Page images

Effects of the Policy thus far pursued by our Government towards

the People of the South—The “Anti-Rosewater" Military

Policy—The Penal, Confiscation and Exclusion Statutes.-Result

of those Measures in arousing the Resentment and Hatred of the

Southern People-Falsity of the Theory that the Masses at the

South will regard with complacency the Ruin and Outlawry of

their principal Citizens—Exaggerated Effects attributed at the

North to Dissensions between the Confederate Authorities and

their People—Practical Results of the Policy of Severity in the

Districts which we have already conquered.



The impossibility of Governing the People of the South by means

of State Governments, depending upon the Popular Vote, with-

out allaying their Discontent-Results which attended the

Attempt in Utah to maintain the Federal Government over a

Dissatisfied People—Collisions which a similar Attempt in the

South would provoke—The impracticability of introducing a

new Element of Political Power, by means of the Blacks, or of

Foreign Immigrants, or of Immigrants from the North—The

practical Result of the Power of Government, popular in Form,

to coerce its Subjects to obedience, compared with the Theory-

Action of President Jackson in the Nullification Controversy-

His Opinion respecting the possibility of maintaining the Union

by Force alone-Madison, Benton, Everett, Douglas and Web-

ster's Opinions upon the same subject.



Senator Sumner's Plan of Territorial Governments for the South-

The President's Plan of “ Reconstruction "-A detailed Explana-

tion of the latter-Delusive character of the apparent Intention to

submit the Emancipation Proclamation to the Supreme Court

Thę Plan contemplates the Abolition of Slavery by a revolution-

ary overthrow of the State Constitutions—Nature of the Popular

Element of the “reconstructed" State Governments—Probability

of the acceptance of the Terms of Amnesty by the Southeru

Popular Institutions at the North—The Constitutional Restric-

tions upon the General Government were framed for the purpose

of preventing the Downfall of Public Liberty—The tendency of

the Government to disregard them--The Barriers erected to

check that tendency-The Independence of the States was one

of those Barriers—The effect of the proposed “ Reconstruction”

will be to destroy it—The Independence of the Legislature and

Judiciary constitutes another Barrier-It was secured by the

Dependence of the President upon them and of the Legislature

upon the People-It was further secured by the President's Per.

sonal Responsibility—The Provisions to protect the Liberties of

the individual Citizen added to give it greater Strength-Con

sideration of the Doctrine that the Provisions protecting Personal

Liberty are not applicable to a time of Civil Commotion-Its

effect in destroying the Responsibility of the President and of the

Legislature to the People-Its effect in destroying the Independ-

ence of the Legislature and Judiciary, and rendering the Pesident

independent of both—The President's Plan is even more dan-

gerous than Mr. Sumner's—The policy of Subjugation under

either Plan frees the Executive from Control or Responsibility,

and leaves the Liberties of the People at his mercy-Effect of the

vast Increase of the Annual Expenses of the Government wbich

it involves, in disposing the Wealthy Classes to the Abolition of

Popular Government–The presence of a large Standing Army

will destroy the Popular Appreciation of the existing Form of



cesses which it threatens during the state of Civil Commotion
which will follow the Military Repression of the South-They will
render the Preservation of Popular Liberty impossible—The
situation of the President and his Necessities—Inefficiency of the
restraining Power of Conscience over a Ruler so situated–The
manner in which the Constitution will probably be overthrown
and the Pretexts by which its Overthrow will be justified_Viru-
lency of Party Spirit during Washington's Administration-His
Warning to his Fellow-countrymen against its Effects-His Warn-
ing against Usurpation Results of the Teachings of all the
Writers upon the Constitution—Incidents of the Maryland Elec-
tion of November, 1863,




The Object of the Work-The Propositions which it aims to estab

lish-The Spirit in which the Author will endeavor to discuss them—The propriety and importance of such a Discussion at the present time-Practical Questions alone to be considered.

In one of the earliest of the diplomatic dispatches of the Secretary of State, the instructions to Mr. Dayton, dated April twenty-second, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, will be found this passage:

“ The American people, notwithstanding any temporary disturbance of their equanimity, are yet a sagacious and practical people, and less experience of evils than any other nation would require, will bring them back to their customary and habitual exercise of reason and reflection, and through that process, to the settlement of the controversy without further devastation and demoralization, by needless continuance in civil war."

It is supposed, less from the context of the dispatch, than from the Secretary's well-known skepticism at that time, respecting the possibility of the

« PreviousContinue »