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bummers in the woods, or finds a party of them the bridlc in his teeth, clasps under one arm a at a house by the wayside. This party bears basket of fresh eggs, and under the other a all the outward aspect of an authorized and pailful of delicious honey, while a brace of fat perfectly legitimate foraging party : the capa- sheep, hams, chickens, or geese, lie across the cious waggons are there, with caparisoned saddle in front and rear, and the carcase of a mules; blooded horses stand tethered within hog, firmly tied to the mule's tail, is dragged reach of their apparent owners ; the camp-fires along the road. The “bummer” himself is burn brightly; à sumptuous meal is ready. probably clothed in an irregular sack-coat of But if one of these men be accosted with some linen, with a ridiculously unmilitary hat perchsuch question as this, “ To what command do ed on one side of his head, and, as he ap-, you belong ?” the answer comes thus : “ Well, proaches, his face beams with smiles of recogwe don't answer for anybody in particular nition, tempered by a half-suppressed appre'bout every corps in the army; eh, Bill, ain't hension, lest his bounteous supplies should not that so?"

Reckon !” and be accepted as a peace-offering for his delinthinks it a great joke, and then everybody ex- quencies. Aside from the freedom from concept the interlocutor laughs. “ How long have rol which gives bad men opportunities to comyou been away from your regiment? At mit wanton deeds of violence, these wanderers this question the bummer rises upon his feet, from the ranks are often of great benefit to the and replies, rather more respectfully :- army.

Better flankers cannot be found. week or ten days, cap'n.”. * Have you any Spreading out from the marching column, authority for foraging? “No, sir.” “What they are the first to scent danger, and the last use or benefit are you to the service, to say to leave the field, unless actually forced back. nothing of the criminality of your absence They understand the art of squad fighting to without leave? Now, you belong to a class perfection. Parties of them, without officers, which has brought discredit upon your com- will join together to resist an onset of Rebel rades. You ought to be ashamed of your cavalry, or to make an attack upon the enemy, selves, all of you." The dozen muscular and and they are almost always the victors in a daring fellows who heard this little speech skirmish. seemed to fail to sce the point of it. One of them replied : :-“ See hyar, cap'n; we ain't so bad after all. We keep ahead of the skirmish line allers. We let's 'em know when an enemy's a-comin'; and then we ain't allers

From the Spectator, 23 Sept. away from the regiment. We turn over all we THE TOY-REVOLUTION IN IRELAND. don't want ourselves, and we can lick five times as many Rebs as we are, any day. Ain't that THERE is, as well as folly, something also, boys?

“Lick 'em? d-n'em, yes.” most pathetic in the childishness of the treaWhy, of course!” were the instant replies son which the Government of Ireland is of the "boys.” “Rather shoot Rebs than

now putting down so promptly and efficienthogs, any day!" roared another. It may be ly. It is kindness and not severity indeed readily imagined that high moral precepts are lost upon these men, and that conversation

to seize and punish the mischief-makers, with them upon the general impropriety of however humble, in Ireland, just as it is their conduct are decidedly useless. They are kindness and not severity to punish Tommy the Bohemians of the camp, and they act upon and Billy pretty smartly for playing at lightthis consolatory reflection. A“bummer ing straws in the nursery. But the punishmay once have been a foot-soldier, but I never ment should be given without any of the saw one who was not mounted on some sort of sort of indignation and resentment which an animal. Sometimes he bestrides a superb we feels towards incendiaries. Goethe at blooded horse, which is the envy of every gen. eight years of age made a little sacrifice in cral in the army; more frequently he rides a his bed-room with pastilles and a burning broken-down nag that is able to hobble along sufficiently fast for its owner's purposes ; but glass in imitation of patriarchal sacrifices, the favourite is the mule. There may be little and he was much in need of severe discior no actual poetry in a mule — although I pline for the freak, but in punishing him it profess an unwillingness to admit any oslur would have been very absurd to assume the upon that much-abused beast - yet it would judicial air of an offended judge towards a be difficult to find a more hardy, long-winded, guilty criminal. These Fenians are really strong-legged, uncomplaining and altogether children who need bringing to their senses loveable creature for the use of man than the with hard labour and spare diet, but after mule. The "bummer" appreciates his goo

all there is something pathetic about their qualities, and hence the favouritism. Sometimes we see the “bummer” approaching the wild dream.. They are really no worse than camp from a piece of woods with a waggon Goethe in his childhood, playing at making which he has overloaded with good things. little private sacrifices to liberty in their own The scene is frequently exhilarating. The infantine way. Think only of the various gro"bummer,” coming in on horseback, holding tesqueries which are involved in their con

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ception. In the first place, the real disaf- among the children at play as to where they fected of Ireland are thoroughly divided shall borrow the light from which to light amongst themselves about their true pat- their straws, the amazing frankness and

The Fenians in America send them candour with which they reveal their misword that the North is their friend, and chievous game to their parents and guardiwill support them against England, because ans, and the surprise they show when after England has been so notoriously Southern being told all about it the latter use that in her sympathies. But then unfortunately knowledge to interfere with their tricks, the North has just been putting down se- and the humerous pathos of the situation is cession, and a secession of precisely the same complete. It is just like Tommy telling his kind as the Irish rebellion would be, a se- mamma that Billy's brother has promised to cession for which there was no excuse, - for to lend them some lucifers and a little gunIreland can obtain, whenever she will, a rem- powder, and that then they are going to get edy for any real political grievance through together a great heap of straw in the back her representatives in the British Parlia- kitchen, and pile a lot of wood upon it, and ment. It is not likely the North will sup- set it all on fire, “and then the whole port on this side of the water what they house will be in a blaze, you know, mamhave so bitterly condemned on that,

after which ingenuous confession out of resentment, — and if they Tommy is quite aghast to find the footwould, it is still less possible that they will man despatched to confiscate the lucifers succed in reaching across the Atlantic to ef- and gunpowder, Billy put to bed by order, fect in a foreign country, all whose power is and himself in the corner for naughty and concentrated and well in hand, what it has mischievous designs.

"Our brothers at taken them four years and a great nation al home,” write the Fenians candidly, debt to effect against a very inferior enemy organized in a manner far superior to any to Great Britain, whose resources were small oppressed people we have read of. The and widely scattered. Then there is another day of provisional government is establishgreat difficulty. The more sensible among ed— an army of 200,000 men is sworn to the Irish malcontents, or rather the least sustain it. Officers, American and Irish, destitute of sense, rightly conceive that who have served with distiction in your sertheir true friend should have been the vice, are silently moving into Ireland, to South, and not the North. The boiling assume control of the active operations to be Celtic blood has always shown, in its origi- inaugurated in a few months - sooner, nal state, a natural antipathy to the tame much sooner, than any of you can believe. industry of the Northern American, and a All they require now is arms, to enable them glow if sympathy with such rude society as to meet the enemy on something like equalthat of the South, with its strong social dis- ity." And then the “ brothers at home" tinctions, its wild authority over man, its are struck with amazement to find their oligarchy, and its slavery. Hence it takes little drills interrupted, their revolvers a generation to make the Irishman of the wanted, and their correspondence seized. North a genuine Northerner; at first he is It is all just like infants telling their little almost always an ally of slavery and the plots aloud, and then wondering at the marSouth. John Mitehel, the most bitter of vellous knowledge displayed by their parents the Irish rebels, has been the strongest of in counteracting them. Southern sympathizers and the best apolo- Of course it would, as the Northern Whig gist of slavery. The Nation, savagely as it reminds us, be as absurd to confound these detests England, cannot conceal its abhor- Irish political children with the whole peorence of the North and its disgust at the ple of Ireland, as to confound the riik-burndream of Northern help. So here are the ers of Yorkshire with the people of England. Irish dreamers not even united as to where And it is equally true, as the same able conthey ought to look for help. France has temporary remarks, that the Irish peasant, in long been hopeless. The most powerful spite of his treason and his folly, shows much section of the Americans are not likely to less brutal stupidity than the English agrihelp them, and the most intelligent or least cultural labourer. Yet that is precisely the frenzied of the Irish rebels do not choose to political misfortune of the Irish peasant, have help from them. If Mr. Jefferson that he is such a lively child, taking in so Davis had succeeded, then indeed what much to such little practical purpose, and might not John Mitchel have attempted estimating the liabilities around him as if he for Ireland ? As it is, where are they to were living in a fairy tale rather than in a turn for help?

world of constant forces and permanent laws. Add to this little petulant difference He has bright, childish perceptions, and sup

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From the Examiner.

poses them to be as good as mature expe- soreness of the stripes has faded away. rience. The English agricultural labourer Let us pity the Irish malcontents while we is far stupider and far denser no doubt, but punish them, for it is in the blood, and he makes no such mistake as to his own rather a hopeless affair. They are not perpowers. He says to himself, in his black haps the lower in the general scale of humoods, “I'm starving and miserable, and it's manity for a little political idiocy. They a shame; Squire ought to help me, he ought, have many fine gifts, though, as Father Newand he doant; I'll be even with him, and man said of the Irish beggar-woman, “I do burn down his ricks for him.” He really not say, my dear drethren, that she is percan do thus much; and he does it. He fection.”. Even he had to plead that the probably expects to be caught and punished, " politicial state of Catholic Ireland was no but doesn't care. He knows what is within prejudice to the sanctity of the Church," his power, and knows it is wicked and a mere and assuredly a little more balance, and act of rage, and he does it. He is far more power to measure the strength of their own brutal, far wickeder than the Irish peasant capacities, would make them much easier who drills and watches for the Fenian fleet. to govern than they are likely to be during But he is a politician compared to him. He our time or that of our children. has few false hopes, and no false estimates of his own powers. The Irish rebel, on the other hand, will live in a fool's paradise, will shed far more blood if he can, and shed it more ruthlessly, but he has a vision before

RISE AND FALL OF THE PRICE OF COMhis eyes of all sorts of impossible glories, of an Irish republic and perhaps a few kings

MODITIES. to brighten its monotony, a division of the We have often shown in this journal that land and a landed aristocracy, rich com- the vast influx of new gold which has taken merce and high duties on the goods of all the place during the last seventeen years had rest of the world, large capital and no capi- produced no depreciation of gold itself nor talists, an end to bad harvests, abolition of enhancement in the price of the commodithe excise on spirits, but all the joy of illicit ties which it represents. The value of the distilleries, perfect liberty and an immense influx may be approximately estimated at standing army, finally, a brilliant career of the enormous sum of 350,000,0002 But conquest with all the blessings of peace. It this is not all, for the relative value of gold may be — perhaps it is - not only a much and silver is at present the same, namely, more imaginative and elastic mind, but a from 60d. to 61d. the ounce, that it was bemind higher in the rank of humanity fore the discoveries of California, Australia, than that of the vindictive English drudge, New Zealand, and New Columbia; and it but assuredly it is a mind far less fitted for follows, therefore, that new silver equal in political stability. It confuses its half-knowl- value to the new gold must have come into edge, its fancies, its dreams, with realities, the market of the world, making the total and the English boor never does this.. A value of the influx of the precious metals stealthy, dull resolve to burn your neigh- within the comparatively short period in bour's rick is not a noble qualification tor question no less than 700,000,0001. This political life; but the race which is thus stupid far exceeds the influx of the precious metals and limited in its crimes is not in danger of which followed the discovery of the New taking fire at the mere mention of a secret so- World, but instead of being poured, as it ciety and the sight of a revolver. The Irish was then, into a very narrow market, it has traitors have been very properly and deci- been poured into a very wide and great sively put down, but it is unfortunately far one. If a depreciation in the value of the easier to crush their toy-revolutions than to precious metals with an enhancement of the crush the wild and imaginative spirit which cost of all the commodities they represent “makes belief” so very much that toy-revolu- was the result of the influx of the sixteenth tions are to succeed. We have a sensation century, we think it can be easily shown both of sadness and hopelessness in punish- that no such consequence has followed the ing these hair-brained fellows for their dan- modern influx. gerous folly. It is like whipping schoolboys No rise in price of any commodity has for plundering orchards and tying tin ket- taken place after seventeen years' influx of tles to a dog's tail,- a sort of penalty which the new store of precious metals for which keeps the practice down a little, but has no good and sufficient grounds cannot be astendency to prevent it altogether, rather signed wholly independent of their supposed enhancing the excitement when once the depreciation. In whatever commodity the

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supply bas kept pace with the demand, no very partial degree, since in wealth and poprise of price has taken place. Reckoning ulousness they approach ourselves. From for the ten years from 1854 to 1863, for these neighbouring countries we import at which we have authentic public documents present about 500,000 head of cattle of all before us, no rise has taken place in any kind sorts, their value being some 2,500,0001. of corn or pulse, in sugar, coffee, cocoa, or which is about one-third part of the wholetea, in any principal metal, including silver sale price we pay for our consumption of and quicksilver, in culinary salt or alkalies

. the exotic weed called tobacco. Even this Within the same period there has been much we owe to the discovery of steam an actual fall of price in some articles, navigation, and in this case its coadjutor owing to a greater skill in manufacture, in- the railway. “ Live cattle,” said Adam creased economy in bringing them to mar- Smith some ninety years ago,

are perket, or newly-discovered and more abundant haps the only commodity of which the sources of supply: Among those we may transportation is more expensive by sea enumerate glass, brimstone, several foreign than by land." The discoveries just alluddye-woods, indigo, palm oil, rock oil or ed to have in some measure nullified the petroleum, and salt provisions, such as beef, dictum of Adam Smith. The high price of pork, and butter.

fresh provisions, however inconvenient, is An increase of price has taken place incontestable evidence of populousness and in raw cotton, and necessarily in that of prosperity. In new countries, with sparse all articles of which it is the raw material, populations and abundance of pastoral and in wool, flax, hemp, and jute, because land, the cost of butcher's meat is at the they have been more or less employed as lowest. The contract price of beef for the substitutes for it. The civil war in Ameri- troops in Australia before the gold disca, the main source of the cotton supply, ac- coveries did not exceed 18s. the cwt., percounts for all this, as it does for a rise in the haps about its value in England at the cost of tobacco. A murrain in the silk- Conquest. A hundred years ago the conworm accounts for a great rise in the price tract price of beef, according to the records of raw silk, and a disease in the vine for a of Greenwich Hospital, was about 28s. a rise in the price of wines - a mere tempo- cwt., or 10s. more than the Australian price rary rise in both cases, and already greatly quoted. The present price of beef is probabated. One minor article may be here ably not less than 758. a cwt., or it has admentioned, for although comparatively small vanced in a century's time by near 170 per in quantity and value, it is important. This cent. Our children and our children's is gutta-percha, the inspissated juice of a children must reckon on paying still highforest tree, a native of some of the islands er prices. of the Indian Archipelago, and unknown in The profits of capital and the wages of any other part of the world. In 1859 our labour have both risen with the new influx imports amounted only to 18,593 cwts., of of the precious metals, and this also is evithe value of 156,1131., the price being 8l. 8s. dence of prosperity, for it is equivalent in per cwt. Six years later the quantity rose its effects to an addition of fertile soil, or, to to 21,625 cwt., of the value of 224,9611., some extent, to the conversion of an old the price having risen to ill. When we country into a new one. If, then, gold and consider that this article is the main ma- silver have suffered no depreciation from the terial of all the electric submarine cables of vast increase of them which has taken place the narrow seas of Europe, and of the cables since the California mines were opened, it of the Indian Ocean, while two Atlantic must follow that they have stimulated cables have been made of it, measuring into existence an amount of additional between them 4,000 miles long, we cannot wealth equal to their own value. The adwonder that the supply has fallen short of vance which our own external commerce the demand, and the price risen by 25 per has made from 1854 to 1863 may, we think, cent.

be considered a fair indication of the prosThere is one class of commodities in perity which has flowed from the gold diswhich it is, as it were, physically and geo- coveries. In the first of these years our graphically impossible that the supply should joint exports and imports amounted to prove commensurate with the demand. 268,210,145l., while in the last they reached This consists of fresh provisions — beef, the sum of 445,821,4291., being an increase mutton, veal, pork, butter, eggs, &c. Pop- in the brief period of ten years of two-thirds ulation and wealth or increased powers of of their whole amount. In the annals of consumption go on, while countries close at commerce there is nothing comparable to hand alone can supply us, and this only in a this.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.- NO. 1117.-28 OCTOBER, 1865.

From the Saturday Review. in mere faith ; but we can scarcely feel for SOCIAL USES OF IMAGINATION. another, or pity intelligently, without ima

gination. We think of this faculty as a stimTHERE are times when we are disposed ulant; we connect it with the idea of exto set down all the lesser sins and mistakes citement; but its passive side is fully as imof humanity to simple want of imagination. portant in social life, when it works as a If once we get the notion into our heads, it preventive, a steadier, and often as the only seems to explain so much, to account for so effectual sedative against fussiness and permany blunders, that we scarcely can tell verted useless activity. Certain it is that no where to stop till we have transferred to one can be entirely agreeable without some imagination all that has been said of chari- share of imagination, but it often exists where ty, and proved that no errors are possible it has nothing positive to show for itself — no where that faculty is kept in proper work- particular readiness, sparkle, or play of faning order. From the sin of keeping dinner cy. Its working, may be all in the way of waiting to the atrocities of a Roman empe- check, in correcting bad tricks of thought, ror, we find a clue to everything in this one saving its possessor alike from caring for deficiency. Who could dawdle if he realized what is not worth caring for and from carthe pangs of hungry waiters upon bis delay ? ing for nothing, repressing those vices of and how could the biggest tyrant that ever conversation which spring from prosaic dullived have bullied and oppressed with any nezs — such as importunate persistence and comfort if he had once imagined what people talking of self — and keeping him in harsaid of him, or pictured to himself the figure mony with his surroundings, and bright and he cut in the minds of his contemporaries ? interesting even in silence and passivity. However, the popular idea of imagination Most failures in the endeavour to please takes so little account of its every-day services are due to this one deficiency. People with that we do not often find persons who take the best and most amiable intentions miss this view. People are not supposed to be pos- being pleasant company if they cannot hit sessed of imagination unless they exercise it their friends' humour, or tell how their own in some marked and conspicuous manner. words and manner will affect them. The It is not commonly perceived of what ster- most awkward kindness has its hour of apling service a clear imagination is in the preciation; there are joys and sufferings that household and the family, and how wrong every good heart can sympathize with ; but things often go for want of it. In fact, peo- for the choicer moments of life, for the ap ple constantly talk of reason and good sense prehension of the subtler emotions, imaginawhen this other faculty is the thing really tion is indispensable. Practice, no doubt, will meant- in nation in its ordinary uncon- develop minute seeds of sympathy into life, scious working. The ingenious arrangement but the incorrigibly prosaic must submit to and clever foresight which keep things live amid the outsides of things. It is paingoing and make schemes answer, the grasp ful sometimes to see how the best and most of new combinations, realizing all that is unselfish dispositions will fail of their full involved in apparently immaterial change, reward for want of tact, which is nothing the fresh current of small interests, the wel- else than imagination at close quarters, and come of new ideas preserving the most mo- put to social and possibly ignoble uses. notonous home from stagnation — these are That power which informs us how fictitious rarely recognized for what they are. Still characters will act under every posture of less is the charm of a wide sympathy attrib- affairs is readily recognized as imagination ; uted to its right sources - a power of pic- but the man of tact possesses the same gitt ture-drawing, and a comprehension of un- for practical purposes. He may not be able tried situations. Can any sympathy, indeed, to set the puppets of his own fancy going, go beyond the power of imagining the con- but he knows to a nicety what the people dition that is to be felt for or pitied? We about him think and feel. He knows, though may relieve positive distress, we may pity perhaps he could give no account of his THIRD SERIES. LIVING AGE. VOL. XXXI. 1410.

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