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TEXAS.
PRESIDENTS OF THE REPUBLIC.

VERMONT.
1836, March-October-David G.

1778—Thomas Chittenden. UNDER SPANISH RULE.* Burnet.

1789-Moses Robinson. 1591-93 (?)—Domingo Terán de los 1836-Sam Houston.

1790—Thomas Chittenden. Rios. 1838-Mirabeau B. Lamar.

1797-Paul Brigham. 1693-1716 (?)—Interregnum. Texas

1840—Davis G. Burnet (Acting 1797—Isaac Tichnor. abandoned.

Governor).

1807- Israel Smith. 1716 (?)-Martin de Alarcón. 1841-Sam Houston.

1808--Isaac Tichnor. 1719-Marquis de San Miguel de 1845—Anson Jones.

1809-Jonas Galusha. Aguayo.

1813-Martin Chittenden. 1722-Fernando Pérez de Almazán.

STATE GOVERNORS.

1815-Jonas Galusha. 1727-Melchor Media villa y Ascona. 1846-James P. Henderson.

1820-Richard Skinner. 1730-Juan Bustillos Zevellos.

1823-Cornelius P. Van Ness. 1849—George T. Wood. 1734-Manuel de Sandovál. 1849—P. Hansborough Bell.

1826-Ezra Butler. 1736 (?)—Carlos de Franquis. 1853–E. M. Pease.

1828-Samuel C. Crafts. 1737-Prudencio de Orobio Baz1857—Hardin R. Runnels.

1831—William A. Palmer. terra. 1859-Sam Houston.

1835-Silas A. Jennison. 1741—Thomas Felipe Wintuisen. 1861–Edward Clark.

1841-Charles Paine. 1743—Justo Boneo y Morales. 1861-Francis R. Lubbock.

1843--John Mattocks. 1748-Francisco García Larios. 1863-Pendleton Murrah.

1814-William Slade. 1748-Pedro del Barrio y Espriella.

1846-Horace Eaton. 1865—Andrew J. Hamilton (Pro1751-Jacinto de Barrios y Jaure

visional Governor).

1849—Carlos Coolidge. gui. 1866-James W. Throckmorton.

1850—Charles K. Williams. 1758 (?)—Angel Martos y Navar1867-E. M. Pease.

1852—Erastus Fairbanks. rete. 1870—Edmund J. Davis.

1853—John S. Robinson. 1767 (?)—Hugo Oconor. 1874-Richard Coke.

1854—Stephen Royce. 1770—Baron of Ripperdá. 1877—Richard B. Hubbard.

1856-Ryland Fletcher. 1778–Domingo Cabello. 1879-Oran M. Roberts.

1858-Hiland Hall. 1789 (?)-Rafael Martínez Pacheco. 1883-John Ireland,

1860—Erastus Fairbanks. 1794 (?)—Pedro de Nava. 1887-Lawrence S. Ross.

1861–Frederick Holbrook. 1803 (?)—Juan Bautista Ganzábal. 1891-James S. Hogg.

1863-John G. Smith. 1805–Antonio Cordero. 1895—Charles A. Culberson.

1865—Paul Dillingham. 1810-13-Manuel Salcedo. 1899–Joseph D. Sayers.

1867-John B. Page. 1811–Juan Bautista Casas. 1903—Samuel W. T. Lanham

1869—Peter T. Washburn. 1814-18 (?)--Cristobal Dominguez. 1907—Thomas M. Campbell

1870–George W. Hendee. 1817–Ignacio Pérez. 1911–Oscar B. Colquitt.

1870-John W. Stewart. 1817-Manuel Pardo.

1872-Julius Converse. 1817–21 (?)—Antonio Martínez.

1874--Asahel Peck.
1876—Horace Fairbanks.

1878—-Redfield Proctor. UNDER MEXICAN RULE, AFTER THE

UTAH.

1880—Roswell Farnham. REVOLUTION.

1882-John L. Barstow, (a) Governors of Texas alone.

TERRITORY.

1884—Samuel E. Pingree. 1922—Felix Trespalacios. 1850—Brigham Young.

1886-E. J. Ormsbee. 1823 (?)—Luciano García. 1854–Edwin J. Steptoe.

1888–William P. Dillingham. 1857--Alfred Cummings.

1890—Carroll S. Page. (6) Governors of Texas and Coahuila. 1861-Stephen S. Harding.

1892-Levi K. Fuller. 1864James D. Doty.

1894–Urban A. Woodbury. 1824-Rafael Gonzales. 1865--Charles Durkee.

1896-Josiah Grout. 1826--Victor Blanco. 1870–J. Wilson Shaffer.

1898–Edward C. Smith. 1827—José Maria Viesca. 1871-George L. Woods.

1900—W. W. Stickney. 1830—Rafael Eca y Musquiz. 1873–Samuel B. Axtel.

1902–J. G. McCullough. 1831- José Maria Letona. 1875—(eorge W. Emery.

1904—Charles J. Bell. 1832—Rafael Eca y Musquiz. 1880—Eli H. Murray.

1906-Fletcher D. Proctor. 1832—Juan M. de Veramendi. 1886—Caleb W. West.

1908–George H. Prouty. 1833—Juan José de Vidauri y Vil- 1890-Arthur L. Thomas.

1910—John A. Mead. laseñor. 1893–Caleb W. West.

1912—Allen M. Fletcher. 1834—Juan José Elguezabal. 1835-José Maria Cantú.

STATE. 1835--Augustin M. Viesca.

1896–Heber M. Wells. 1835--Marciel Borrego. 1905—John C. Cutler.

VIRGINIA. 1835—Rafael Eca y Musquiz. 1909—William Spry.

IN TIME OF ELIZABETH. PROVISIONAL GOVERNOR BEFORE

1584-90-Sir Walter Raleigh INDEPENDENCE.

(London Proprietor; never 1835, Nov. 12–Henry Smith.

Virginia). * Al interim governors are included in this list. Alarcón and Aguayo appear to have been governors of both Coahuila and T. xas. In a number of cases the dates are only approximate.

in

552

1585-86—Ralph Lane (Governor

of Raleigh, first colony). 1587-90—John White · (Governor

of Raleigh, second colony).

1645—Richard Kemp (President

of Council in Berkeley's absence

in England).
1645—Sir William Berkeley (Gov-

ernor).

UNDER

1751—Robert Dinwiddie (Lieut.

Governor). 1756-68-John Campbell, Earl of

Loundoun (Governor; never in

the colony). 1758—John Blair (President of

Council and Acting Governor). 1758–Francis Fauquier (Lieut.

Governor). 1763-68—Sir Jeffrey Amherst (Gov

erner; never in the colony). 1768—John Blair (President of

Council and Acting Governor). 1768-70—Norborne Berkeley, Lord

de Botetourt (Governor). 1770—William Nelson (President

of Council and Acting Gov

ernor). 1771–John, Lord Dunmore (Gov

ernor).

THE VIRGINIA COMPANY,

1606-1624. Residents in England. 1609-18-Sir Thomas Smith (Presi

dent and Treasurer of London

Company) 1618-19—Sir Edwin Sandys (Presi

dent and Treasurer of London

Company). 1619-24_Earl of Southampton

(President and Treasurer of London Company).

Residents in Virginia. 1607—Edward Maria Wingfield

(President). 1607—John Ratcliffe (President). 1608—Capt. John Smith (Presi

dent). 1609–George Percy (President). 1609-18—Thomas West, Lord de

la Warr (Lord Governor; governor, though residing in Vir

ginia very little). 1610—Sir Thomas Gates (Deputy

Governor). 1610—Thomas West. 1611–George Percy (Deputy-Gov

ernor). 1611-Sir Thomas Dale (Deputy

Governor). 1611-Sir Thomas Gates (Lieut.

Governor). 1614—Sir Thomas Dale (Deputy

Governor). 1616—George Yeardley (Deputy

Governor). 1617—Samuel Argall (Deputy-Gov

ernor). 1619— Nathaniel Powell (Acting

Deputy-Governor). 1619—Sir George Yeardley (Gov

ernor). 1621—Sir Francis Wyatt (Gov

ernor).

UNDER THE COMMONWEALTH,

1652-1660. 1652–Richard Bennett. 1655–Edward Diggs. 1658—Samuel Matthews. 1659-Berkeley, acting at request

of Assembly. UNDER THE CROWN, 1660-1776. 1660—Sir William Berkeley. 1661—Sir Francis Morrison (Acting

Governor). 1662—Sir William Berkeley. 1677—Sir Henry Jefferys (Lieut.

Governor). 1678—Sir Henry Chicheley (Lieut.

Governor). 1680—Thomas, Lord Culpepper

(Governor). 1683—Nicholas Spencer (Acting

Governor). 1681Lord Howard of Effingham

(Deputy-Governor). 1689–Nathaniel Bacon (Acting

Governor). 1690—Sir Francis Nicholson (Lieut.

Governor), 1693—Sir Edmund Andros (Gov

ernor). 1697 - 1737 George Hamilton

Douglas, Earl of Orkney (Governor; never in the colony). 1698—Sir Francis Nicholson

(Lieut.-Governor). 1705—Edward Nott (Lieut.-Gov

ernor). 1706—Edmund Jennings (Presi

dent of Council and Acting Gov

ernor). 1710—Robert Hunter (Lieut.-Gov

ernor; appointed but captured

by French). 1710--Alexander Spottswood

(Lieut.-Governor). 1722—Hugh Drysdale (Lieut.-Gov

ernor). 1726—Robert Carter (President of

Council and Acting Governor). 1727— William Gooch (Lieut.

Governor). 1737-54-William, Earl of Alber

marle (Governor; never in the

colony). 1740-James Blair (President of

Council and Acting Governor). 1741-William Gooch (Lieut.

Governor). 1749—John Robinson, Sr. (Presi

dent of Council and Acting Gov

ernor). 1749–Thomas Lee (President of

Council and Acting Governor). 1750-Louis Burwell (President of

Council and Acting Governor).

UNDER STATE CONSTITUTION,

1776-1865. 1776—Patrick Henry. 1779-Thomas Jefferson. 1781—Thomas Nelson, Jr. 1781-Benjamin Harrison. 1784-Patrick Henry. 1786—Edmund Randolph. 1738—Beverly Randolph. 1791—Henry Lee. 1794-Robert Brooke. 1796-James Wood. 1799--James Monroe. 1802-John Page. 1805–William H. Cabell. 1808—John Tyler, Sr. 1811–James Monroe. 1811-George William Smith (Act

ing Governor after resignation of

Monroe). 1811-Peyton Randolph (Acting

Governor after death of Smith). 1812-James Barbour. 1814–Wilson Cary Nicholas. 1816-James Patton Preston. 1818—Thomas Mann Randolph. 1822—James Pleasant, Jr. 1825—John Tyler, 1827—William B. Giles. 1830-John Floyd. 1831Littleton Waller Tazewell. 1836—Windham Robertson (Act

ing Governor after resignation of

Tazewell). 1837—David Campbell. 1840—Thomas Walker Gilmer. 1841—John M. Patton (Acting,

pending election). 1841—John Rutherford (Acting,

pending election).
1842–John M. Gregory (Acting,

pending election).
1843–James McDowell.
1846—William Smith.
1849—John Buchanan Floyd.
1852—Joseph Johnson.
1856–Henry Alexander Wise.
1860—John Letcher.
1864-William Smith.

UNDER THE CROWN, 1624–1652. 1624—Sir Francis Wyatt (Gov

ernor). 1626—Sir George Yeardley (Gov

ernor). 1627–Francis West (Acting Gov

ernor). 1628-John Pott (Acting Governor). 1630—Sir John Harvey (Gov

ernor). 1635—John West (Acting Gov

ernor). 1636—Sir John Harvey (Gov

ernor). 1639—Sir Francis Wyatt (Gov

ernor). 1642—Sir William Berkeley (Gov

ernor).

1887–Eugene Semple. 1889-Miles C. Moore. 1890-Elisha P. Ferry. 1893-John H. McGraw. 1897-John R. Rogers. 1901—Henry G. McBride. 1905-Albert E. Mead. 1909-Samuel G. Cosgrove. 1909–M. E. Hay. 1913—Ernest Lister.

WEST VIRGINIA.

1863–Arthur J. Boreman. 1869–D. D. T. Farnsworth (Acting

Governor). 1869-William E. Stevenson. 1871—John J. Jacob. 1877—Henry M. Mathews. 1881-Jacob B. Jackson. 1885-E. Willis Wilson. 1890-A. Brooks Fleming. 1893—William A. MacCorkle. 1897—George W. Atkinson. 1901—Albert B. White. 1905–William M. 0. Dawson. 1909—William E. Glasscock. 1913—H. D. Hatfield.

WISCONSIN.

TERRITORY. 1836–Henry Dodge. 1841-James D. Doty. 1844-N. P. Tallmadge. 1845—Henry Dodge.

UNDER FEDERAL RULE, 1865-1870.
1865—Francis H. Pierpont.
1867-69–J. M. Schofield (Mili.

tary Commander).
1867—Henry H. Wells (Provisional

Governor). 1869–70-E. R. S. Canby (Military

Commander).
1869-Gilbert C. Walker (Pro-
visional Governor).

1854-William A. Barstow.
1856-Arthur McArthur.
1856-Coles Bashford.
1857-Alexander W. Randall.
1861-Louis P. Harvey.
1862–E. Salomon (Acting Gov-

ernor).
1863–James T. Lewis.
1866-Lucius Fairchild.
1872-C. C. Washburn.
1874-William R. Taylor.
1876—Harrison Luddington.
1878-William E. Smith.
1892–Jeremiah M. Rusk.
1889-William D. Hoard.
1891-George W. Peck.
1895-William H. Upham.
1897–Edward Scofield.
1901—R. M. La Follette.
1905–James 0. Davidson.
1911—Francis C. McGovern.

AGAIN IN UNION, 1870.
1870—Gilbert C. Walker.
1874James Lawson Kemper.
1878–Frederick W. M. Holliday.
1882—William E. Cameron.
1886—Fitzhugh Lee.
1890—Philip W. McKinney.
1894Charles Triplett O'Ferrall.
1898-John Hoge Tyler.
1902—Andrew J. Montague.
1906-Claude A. Swanson.
1910—William H. Mann.

WYOMING.

TERRITORY.

WASHINGTON.

1869—John A. Campbell.
1875—John M. Thayer.
1878—John W. Hoyt.
1882— William Hale.
1885-Francis E. Warren,
1886—Thomas Moonlight.
1889- Francis E. Warren (Elected

U. S. Senator, 1890).

STATE.

1853–Isaac I. Stevens.
1857--J. Patton Anderson (Did not

qualify).
1857–Fayette McMullin.
1859-Richard D. Gholson.
1861-William H. Wallace.
1862– William Pickering.
1866-George E. Cole.
1867-Marshall F. Moore.
1869-Alvin Flanders.
1870—Edward S. Salomon.
1872—James F. Legate (Did not

qualify). 1872—Elisha P. Ferry. 1880-William A. Newell. 1884—Watson C. Squire.

1890—Amos W. Barber (Secretary

of State, Acting Governor). 1893—John E. Osborne. 1895—William A. Richards. 1899-De Forest Richards. 1903-Fennimore Chatterton. 1905—Bryant B. Brooks. 1911-Joseph M. Carey.

STATE.

1848–Nelson Dewey. 1851—Leonard J. Farwell.

THE UNITED STATES

CHAPTER I

1913–1916.

THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRESIDENT WILSON.*

President Wilson's policies — His cabinet - The Underwood tariff, the income tax and the Reserve Bank

Anti-trust acts — The railroad situation — The tariff and the tariff board — Politics and parties — Constitutional amendments and changes Liquor legislation — Immigration Seamen and shipping - The public business — Territories, lands and conservation - General foreign relations — Latin-American affairs — Mexico - The European war — The war zone and the Lusitania - Internal disturbances The blockade and submarine questions revived — Preparedness.

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HE election of Woodrow Wil

which was set forth in a brief collecas Presidentt brought tion of his campaign speeches enti

into the White House the first tled The New Freedom. According Democratic executive, with the excep

to the tone of this unquestionable aution of Cleveland's two terms, since thority, the President was a radical. James Buchanan's retirement in 1861. He argued that the people of the The return of the electoral vote

United States had grown tired of showed 435 for Wilson and Marshall,

their institutions, and had the right the candidate for the Vice-Presi

to change their political and governdency, as against 88 for Roosevelt and 8 for Taft. Their popular vote was

mental machinery to meet their own

demands. He was much out of sym6,300,000, which was nearly 2,500,000 less than the combined votes of all pathy with the concentrated business opponents. In the 63d Congress, be- interests, who, he said,

interests, who, he said, “ are so great ginning in 1913, the Democrats would that it is almost an open question have a majority of five in the Senate whether the government of the United and 135 in the House. Thus, for the States can dominate them or not." first time since 1895, the Democratic He proposed to curb monopoly, and Party would have power to pass suggested that Congress must pass legislation on party lines.

new laws for regulating these monop

olies. He assailed the then existing The Administration.

Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909, though President Wilson came into office

he believed that free trade was not with a distinct program of legislation

possible in a country which so much * Prepared by Albert Bushnell Hart, Professor

needed the revenues levied of Government in Harvard University.

imports. † See pp. 300–302, ante.

on

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