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THE UNITED STATES

CHAPTER I.

1877-1881.

PRESIDENT HAYES 'S ADMINISTRATION.

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The President's Cabinet - Civil Service Reform — Failure to pass appropriation bills — Extra session

called but no action taken The great railway strike The Nez Percé war Chief Joseph surrenders — Negotiations with Sitting Bull --- His final acceptance of amnesty — Shoshones and Bannocks exterminated — Trouble with the Utes — The Halifax Fishery Commission - Review of dispute — Attempts to secure appointment of third commissioner — Failure of Blaine to exclude Delfosse from commission — Finally appointed -Great Britain awarded $5,500,000 — United States astonished at terms of award — Amount paid when due Measures for resumption of specie payments — Effort of opponents to hinder it — The Bland-Allison Coinage act — Stanley Matthews resolution — Resumption successfully accomplished General prosperity of country - Failure of foreign crops Large exports Business revival-Gold imports — Rise in Treasury gold reserve - Political changes Elections of 1880 — Party platforms — Garfield and Arthur elected — Refunding bill introduced — Fails to pass over veto - New apportionment of Representatives. OLLOWING his inauguration by Nathan Goff, Jr., of West Virginia,

President Hayes made his Cab- in 1881; Carl Schurz, of Missouri, Sec

inet selections known. These retary of the Interior; David M. Key, officers were nominated and immedi

of Tennessee, Postmaster-General, ately confirmed by the Senate. They followed by Horace Maynard, of Tenwere as follows: William M. Evarts, nessee, in 1880; and Charles Devens, of New York, Secretary of State; of Massachusetts, Attorney-General. John Sherman, of Ohio, Secretary of After he had settled the disputes in the Treasury; George W. McCrary, of South Carolina and Louisiana, preIowa, Secretary of War, followed by viously mentioned, President Hayes Alexander Ramsey, of Minnesota, in turned his attention to making a re1880; Richard W. Thompson, of Indi- form ir. the civil service, and on June ana, Secretary of the Navy followed 22, 1877, addressed the following cir

F

cular letter to all the government given to the passing of appropriation office-holders :*

bills. President Hayes was now com

pelled to call a special session of Con“Sir:- I desire to call your attention to the following paragraph addressed by me to the Sec

gress to provide means for carrying retary of the Treasury, on the conduct to be ob- on the government, but as summer was served by officers of the General Government, in

drawing near he called the session for relation to the elections: “No officer should be required or permitted to take part in the manage

October. In his message of October ment of political organizations, caucuses, conven- 15,* the President stated that the detions, or election campaigns. Their right to vote

ficiencies amounted to about $37,000,and to express their views on public questions either orally or through the public press, is not

000 and asked that Congress pass the denied, provided it does not interfere with the

necessary legislation. But that body discharge of their official duties. No assessments for political purposes on officers or subordinates

occupied itself with other measures should be allowed.' This rule is applicable to and failed to make the appropriations every department of the Civil Service. It should

asked for even though the session was be understood by every officer of the General Gov. ernment that he is expected to conform his con- prolonged until the regular December duct to its requirements.”

session.

While business conditions were Had this order been adhered to the fairly prosperous during 1877, the inoffice-holders would have been relieved dustrial world was somewhat upset of a burden that they should not have by several strikes. The most noted of been called upon to bear. But the

these was the railroad strike, which leaders of both parties would not wil- occurred during the summer. The emlingly allow such an enormous source ployees of the Baltimore and Ohio of income to slip from their grasp and Railroad struck because of a reduction

a consequently did everything within

did everything within in their wages, and in the Northern their power to contravene the effect

States the employees of the Pennsylof the order. While the President vania, the Erie and the New York Cenwas unable to accomplish much in the

tral railroads — the chief trunk lines way of reform because of this oppo- between East and West — tied up the sition, he brought the need of such freight traffic for several weeks. At reform most forcibly to the attention Martinsburg, West Virginia, the strike of the nation.

could not be controlled by the State The last session of the Forty-fourth authorities and Governor Matthews Congress had been given almost en

called upon President Hayes for tirely to the struggle over the Presi

troops, which were sent. The Presidency between Hayes and Tilden and dent also issued a proclamation calling consequently no consideration was

upon the strikers to disperse. A A * Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. vii., serious riot broke out at Baltimore on

p. 450.

† Schurz, Reminiscences, vol. ii., pp. 377–383 ; Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. i., pp. 242247.

* Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. vii., pp. 452–454.

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July 20–21, in which the 6th Maryland White settlers now began to enregiment and some of the United croach on Joseph's domain, and in States regulars were stoned, but the 1875 he was peremptorily ordered to rioters were put down by the govern

leave. Joseph refused and troops ment troops sent at the request of were sent to drive him out, despite Governor Carroll of Maryland. In

the remonstrance of General 0. 0. Pittsburg the Philadelphia militia was Howard. Hearing of the advance of attacked by a mob on July 21–22 and the troops Joseph resolved to strike the troops were fired upon. Many

Many the first blow and in the early part of were killed on both sides. The troops June, 1877, took the warpath. By took refuge in a roundhouse but they July 10 more than 30 lives had been were besieged and the roundhouse sacrificed, chiefly Chinamen, but the burned by the mob and in the end the troops were now pressing the Indians troops were compelled to leave the hard and the latter experienced difficity. The mob then destroyed 125 culty in eluding the soldiers. On July locomotives and nearly 1,600 cars, the

12 the first engagement occurred and Pennsylvania Railroad sustaining a

11 soldiers were killed. The Indians loss of nearly $2,000,000. Riots also maintained the contest for many weeks occurred at Buffalo, St. Louis, Chi- until General Miles was sent against cago, Columbus and San Francisco.*

them. He succeeded in cornering During the summer of 1877 occurred them early in October and on the 5th a short war with the Nez Percé In- of that month Joseph and his band dians of Idaho. The government had

surrendered at Eagle Creek, Monforced them several years before to

tana." take a chief who was not of their se- After Sitting Bull, the Sioux chief, lection to the exclusion of a member had destroyed Custer's command (as of one of the illustrious families of the

recorded in a previous chapter) he tribe - Joseph. They then became

eluded the other troops and escaped

into Canada. discontented and restless. Joseph,

As the government however, did not relinquish his claim

could not send troops into British to the chieftancy and when a portion territory to capture the Indians and of the tribe were removed to a reser

as the Indians could not be enticed vation, Joseph and his band, denying across the line again, a commission the right of the government to dis

was appointed to negotiate a treaty of

peace and friendship with the old posses them, refused to go. In 1871

chief. As word had now been received Joseph died and his son of the same

of the surrender of the Nez Percés, name became his successor.

the commission consisting of General

A. H. Terry and A. G. Lawrence, con* Carroll D. Wright, Industrial Evolution of the United States, pp. 301-306; Ezra H. Heywood, The Great Strike.

* Miles, Personal Recollections, pp. 259–280.

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