behind the workmen, were soon in love. The people fraternized and kept in the easiest fighting trim. “The with the blue-coats, treated the war of soldiers, during the temporary balt, drop Georgia as finally closed, and begged their out of line on the roadside, lying upon their new friends to pay the South Carolinians backs, supported by their still unstrapped the wages of their crimes. In less than a knapsacks. If the halt is a long one the fortnight Major Nichols says the army was different regiments march by right file, one acclimatized in Savannah. behind the other, into the fields, stacking But love and oyster-suppers were not to


once more.

last beyond their little month. In the third | The ports might be given up, and their week of January the army began to move power would be stronger for the loss.

No one knew by what route it Their strength lay inland. Well, Sherman would march; whether by way of Charles- marched inland; shutting up one Confedton, Branchville, or Augusta, into each of erate general in Augusta, another in which a large Confederate force was thrown Branchville, a third in Charleston, and a by Beauregard; but every one comprehend- fourth in Columbia. These generals never ed that its goal was Richmond. New York knew where the blow would fall, and it writers inferred that the first stage would never fell where they thought it likely to be Charleston, and this was the first impres- do. As Sherman moved up northward, sion of Sherman's staff. Capture of Charles- leaving Charleston on his right, Beauregard ton was the daily hope and nightly prayer was confident that he would have to assault of the North; and by keeping close to the Branchville, a great railway centre, and a sea the army would be always near its base post from which he could equally menace of supply and support. But Sherman, a Charleston' and Augusta. Branchville was, min of original strategy, surprised his staff accordingly, strengthened with works, and by saying he could take Charleston by oper- occupied in force. Bu: Sherman cut the ating a hundred miles from its walls more railway lines, turned the place, and comeasily than by direct assault. It was to be pelled the enemy to abandon their works done by flanking. Sherman is a real dis- and guns. Branchville passed, and Columcoverer in this branch of military art. bia gained, Charleston fell of itself, -as Most of his great achievements, including Sherinan had foretold in Savannah. all his bloodless victories, were the results Wilmington followed suit, as the army of his profound mastery of flank movement. pushed on northward to Cheraw, to Golds. His plan was to conquer without sacrificing borough, to Raleigh, near which proud and life. Fighting generals like Hood affected beautiful city the war was closed by the surto treat such soldiership with scorn, and render of Johnston's forces to Sherman. Confederate ladies had their glittle jokes Into that singular episode of the Great about a man who never faced his enemy in March — the treaty with Johnston, which a fair field. A Georgian lady thought she the Government in Washington set aside, was crushing one of his staff officers when - this is not the place to enter, except so she said to him with her curling lip, “Well, far as it illustrates Sherman's character. I suppose you are going to flank us. They The treaty was not ratified in Washington, were, indeed, going to Aank the South. and Sherman was ordered to resume bis Sherman's guiding rule was that every place task. The great General instantly obeyed. could be turned, and that when a place is He neither resigned his commission nor turned it is taken. And he certainly proved disputed the orders which he had received. his rule by his success. Johnston was rare- That he was deeply hurt in his pride he let ly beaten out of a position; he was hustled the world know, very promptly; but it out of it, so to say. A felicitous example of never occurred to his mind to contend with this strategy occurred at the Charleston the civil power. Ruilway, near Savannah, where a strong Sherman's genius comes out brightly in Confederate force had thrown up works. the war. He was not one of the fighting Gen. Foster had sent a corps against these Generals. When it was necessary to hit works, and lost fisteen hundred men with- hari, as at Averysborough and Bentonville, out dislodging the enemy. Sherman turned no Hooker, no flood could strike more vig. the position; the Confederate fell back; orously than he; but the peculiarity of his and the Northerners occupied the impor- march is, that it was a greit campaign contant post of Pocotaligo, with a loss of only ducted without a great battle. If it be the ten men killed and wounded. The conster- highest praise of genius that it produces nation in Richmond was supreme.

magnificent results with triling perturbaBy marching through the heart of South tions, Sherman well deserves that praise. Carolina, instead of skirting the sea, Sher- It is doubtful whether the long history of man pierced the State in its most vital part. war affords an example of such splendid It was the boast of Davis and Breckenridge military achievements at so slight a cost of hat the sea was not necessary to the South. I life.

From the Spectator. monastery of Trisulti, like a highland citadel A PEEP INTO BRIGANDAGE. in a forlorn nook, enibosomed in a mighty [From our Special Correspondent.]

forest, flanked on one side by a beetling

wall of crags such as goats alone are at home Rome, September 23, 1865.

on, and on the other by a ravine. Here at I HAVE no pretensions to furnish you Alatri we immediately found that we had with stirring stories of brigandage that can got into a different latitude from Rome. take the flavour off the narrative we may Brigandage was no more a vague metaphor; expect from Mr. Moens. That gentlc- men spoke of it with a knowledge that man has been looking upon the epic scenes comes from personal and daily experience. of brigandage - on brigandage making A French garrison lies at Alatri, and I rewhat may be considered its grande guerre member the sensation created when it was – while I can boast of no more than of hav- sent there. This measure was adopted a ing succeeded in peeping a little into the couple of years ago, when the French auback-slums of this mode of life — in getting thorities obtained damning evidence that a glimpse of brigandage when waiting in here was the regular point of passage for undress within its hiding-place for an occa- convoys of men and stores up to the bands sion to sally forth. My brigandage was in then led by Chiavone. The occupation gave barrack, and not on a war footing, but rise to angry altercations with the Pope's what I think I got a shrewd glimpse at, is a Government, but the French persisted, and matter that has often been debated, and has they said much about the fatal blow they as often puzzled people, namely, the man- had dealt to brigandage by seizing this key ner how this same institution lived when at to its camping-grounds. Well, the first thing home, how it contrived to defy all repres- that struck me in the replies I got to sion, how it existed in those seasons when, my inquiries about the means for prosecutlike the marmot, it went apparently to ing the proposed journey up to Trisulti, was sleep, suddenly to surprise its pursuers by the tone of common-place indifference with jun ping to life again when least expected. which people spoke to the fact of brigands All this, which heretofore seemed so myste- being on the mountains, just as if they were rious, is now quite intelligible to me since I about as insignificant appendages as the have been favoured with this peep at brig. beggars who beset the high roads, and of andage at home. But to get this insight no equally general assurance that if we only amount of questioning in Rome will suffice. kept clear of French uniforms we had You never will learn there anything posi- no molestations to fear from them. Against tive on this head : all your inquiries in that the French all agreed the brigands were quarter will only bewilder you with contra- violently exasperated, and to go in company dictory statements. To learn the truth you with their soldiers would be, we were told, must wander about the mountains, and this to provoke disagreeable adventures. But can be done with certain arrangements in accompanied by Pontifical gensdarmes, it was the very heart of Brigand Land, without the decided opinion of local experience being necessarily victimized like Mr. Moens. that we could proceed safely into the reI bave just returned from such an excur- gions of what were represented to be rathsion, during which I visited the convents of er poor devils than dare-devils

. This preTrisulti and Casamari, and what I have vailing tone of half-suppressed good-fellowseen appears to me sufficiently curious to be ship with these outlaws, this confident agworth recounting.

sumption that they would not molest any We were two who left Rome in a broil- but French soldiers, was curiously suggesing heat a few days ago, on an expedition tive in itself from the first. Whatever might which we were told was one of madmen, be the reason for their confidence, it was although no one could tell us exactly the evident that for local authorities the brigprecise perils we were about to rush upon. ands were not objects of dread, although The first point we made for was the curious the French detachments located for the reold town of Alatri, famous for its Cyclo- pression of lawlessness were undisguisedly pean citadel, and rich in choice bits of me- butts for sarcasm and much fermenting illdiæval architecture. The town lies seven will. miles from Frosinone, at the opening of a Furnished by favour with an escort of wild glen, which rups up the mountains sep- three Papal gendarmes, we accordingly arating the Papal from the Neapolitan started for Trisulti. They were picked men, provinces, and at the upper end of 'which, and had been stationed for some time in some two thousand feet above the level of these parts. I found them intelligent, and .the sea, is nestled the great Carthusian | during three days' intercourse satisfied my

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