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example, in 1908, that was followed in ever been passed by any State legthree short years by 32 other cities.* islature specifically excluding the Another outcome has been the play- Bible by name from use in the public ground movement -- 184 cities now schools; on the contrary nine States making “supervised play" as much have passed mandatory or non-exclua province of education

any sion laws, and five States permissive that ministers to intellectual growth laws.* But if religion means, or

under play directors.† Sanitation leads to, morality, the sentiment is and hygiene in general are being

being utterly untrue; for the moral influlooked after as never before the ence of the public school is entirely relations of school architecture and on the side of what Dr. Eliot speaks hygiene, the needs of underfed chil- of as the “ combination of three dren, the abolition of the common

ideals which are the supreme result drinking cup, homely but necessary of the best human thinking and feelattention to personal cleanliness, ing through all recorded time. health, exercise, etc., and a due re- truth, beauty and goodness." gard to sex hygiene.//

The Boy Scout movement, school Because no formal religious in- banks, self government (one New struction can be given in our public York school, at least, has its own schools, and all forms of religious be- “police department”) “street cleanlief must be respected and tolerated, ing week,” etc., promote frugality, the erroneous impression prevails self-control, and the civic sense, and that the spiritual nature of the child help to simplify some of the old, has been neglected. If this impres- vexing problems of “ discipline" sion turns only on the old question of which used to find their only solution “The Bible in the Schools," it is in corporal punishment. This was still unwarranted, for no law had abolished from the New York City

schools in 1870 and from other See a paper by Leonard P. Ayres, Open-Air schools at varying periods. It is Schools, in National Education Association Report for 1911, pp. 898–903.

now the age of better, because more † Among many other writings on this subject indirect, methods; and though there is the chapter on Recreation” in Garber, Cur.


are still truants and truancy schools rent Educational Activities, pp. 73–79; Edward R. Shaw, School Hygiene (1901); William F. in spite of compulsory education Barry, The Hygiene of the Schoolroom (1904). laws in all northern States and A magazine, The Playground, is published by the

many of those of the South, and an Playground Association of America (New York).

| Nicholas Murray Butler, Education in the enrolment in our 60 public reform United States, vol. i., p. 409 et seq. (1900).

|| For a discussion of the comparatively new * Paul Monroe (ed.), Cyclopædia of Education, subject of sex hygiene, see a thoughtful paper vol. i., pp. 370—377 (1911). by Dr. Francis M. Green in Proceedings of the † John Dewey, Moral Principle in Education National Education Association for 1911, pp. 917– (1909); George H. Palmer, Ethical and Moral

Instruction in Schools (1909).


schools, in 1910, of 42,381, there is 8 per cent. School hours also vary, a more hopeful trend, even when the greatly. In some large cities, notably

, reformatory stage is reached, of the New York, where it seems impossible practical psychological treatment of to provide full time for all pupils, delinquents found in such schools as in view of the 25,000 annual addition the George Junior Republic” and to the school population, half-day (in England) of the “ Tiny Town.""* shifts for many thousands of children

The psychology of the text book must be resorted to. The entire subhas undergone a revolution in the ject of the school year and school last fifty years. On the merely ma- hours is inextricably bound up with terial side this is surprisingly true the complexities of child labor legis- paper, ink, type and binding. lation.* Maps, charts and tables are much The number of public school teachmore numerous and accurate; the ers in 1909 was 506,040. The probeauty and finish of illustrations are portion of men to women teachers of course beyond all comparison with has diminished, since 1870, from 40 those that childish eyes used to con- to 21 per cent. ; in some States it is sider works of art; but the great now less than 10 per cent. The avadvance has been made in the text erage monthly salary for men teachitself. The modern text-book is hu- ers in 1909 was $63.39, an increase manized; it has been written for the in ten years of $16.86; for women purpose of teaching the pupil, and teachers in 1909 the average salary not for the purpose of presenting a was $50.08, an increase of $11.45. In subject; it represents a desire to ad- New York City the long struggle for just truths and the presentation of the principle of “ equal pay for equal truths to the mind of the pupil.

work" culminated in October of The length of the school year 1911, under the leadership of Miss varies from 70 days in North Caro- Grace Strachan, in a successful verlina to 190 days in some of the New dict; the aldermen still fix the salaEngland States. In New York it is ries, but hereafter no discrimination 175. The average length of the can be made on account of sex. What school year has advanced from 130 the results will be, no one can foredays in 1880 to 155 in 1900. One- tell; if it accelerates the “dearth of half of a school month has been male teachers "and tends to furadded in the last decade, which has ther “ feminization,''I it complicates increased educational effectiveness by a problem already regarded as suffi

* World's Work (March, 1910); Garber, Annals of Educational Progress, pp. 251-253.

† Among other authorities, Dexter (History of Education in the United States, pp. 207-218) has a chapter on text books.

* See the Report of the Commissioner of Education on Industrial Education (1910).

i Dexter, Educational Progress, p. 180 et seq.

G. Stanley Hall, Feminization in School and Home, in World's Work (May, 1908).

ciently serious. There are at least emphasis on externals; but now they two possible ameliorations — higher are more concerned with principles of salaries for men, and teachers' pen- pedagogy, the personality of the sions. The latter subject has re

teacher as the supreme force in charceived increasing attention since

acter building, and the “ psychology about 1900, and while in some States

of the child,” – the latter removed as

“ teachers' insurance" or

“ retire

far as possible from the theoretical ment fund” plans prevail, managed

realms of “ metaphysics,” and transby the teachers themselves, the gen

planted to the enchanted but intensely eral trend is toward the very logical practical field of “ child-study” in conclusion that the authority paying all its fascinating phases.* A much the salaries should pay the pensions

more definite relationship has also also.*

been established between scholastic Teachers must themselves be

and professional training, to the adtaught, and the growth in the num

vantage of both. But normal schools ber of normal schools in the last

are not the only source of training half-century has been larger than the

for teachers. There are teachers' ingrowth in any other form of profes- stitutest of numerous types — an origsional education. At the close of the

inal, sui generis, American idea war there were less than 50; ten years

conferences, meetings, local or State later, 66; and in 1911, 288, both

teachers' associations, summer schools public and private; there are also

in colleges, “ Chautauquas,

and numerous pedagogical courses in

special gatherings like those at Penihigh schools, colleges and universi

kese in the 70's, where “ Louis Agasties. In 1911 there were 84,095 stu

siz, teacher,” was such an inspiradents reported in the normal schools;

tional guide; while extension and cor14,680 pursuing normal courses in

respondence courses, reading circles, public high schools, and 5,246 in pri- visiting days for public school teachvate high schools and academies; in

ers, and “ Sabbatical years ” for col

“ colleges and universities, 11,256 in

lege and university professors are the pedagogical departments; bringing the total up to 115,277. The

* W. Preyer, The Mind of the Child (2 vols., number of normal school graduates 1888–89); Gustave LeBon, The Crowd (1896) ; in 1911 was 16,669.

Edward A. Ross, Social Psychology, especially

the chapters on · Suggestibility” (1908); Hugo Normal schools were, at their incep- Münsterburg, Psychology and the Teacher (1909); tion, largely “ model schools" for John Dewey, How We Think (1910); Edward L. training in methods, and lay open to

Thorndyke, The Elements of Psychology (1907);

and Edwin A. Kirkpatrick, Genetic Psychology the peril of imitativeness and undue (1909), are among the many valuable and in

teresting books on this subject. Report of Commissioner of Education, 1911, † Butler, Education in the United States, p. p. 96-100.

382 et seq.


among the instrumentalities that keep two years later that throws much the modern teacher in line with the light on the subject; and the problem increasing demands of a profession is being tackled through a multiplicwhich is probably the mightiest exist- ity of special adaptations, of which ing force for the betterment of man.*

the model rural school at Macomb, It must be said that many of the

Illinois, is an example, whose purpose wonderful advances made in both

is “to take up a typical, needy, inpublic and private schools do not ap

efficient country school and build it up ply, or are sadly deficient, in rural

through all obstacles to the greatest schools; and while a great improve

possible degree of efficiency for the ment is now taking place, especially community in which it is located."*

" through the “ consolidation"

What has been remarked about

and ' township ” system, it is true, from

rural schools may also find partial apthe very nature of the case, that the

plication, though from a different

point of view, to education in the ordinary country school is yet a far cry from the city type. “ It is,” to

South. Of course the war made havoc quote President Cleveland, “a con

with education as with everything

, dition, not a theory,” that confronts

else, so that, at first, recovery was the schools in thinly populated dis

tedious and complicated with bi-racial tricts. Poor or inadequate fieldings, problems. But with governmental as

. too short school terms, low standards

well as denominational aid, and the of qualifications for teachers, defect impetus of great funds, to be referred ive courses of study, inadequate in

to later, competent leadership is inspection, community indifference, ig

troducing the “New South” to a new norance, parsimony and ultra-conserv

educational era, a veritable renaisatism of school boards, impossibility

sance, especially in industrial and voof specialization where pupils are so

cational training.t few, and, worst of all, the incubus of

Negro education in the South was the once settled conviction, now hap

initiated by the Freedmen's Bureau, pily passing, that the rural school can

created by an act of Congress in 1865 not be as proportionally progressive and placed under the management of in its field as the city school in a more

General 0. 0. Howard. In the five fortunate environment, are all respon

years of its existence it established sible factors in this condition. “ The

4,239 colored schools throughout the Committee of Twelve," appointed by

South, with an enrolment of a quarter the National Education Association

* H. N. Loomis, Normal Schools and the Rural in 1895, made an exhaustive report School Problem, in the Educational Review (May,

1910). William C. Ruediger, Agencies for the Im- † The subject is fully and interestingly trea prorement of Teachers in Service, Bulletin of in The South in the Building of the Nation, vol. the Bureau of Education (1911).

X., part iv., pp. 184-427.


of a million of pupils, and at a cost of War.* The Peabody fund was started $6,513,955. Since then, education of in 1867 with a gift of $5,000,000 by the negro has gone steadily forward, George Peabody, “to promote intelaided by the Federal and State gov

lectual, moral and industrial educaernments, and philanthropic and re

tion in the most destitute portions of ligious bodies. It now embraces the

the Southern States”; in 1912, by the common school, normal, professional

terms of the gift, the remainder of the

fund was allotted, and the agency and industrial schools, especially the

ceased to exist. The John F. Slater latter, and extends to the high school

fund for negro education was estaband college. The most successful and

lished in 1882 by a gift of $1,000,000, best known of the negro schools are

which has been increased by wise the Hampton Normal and Agricul

management to $1,500,000. The Gentural Institute, founded by Samuel T.

eral Education Board, chartered by Armstrong in 1868 (Indians were ad

Congress for the purposes of Southmitted in 1878), and Booker T. Wash

ern education, received its start from ington's Tuskegee Normal and Indus

John D. Rockefeller, whose further trial Institute, launched on July 4, gifts have brought its endowment up 1881.*

to $30,000,000. The Carnegie FoundaIn 1910 there were 1,116,811 negro

tion for the Advancement of Teachchildren in average daily attendance

ing started in 1903 with an endowin the elementary schools of 16 South

ment of $10,000,000, which the donor ern States, an increase of 16 per cent.

had increased by 1912 to $22,000,000. in ten years. In 1911 there was an

The Russell Sage Foundation, incorenrolment of 9,641 students in the 150

porated in 1907, includes education colored public high schools of 23

as one of the beneficiaries of its $10,States reporting to the Bureau of Edu

000,000 endowment. And in 1907 the cation - an increase of nearly 60 per

will of Miss Anna T. Jeanes, of Philcent. since 1900; and in the secondary

adelphia, set aside $1,000,000 to the and higher schools for negroes (not

very needy field of rural education for including the public high schools

the Southern negro. named above) there were 40,945 ele

Although, as General Sherman said, mentary pupils, 23,834 secondary stu

" we have made more than a thousand dents, and 5,313 students in profes

treaties with various Indian tribes sional and collegiate classes.

and never kept one of them,” AmerThe great “Education Funds"

ica cannot be charged with neglect of have been alluded to, of which six

the intellectual welfare of the Indian. have been established since the Civil

From very early colonial days, Indian

* Booker T. Washington, Working with the Hands.

* See The South in the Building of the Nation, vol. x., chap. xvii., pp. 386–397.

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