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inhabitants of the Principality Welsh, but Cymry is their chosen designation. Like them, most nations have two or more names, the one they give to themselves, and the other that which is given to them. Thus we call the people east of the Rhine, Germans; the French know them as Allemands, while the people call themselves Deutsche. The Welsh and the Gaels of Scotland do not call us English, but Saeson and Sasunnaich. Very curiously have many of these duplicate or triplicate names originated, as Taylor shows, by a wide induction. It would be natural for all those who could make themselves mutually intelligible to call themselves collectively "the speakers," or "the men ;" while those speaking other tongues would be christened by some such reproachful epithet as "the jabberers," or "the strangers." The Deutsche the other men," or 66 the people;" the Allemands are strangers." The names of the Philistines, Kaffirs, Flemings, and Tschudes are nearly identical in meaning with the word Welsh, which signifies "the strangers," a title that Teutonic races have always given to their neighbours. Cornwall was anciently written Cornwales, the country inhabited by the Welsh of the Horn. In the charters of the Scoto-Saxon kings, the Celtic Picts of Strath Clyde are called Walenses.





The Romans, who left surprisingly few memorials of themselves on the map of Britain, were followed by the Saxons, the people who have most largely contributed to make England what she is, both for good and evil. The original home of the Saxons seems to have been somewhere between the mouths of the Elbe and the Rhine, where they dwelt in juxtaposition with the Suevi, the Franks, the Lombards, and the Angles; a much closer connection existing between these tribes and the Saxons than is generally supposed. That their immigration was pre-eminently one of clans and families is clearly established by the local names containing the syllable ing, which are scattered over this country to the number of 2,200, or thereabouts. The Saxons formed their patronymic by appending ing to a proper name, just as the Welsh, Scotch, Norman-French, and Arabs formed theirs respectively by prefixing the syllable Ap, Mac, Fitz, and Beni. The perpetual recurrence of ing on the map points to a state of things as existing amongst the earliest Saxon settlers, very similar to what formerly prevailed in the clans of Scotland, or in the households of the ancient patriarchs. All those who claimed to be descended from the same mythic or real progenitor, were distinguished by a common patronymic. This clan feeling was the chief power that directed the Saxon immigration. When for various reasons it was found desirable to change the residence of the clan, the chieftain, or head of the family, built or bought a ship, and embarking with his relatives, his freedmen, and his neighbours, landed on any coast whither he was driven by the winds and tide;

thus acting in the spirit of an Arabian Sheik, who when the pastures are bare will wander forth with his following in quest of more plentiful subsistence. As the colony throve in its new home, it sent forth cadets, from time to time, that planted the patronymic elsewhere. Ing sometimes occurs as a simple suffix, as in Dorking, Hastings, Barking, and here it seems to indicate the original settlement of the clan; but more frequently it is found as the mediate syllable of a local name, as Kensington, and in these cases it seems rather to point out the seat of the affiliated colonies. The suffix ham, which is so frequently found in combination with the syllable ing, is perhaps the most interesting and significant particle in English local names, since it has given expression to that love of home and reverence for its sanctities which have ever been the chief strength of the Saxon race. Wolsingham is the home of the famous family of the Wolsings; Icklingham in Suffolk is where the Icelings, the noblest family of Mercia, fixed their abode. But, not to multiply instances, it is sufficient to say that in the topography of this country the names of families are continually met with, whose deeds are celebrated in the mythic or legendary history of the Teutonic races.

Many a time has it been stated, both jocularly and in earnest, that the Englishman is a reticent exclusive being, who likes to live in a detached, or at least a self-contained house, and carry his own door-key, and who will frequently dwell in the midst of his fellows as though his house were really a castle surrounded by treacherous foes, who must be kept out if possible, or else admitted very much as an ancient warder might permit an unknown or suspicious looking traveller to pass through the gate in war time. And, really, local names testify that there is a large element of truth in all suchs tatements. Most Saxon suffixes refer to an enclosure of some kind, showing that an Englishman in the time of the Heptarchy, as now, sought to procure some spot which he might call his own, and guard from the intrusion of every other man. The suffixes ton, yard, garth, stoke, fold, worth, haigh or hay, bury, burgh, brough, and barrow, all signify a place enclosed or hemmed in. The commonest termination signifying an enclosure is tun or ton. The primary meaning of this suffix is a twig, a radical signification which survives in the phrase, "the tine of a fork. We speak also of the tines of a stag's horns. Hence a tun or ton was a place surrounded by a hedge, or rudely fortified by a palisade. Originally it meant only a single croft, homestead, or farm, and the word retained this restricted meaning in the time of Wycliffe. He translates Matt. xxii. 5, But thei dispiseden and wenten forth, oon into his toun, another to his marchaundise.' This usage is retained in Scotland, where a solitary farmstead still goes by the name of the toun. In many parts of England the rickyard is called the

barton—that is, the enclosure for the bear, or crop which the land bears."* England has been the land of enclosures for more than a thousand years. The irregularly shaped fields, parted by tall strag gling hedgerows twined with honeysuckle and overtopped by gnarled oaks and lofty elms, lend even now a charm to an English landscape which the traveller misses on the Continent. So has it been ever since the times of the Saxon settlers. Assisted by local names we can picture to ourselves many a pleasant scene of Saxondom. We see the well-to-do yeoman's house built of stone or mud below and wood above, surrounded by the tun, or enclosure for the cattle, and the bartun, or enclosure for the gathered crops; there are low straggling buildings about the holder's house, and high dikes round tiny fields; the swine wander through the forest; the sheep range on the turfy uplands, or are sheltered in the outlying folds. England, in the olden time, unlike Moab, was not permitted to "settle on its lees" very long. For if ever a nation was formed by strangely varying elements being repeatedly tossed and shaken together by invasion and revolution, that nation has been the one we call the British. When the Saxons, or Easterlings, had a mind to cultivate the land they had cleared from the forest, or won from the waste, they were rudely disturbed amid their peaceful pursuits by the hardy Northmen, who, sailing out of the rock-bound fiords of Norway, or from the low-lying lands of Denmark, covered the ocean from Greenland to the coasts of Africa and the Hellespont with their ships, and ravaged all Europe; Athens itself being pillaged by the redoubtable viking, Harold Hardrada. Well might the trembling Franks introduce another petition into the Litany and pray"From the fury of the Normans, deliver us O God." The Scandinavian invasion of England differed from the Saxon in being chiefly effected by soldiers of fortune, who had been lured to a predatory life by a wild and adventurous spirit, or driven to it by necessity; the increase of population often outgrowing the means of subsistence in those barren Northern regions. They commenced their career, like Fortinbras, by "sharking up a list of landless resolutes," and after years of piracy and freebooting settled down somewhere, with their followers and the wives they had stolen or roughly wooed. Many of the vikings have left memorials of themselves in the names of the places they founded. Ormsby is the village of Orm: Asgarby is where Asgar took up his residence; Grim left his name at Grimsby, having, no doubt, in his household the progenitor of Havelock, who in late years showed how he

"Could unite

The valour of the Viking
The honour of the Knight.

* Taylor, p. 120.


In corroboration of this it may be stated that an ancient seal of the town of Great Grimsby, in Lincolnshire, bears the effigy of a warrior and a child, with the names of Havelok and of Grim; and that until the recent abolition of the sound dues the vessels of Grimsby could claim, at the port of Elsinore, certain privileges and exemptions conferred by the Danish founder of the town. The viking was a very versatile man. Behold the list of his manifold accomplishments:-To keep a firm seat on horseback, to skate, to shoot, to row, to forge the ore, to drink, and to make verses.* But, if anything, he was more at home on the sea than on land. Its boundlessness and mystery awed him; its bracing air agreed with him; its perils enticed and fascinated him. He called the sea, in his extravagantly poetic style, " the swan's road, the whale's bath, the long snake's leap." In his intense liking and enthusiasm for a maritime life the Northman differed much from the Saxon, who was more of a husbandman than a sailor, preferring to plough the land rather than the sea. This characteristic difference between the two races crops out in local names. The Scandinavian ford was a passage for ships; the Anglo-Saxon ford was that part of a river which men and cattle might cross. Wick is an inland station in Saxon, but it is a station for ships in Norse, and hence the Northmen were called vik-ings, or "creekers," because of the wics or creeks in which they anchored. As we examine Taylor's map we see how that the Scandinavian, in his broad-bottomed vessel, with its sides and upper work of wicker covered with strong hides, yet managed to circumnavigate the British Isles; and though he had no engraved chart to guide him yet carried one in his memory, and, like a true sailor as he was, and the ancestor of true sailors, knew and gave names to the promontories, and bays, and isles he passed in his chiule, which names of his giving are now to be seen on every map of Britain. Naze or ness, a promontory; skarr, a face of rock or cliff; holm, an island in a lake or river; oe, a, ay, or ey, an island in the sea, beside wick and ford, all words indicating the presence of the Northmen, are met with along the estuaries of the Thames and Severn, and fringe the coasts of Kent, Sussex, Essex, North Wales, Ireland, and Eastern Scotland. At many of the places containing these suffixes they may have landed, for trading and freebooting purposes, but did not attempt to found permanent colonies.

The Northmen were either "fair-haired Fiongall" from Norway, or "brown-haired Dubgall" from Denmark proper. The former settled in the Isle of Man, the Celtic district of Cumbria, and in the isles of Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebrides, which were only disjoined from the crown of Norway in 1468, though the

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