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culmination of a quest of centuries, were thoroughly equipped with all beginning with attempts to find the scientific and practical appliances a short water route from Europe that a cumulative experience deemed to the Indies. Previous to the Nine- available. In 1898 - 1902 Peary teenth century, Americans had done reached north latitude 84°17'; in 1905, little or nothing in the Arctic regions; sailing in a new vessel, the Roosevelt, but, with the search for Sir John built expressly for the service, he set Franklin in 1850, American explora- a new mark of 87°6'; and in 1908 he tions in the North were unremitting left the United States on his last and and brilliant. Dr. E. K. Kane, chief
final expedition. Wintering near surgeon of the Franklin rescue party, Cape Sheridan, he started north on organized an expedition of his own in March 1, 1909, with a party of 7 1853, reaching north latitude 80°35'. whites, 17 Eskimos, 133 dogs and 19 He was followed in 1860 by Dr. I. I. sledges. After sending back his last Hayes; Charles F. Hall's three expe- supporting party from 87°48', he ditions from 1860 to 1871; the Jean- pushed on for the last stage with his nette expedition in 1879, fitted out by colored man Henson and four Eskithe New York Herald and under the mos. On April 6, 1909, the goal strugcommand of G. W. Delong, who per- gled for during three long centuries ished after the Jeannette was crushed was reached, and the American flag in the ice; and the Greeley expedition was unfurled at the top of the world. of 1881, which, in spite of poor equip
Other notable happenings were the ment, reached north latitude 83°24', Alaska - Yukon - Pacific exposition at but endured terrible suffering, the few
Seattle in 1909 and the Hudson-Fulton survivors being rescued by Captain celebration at New York in 1909 W. S. Schley in 1884. Then began the latter in double commemoration Lieutenant Peary's great attempts,
of Hudson's discovery of the river to which he gave the best years of his
that bears his name and Fulton's life. His first expedition was made trip on the first steamship, the Clerin 1886, and was little more than ten
mont. The Administration's third tative. His next voyage was in 1891, year, 1912, was crowded with events. when he crossed Greenland, and three
The Titanic was lost on her maiden other expeditions followed in 1894-96. voyage, on April 15, with 1,595 perThe remaining voyages were under- sons, many of international reputataken under the auspices of the Peary tion; only 745 persons were saved. Arctic Club, organized in 1898, and Floods in the Mississippi Valley cov
ered a total area of 250 square miles, those of Lieutenant Peary, backed by ample made 30,000 people homeless, and enproofs, have been fully substantiated, and the
tailed an estimated loss of $10,000,000. world has “officially " accepted him as the actual discoverer of the North Pole.
The remains of the martyred battleVOL. X - 20
ship Maine, having been raised from 1910, after his African and European the mud of Havana harbor where they travels, although he disavowed all inhad lain for fourteen years, were tention of reëntering politics, the pubtowed out to sea and buried with all lic shrewdly forecast his homecoming the naval honors of war, while twenty- as a “ return from Elba.” Curiosity
' one bodies of her sailors were in- and interest had not long to wait, for terred with highest honors at Arling- in October he made a tour of the ton. The Olympic games at Stock- country advocating the “ New Nationholm in July were won by the alism," by which he meant increased
, American contestants, who gained 128 concentration of power in the Federal points; Sweden was second with 104 Government and the hand of the Expoints; and Great Britain came in ecutive; and in the elections of that third with 66 points.
year, especially in New York State, It was natural that President Taft, he took an active part. During the realizing that many of his most im- succeeding year and the first part of portant policies were in an incomplete 1912 he formulated many doctrines, state, should desire a reëlection. He more or less radical, under New laid his plans to this end with long Nationalism in his • Osawatomie foresight, and, early in 1912, had suc- speech,” the culmination of his proceeded in having most of the South- gressivism appearing in the “ Columern States call their conventions for bus speech” before the Ohio Constithe purpose of choosing delegates to tutional Convention in February of the National convention. As time 1912, where he openly advocated went on, a few other delegates favor- the “recall of judges " and other ing the President's reëlection were startling innovations. It was evident selected by the new system of Presi- from the first that he intended to take dential primaries in vogue in many advantage of the Progressive moveStates - a plan designed to give ment in the Republican party to bevoters of every party an opportunity come its sponsor and leader. He had to send to the National convention long ago broken with the President delegates who should support for as too conservative and " reactionnomination the man designated by the ary," charging him with having majority of the respective party vot proved false to " Roosevelt poliers in the State. But the “ prefer
prefer- cies”; and when, about the time of ence primary" system did not always
the Columbus speech, the governwork out to the President's liking, ors of seven States addressed him in and it is necessary to go back a little a joint letter asking if he would allow to find the reason.
his name to be used as a candidate for As soon as ex-President Roosevelt the Presidency, he expressed his enlanded in this country on June 18, tire willingness to do so. Then came
the Presidential primaries, and for Jersey, for President, and Governor many weeks both President Taft and Thomas R. Marshall, of Indiana, for Mr. Roosevelt toured the States in Vice-President, on the 46th ballot. which such primaries were held, mak- The nominations of other parties ing pleas for instructed delegates to as follows: The Prohibition the National convention.
party, Eugene W. Chafin, President, President had decidedly the best of and Aaron S. Watkins, Vice-Presithese pre-convention contests and se- dent; the Socialist party, Eugene V. cured many delegates, while the Pres- Debs, President, and Emil Seidel, ident added to his strength by many Vice-President; the Socialist Labor adherents elected in the regular State party, Arthur E. Reimer, President, conventions.
and August Gillhaus, Vice-President. The Republican convention
President Taft made his campaign opened at Chicago on June 18, 1912. on his record," pointing to eviThe machinery was entirely in the dences of present prosperity as a reahands of the Administration. Nearly son for continuing the Republican all contested cases were decided in party in power, and renewing the platfavor of the Taft delegates, and, when form promises of 1908 for tariff rethe balloting began, 344 of the Roose- vision. Mr. Roosevelt said less about velt faction declined to vote. Presi- the tariff -- that is a subject which dent Taft and Vice-President Sher- has never interested him -- but gave man were then renominated without regulation of the trusts” a promifurther opposition by" steam- nent place, as also “ social justice roller" methods, the Progressive ele- under which head he included a vast ment asserted, by " theft” Mr. number of social, economic, political, Roosevelt charged. The disaffected financial and judicial reforms. He faction withdrew after the balloting, bitterly assailed President Taft and and, meeting in Orchestra Hall, pro- many other public men who would not claimed Theodore Roosevelt as their follow him in leaving the Republicans choice for President of the United and forming the Progressive party. States. In August the new Progres- Governor Wilson conducted his sive party met in Chicago and form- campaign on entirely different lines, ally nominated Theodore Roosevelt avoiding personalities and discussing as its candidate for President and the issues of the day in a thoughtful Governor Hiram Johnson, of Califor- and forceful way. He advocated a nia, for Vice-President.
reduction in the tariff that should so On June 25 the Democrats held readjust the schedules as to meet their National convention at Balti- actual business conditions, to the end more and, with the Progressive ele- that the tariff “ shall cease to be the ment finally in control, nominated wellspring of oppression, monopoly, Governor Woodrow Wilson, of New and covert taxation of the many for