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passes, making a total attendance of iana were most complete, and North 27,529,400. The exposition was
Carolina made a fine display of financial success.*
minerals. Creditable displays were The Cotton States and International sent from Great Britain, France, Exposition was held at Atlanta, Ga., Italy, Germany, Austria, Russia, Mexfrom September 15 to December 31, ico, Costa Rica, Chili and other coun1895, its primary purpose being the tries in Central and South America. commercial and industrial advance. The chief exhibits were in the government of the South. Only two States ment buildings, the mineral and forwere represented on the ground by estry building, the manufactures and buildings - Georgia and Alabama. liberal arts building, machinery hall, Most of the State appropriations were the agricultural building, and the surprisingly small and inadequate. negro building. * The exhibits from Georgia and Louis
Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. ii. Many * Andrews, The United States in Our Own of the buildings were afterward destroyed by fire. Time, p. 751 et seq. (Charles Scribner's Sons).
Italians lynched at New Orleans Italy demands reparatien Secretary Blaine practically refuses
Relations severed — Indemnity paid and relations resumed C'hilean dispute - War threatened — Chili pays indemnity — Behring Sea controversy with Great Britain — Early history of
Seizures of British vessels — Modus rivendi established — Both nations send commissioners to examine fisheries - Treaty of arbitration signed — The arbitrators -- Decision of the court Restrictions against sealing — Great Britain refuses to change regulations - Retaliation by United States — Joint commission meets, but nothing definitely decided — Chinese immigration question - The various laws and their provisions — The Venezuelan boundary dispute — Its early history — President Cleveland applies the Monroe Doctrine — His famous message to Congress Commission appointed to examine merits of dispute — Great Britain and Venezuela decide to arbitrate — The arbitration tribunal and its award -- The Tin Horn War.
For the past few years the foreign pleasant relations with Italy. In New relations of the country had been cor- Orleans a secret oath-bound society, dial and no difficulties had arisen of so known as the Mafia, had been used serious a nature that they could not by one of two rival stevedoring firms, be easily and satisfactorily settled. who were disputing over some ship
But in 1891 occurred an event which ping contracts, as a means of securing threatened to disrupt our previous the work.
the work. In the struggle several
murders were committed and the chief ernment had no legal right to act of police, David C. Hennessey, had further in the matter. With regard been especially active in the search for to indemnity the Italian government persons suspected of being guilty of was assured that the United States the crimes. The evidence gathered by was willing to pay an indemnity to him pointed to a certain gang of such Italian subjects as came under Italians of ill repute and he started to the treaty and had been wronged, but “clean them up." Before his object if, after investigation, the Italians was attained he was murdered on the who were lynched were found not to be night of October 16, 1890.
Italian subjects or that they were Eleven Italians supposed to have guilty, then under such circumstances been in the plot were arrested, but the United States would not pay. only nine were held for trial. At the This reply was not satisfactory to trial the jury acquitted six of the nine the Italian government, and on March and disagreed as to the other three. 31 the Italian minister, Baron Fava, But before the prisoners could be re- was recalled by King Humbert. On leased, the jail was surrounded by a May 5 the grand jury made its report vigilance committee, of which many on the lynching and failed to find inprominent citizens were members, and dictments, so that the first demand on March 14, 1891, the prisoners were made by Italy could under no circumseized and lynched. As this was re- stances be complied with. Finally, garded as a flagrant violation of the however, the matter was compromised treaty in existence between the two by the payment of $25,000 to the famicountries, by the terms of which the lies of the victims and diplomatic reUnited States guaranteed to protect lations were resumed.* Italian subjects in this country, the An incident similar to this now Italian government demanded that the occurred in Chili. President Balmapersons guilty of the lynching be sum- ceda of Chili had been overthrown and marily dealt with and that an indem- the revolutionists had established a nity be paid to the families or rela- provisional government. Some sailors tives of the victims.
from the United States cruiser BaltiSecretary of State Blaine replied more who had been landed in Valpathat the United States would not guar- raiso October 18, 1891, to guard antee to punish the guilty persons, American citizens and their property, since every one accused of a crime in
were assaulted by a mob on the charge this country could by law demand“ a that they had fought and beaten some speedy and public trial by an impar- Chileans in a drunken brawl. Several tial jury of the state and district casualties resulted. The accusation wherein the crime was committed.” Therefore, if the jury should acquit
* Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. ii., pp.
176-184; Hamilton's Blaine, pp. 672-675; Rid. the alleged criminals the Federal gov
path's Blaine, pp. 423-435.
was denied by the sailors and the as along the Kurile Islands from United States demanded reparation Behring's Strait to the South Cape of and indemnity. This the Chilean gov- the island of Urup, viz., to 45° 50' ernment refused, claiming that the north latitude," and declared the sea Americans had incited the riot, but the a mare clausum, but she finally“ withgovernment offered to punish the drew the exaggerated claims."'* guilty — and subsequently did punish On April 17, 1824, Russia made a two. But this did not satisfy the treaty with the United Statest in United States and preparations for
which it was agreed: war were rushed. On January 12,
that in any part of the Great Ocean, 1892, an ultimatum was sent to Chili commonly called the Pacific Ocean or South Sea, demanding an apology and indemnity,
the respective citizens or subjects of the high
contracting parties shall be neither disturbed nor and rather than risk a war the Chilean restrained, either in navigation or in fishing or government apologized and paid an
in the power of resorting to the coasts, upon
points which may not already have been occuindemnity of $75,000.
pied, for the purpose of trading with the naFrom the time Alaska had been pur- tives." chased by the United States there had
Russia also granted the United been constant and continual wrangling
States the privilege of frequenting for between our country and Great Britain
“ without any hindrance over the extent of marine jurisdiction
whatever the interior seas, gulfs, harpossessed by the United States in
bors, and creeks upon the coast * * * Alaska, under the cession from Russia.
for the purpose of fishing and trading The Behring Sea and its coasts were
with the natives of the country.” The first visited by Vitus Behring, a
southern limits of Russian territory Danish navigator, for Peter the Great
were defined by this treaty as 54° 40' of Russia, and on July 8, 1799, Czar
north latitude. But when the ten year Paul I. granted to the Russian-American Company “various important period expired Russia refused to re
new the grant, though all the other rights on the Russian coasts in America, including that of fishing.” provisions of the treaty remained in
force. The American vessels, howOn September 4, 1821, Czar Alexander endeavored to extend Russia's rights ever, still continued to navigate the
Behring Sea without interference beginning from Behring's Strait to
from Russia, who never again “ acthe fifty-first degree of north latitude, also from the Aleutian Islands tually asserted the right of mare
clausum over that body of water."'I to the eastern coast of Siberia, as well
* See President Harrison's messages of Decem- * Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions, ber 9, 1891, and January 25 and 28, 1892, pp. 4-5; Schuyler, American Diplomacy, pp. 292Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. ix., pp. 295; Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 472–476; 183–185, 215-226, 227; Theodore S. Woolsey, Moore, American Diplomacy, pp. 98–99; Callahan, America's Foreign Policy, pp. 180–188; Hamil- American Relations in the Pacific, p. 33 et seq. ton's Blaine, pp. 675-677; Stanwood's Blaine, † For text see Snow, pp. 132-134. pp. 318–320; Ridpath's Blaine, pp. 435-439. I Schuyler. American Diplomacy, pp. 295–305.
Such was the situation in 1867, and In order to make provisions for the after the transfer of the Russian pos- better protection of the seals Secresessions in America to the United tary Bayard on August 19, 1887, diStates, the rights of the latter in rected the United States ministers in Behring Sea were not questioned until England, France, Germany, Japan, fur-seals became scarce in other re- Russia, Norway and Sweden to ask gions and foreign fur-traders began these governments to send represento send their ships to the breeding tatives to a conference in the United grounds on the Pribilof Islands. States. All the powers appealed to, These breeding grounds were under except Sweden, acted favorably on American protection, and according to the suggestion and the negotiations the generally accepted code of inter- for international agreement seemed at national law, foreign vessels could not last to promise a successful issue, but kill seals there nor within three miles in June, 1888, the Marquis of Salisof the shore. But these foreign ves- bury withdrew from the proceedings sels hovered just outside the three- and the negotiations were unfortumile limit and intercepted large herds nately abandoned. of the seals on their way to the shores In March, 1889, the Harrison adminof the breeding grounds. The value istration came into power and after of the fishery was thus imperiled, and several more seizures of British vesas the taxes levied upon the sealing sels by the American government, Sir company brought large revenues into Julian Pauncefote, the British ministhe treasury of the United States, our ter at Washington, on June 14, 1890, government could not afford to allow presented a note of protest.* Secreforeigners to destroy an industry that tary of State Blaine then engaged in a was most profitable.* During 1886 long controversy with Salisbury in an several British vessels were seized and attempt to settle the dispute.† The condemned by the Alaskan courts to be correspondence finally resulted in the sold for poaching or taking seals in establishment of a modus vivendi on the conterminous waters over which June 15, 1891, by the terms of which the United States claimed jurisdiction, each country agreed to prohibit sealbut in January, 1887, Secretary Bay- ing in the disputed area until May, ard ordered the Alaskan authorities to 1892, and agreed to allow offenders to release these vessels, as he did not wish to bring the Behring Sea dis
Treaties and Topics, pp. 477–480; Henderson, pute into the Canadian fishery dispute American Diplomatic Questions, pp. 15–18. For
text of treaties of 1783 and 1818 see Snow, pp. which was at that time being brought
62-67, 79-81. forward by the United States for ad- Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 492-493.
† See House Ex. Doc. No. 450, 51st Congress, justment.t
Ist session; House Er. Doc. No. 144, 51st Con* Henderson. American Diplomatic Questions, gress, 2d session; Senate Er. Doc. No. 55, 52d
Congress, 1st session; Snow, Treaties and Topics, † For the argument of both sides see Snow, pp. 481-497.
be tried by the courts of the country 1892, President Harrison issued a to which they owed allegiance. Both proclamation renewing the modus vinations sent vessels to the Behring vendi until the dispute was settled. Sea to enforce the agreement.*
The arbitrators met
met at Paris, It was also agreed that with a view France, March 23, 1893. Associate to submitting the case to arbitration, Justice John M. Harlan, of the SuGreat Britain might send representa- preme Court, and Senator John T. tives to the seal islands to examine Morgan, represented the United and secure data regarding the fisher- States; Baron de Courcel, of the ies. The United States also sent French Senate, represented France; representatives. Sir George Baden- Lord Hannen, and Sir John S. D. Powell, M. P., and Professor George Thompson, of Canada, represented M. Dawson were sent by Great Britain England; Marquis Emilio Viscontiand Dr. C. Hart Merriam and Pro- Venosti, represented Italy; and Judge fessor Mendenhall by the United Gregers W. W. Gram represented States.
Sweden and Norway. Baron de CourThe diplomatic agents of the two cel, the French representative, was countries then entered upon negotia- chosen president of the court. Ed. tions in the hope of securing a mutu- ward J. Phelps, James C. Carter, ally advantageous treaty and after Frederic R. Coudert and Henry W. some disputes over minor terms a Blodgett were counsel for the United treaty was signed at Washington on States; and Great Britain was repreFebruary 29, 1892. Both countries sented by Sir Charles Russell, Sir agreed to submit the dispute to a tri- Richard Webster and Mr. Christopher bunal of seven arbitrators, two to be Robinson. appointed by the President of the The court rendered its decision United States, two by Her Britannic August 15, 1893, and on the legal Majesty and one each by the Presi- points and points of international law dent of the French Republic, the King it was wholly in favor of Great Britof Italy and the King of Sweden and ain. The court denied that the United Norway. This tribunal was to meet at States possessed exclusive jurisdiction Paris within a stipulated time.† The in Behring Sea, and decided that the settlement, therefore, went over into United States could not lay claim to an another administration and President exclusive right of property in the seals Cleveland had been inaugurated be- frequenting the Pribilof Islands. It fore the arbitrators met. On May 9, was also decided that as Behring Sea
was a part of the high seas it could * Hamilton's Bloine, pp. 659-672; Snow, pp.
not be held as a preserve and that as 497-498; Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. ix., p. 146.
the seals were fere nature they might ť lenderson, American Diplomatic Questions, be caught by anyone. pp. 18-31; Snow, pp. 103–105; McPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1892, pp. 148-151.
* Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions,