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to depart. * On May 7 the schooner it was forwarded by the President to David J. Adams was seized for re- the Senate, with a message* suggestmaining twenty-four hours in a Can- ing that it was advisable to publish the adian port without reporting to the text of the treaty as soon as possible. custom house and for buying bait; The Senate, accepting the challenge, several other American ships were gave the treaty to the press, and on also seized on the same pretext. May 28 the debate began in open ses

The actions of the Canadian au- sion. The chief clauses stipulated that thorities finally became so hostile that the contracting parties should appoint Congress passed a bill which was a mixed commission of four to designed by the President March 3, limit the British waters, bays, creeks, 1887, giving the President power to and harbors of the coast of Canada retaliate against Canada by refusing and Newfoundland, and to define the her vessels admission to our ports and regulations to which United States by excluding her products from our vessels entering such waters must conterritory.t Correspondence between form. The debate was continued until Secretary Bayard and the English and August 21, 1888, when the treaty was Canadian governments ensued, and at rejected by 30 votes to 27.f length a joint commission was sug- Pending action by the Senate a gested to discuss the whole question. modus vivendi was agreed upon, FebThe proposal was agreeable and com- ruary 15, 1888, which remained in missioners were appointed to meet at force by renewal for nearly 18 years: Washington. Mr. William L. Putnam,

“1. For a period not exceeding two years from of Maine, and President Angell, of the the present date, the privilege of entering the

ays and harbors of the Atlantic coasts of University of Michigan, acting with

Canada and Newfoundland shall be granted to Secretary Bayard, represented the the United States fishing vessels by annual United States. Mr. Joseph Chamber

licenses at a fee of $1.50 per ton for the follow

ing purposes: lain, and Sir Lionel Sackville-West,

• The purchase of bait, ice, seines, lines, and all the British minister, represented other supplies and outfits. Great Britain and Sir Charles Tupper,

* Transhipment of catch and shipping of crews.'

“2. If, during the continuance of this arrangeCanada. The commission met on ment, the I'nited States should remove the duties Tuesday, November 22, 1887. The

* Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. viii., negotiations were kept secret and

pp. 603-607. were protracted, but a conclusion † McPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1888, pp.

114-122, 192–193; Andrews,

Quartersatisfactory to all was finally reached,

Century, vol. ii., pp. 118-125. See also Sherman, and on February 15, 1888, the pro- vol. ii., pp. 1015-1021; Whittle's Cleveland, pp.

108–122. For Cleveland's message of August 23, posed treaty was signed. I On the 20th

1888, suggesting retaliation against Canada for * Elliott, Northeastern Fisheries, pp. 91–92. her treatment of our fishermen see G. F. Parker,

i VePherson, Handbook of Politics, 1888, pp. Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland, pp. 38-42.

501-511; Richardson, Messages

Papers, 1 The text is given in Snow, Treaties and vol. viii., pp. 620-627. Topics, pp. 461-467.

| Snow, Treaties and Topics, p. 467.

Last

and

ing the

on fish, fish oil, whale and seal oil (and their made an agreement with the Samoans coverings, packages, etc.), the said licenses shall be issued free of charge.

by which they ceded to the United “ 3. United States fishing vessels ent

States the harbor of Pago Pago. bays and harbors of the Atlantic coast of Canada President Grant submitted the agreeor of Newfoundland for any of the four purposes mentioned in Article 1 of the convention of

ment to the Senate* but that body took October 20, 1818, and not remaining therein no action upon it. About that time more than twenty-four hours, shall not be re

civil war broke out among the various quired to enter or clear at the custom house, pro. viding they do not communicate with the shore. native competitors for the kingship

“ 4. Forfeiture to be exacted only for the and some German business houses beoffenses of fishing or preparing to fish in terri. torial waters.

gan to curry favor with the natives in * 5. This arrangement to take effect as soon as

order to establish themselves. They the necessary measures can be completed by the sold arms to all the belligerents, and Colonial authorities.”

were paid in concessions of land. In But with the improved methods of 1873 the islands petitioned to be taken transporting perishable foods by under the protection of the United freezing, the

, the American fishermen Statest and in 1877 a similar petition found that they would not be com- was addressed to the government of pelled to touch at Canadian ports;

Great Britain.. Both powers defurthermore the Americans almost en- clined. But on January 17, 1878, a tirely abandoned the inshore cod- treaty between Samoa and the United fishery of Canada and resorted to the States was signed, one of the clauses Banks. The necessity of coming into

of which was as follows: conflict with the Canadian fisheries

“If, unhappily, any differences should have was thus to a great extent obviated, arisen, or should hereafter arise between the

Samoan Government and any other Government and the stubborn quarrel was settled

in amity with the United States, the Government for many years.*

of the latter will employ its good offices for the The Samoan dispute now came up

purpose of adjusting these differences upon a

satisfactory and solid foundation." for settlement. · The Samoan Islands, which lie in the central part of the The Samoans also made treaties of Pacific Ocean, had been a bone of con- similar nature with England (August tention for many years.

American 28, 1879) and Germany (January 24, missionaries were the first to attempt 1879) granting to each exclusive rights the Christianization of the natives,

* Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. vii., and until the beginning of the last quarter of the Nineteenth century the

.

† Callahan, American Relations in the Pacific trade was exclusively in the hands of and the Far East, p. 136.

$ Ibid, p. 137. American and English commercial

I For the history of the dispute see Henderson, houses. In 1872 Commodore Meade American Diplomatic Questions, pp. 209-215;

Senate Ex. Doc. No. 43, 43d Congress, 1st session; * Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions, House Ex. Doc. No. 161, 44th Congress, 1st ses. pp. 519–529; Moore, American Diplomacy, pp. sion; House Ex. Doc. No. 44, 44th Congress, 2d 96-97.

session. Voi, X-3

p. 168.

treaty."*

in certain harbors for naval and coal- American interests. On May 14, ing stations. But the Samoans were 1886, the American consul at Apia more generous with the Germans, for (Greenebaume) hoisted the American they granted to the energetic Ger- flag and proclaimed a protectorate man representative concessions that over Apia, an event which further appeared to be incompatible with the complicated matters.f favored nation clause of the American In 1886, President Cleveland called

the attention of Congress to the deIn 1884 Germany and Great Britain plorable condition of the islands./ mutually agreed to respect the inde- He wrote: “ Civil perturbations in pendence of Samoa, for the King of the Samoan Islands have, during Samoa appealed to Great Britain for the last few years, been a source

, protection and alleged that the Ger- of considerable embarrassment to man treaty had been concluded under three Governments -- Germany, Great duress. In 1884 the unhappy Sa- Britain, and the United States-whose moans, unable to secure just treatment relations and extra-territorial rights from any of the great powers, voted in that important group are guaranto annex their island to New Zealand; teed by treaties.” He said that the

" but Great Britain forbade the con- three governments had sent special summation of this arrangement. The agents to examine and report on the Germans continued their high-handed situation in the islands, and hoped proceedings and the German consul- that this “ change in the representageneral went so far as to hoist the tion of all three powers and an harGerman flag at Mulinuu, January monious understanding” would se23, 1885; but this act was disavowed cure “ the peace, prosperity, autonby the German emperor.

omous administration and neutrality The king of Samoa most generally of Samoa.” Upon receiving the re

" recognized was Malietoa Talavoa and ports of their agents, the diplomatic the treaties had been made with him. representatives of the three governTalavoa died on November 7, 1880, ments signed a declaration that these and in March, 1881, Malietoa Laupepa, three powers did not recognize Tamthe vice-king, was appointed king. He asese as king:11 proved too upright for the Germans, Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 398–405; Hen. and they began a series of intrigues derson, American Diplomatic Questions, pp. 217– with a rival chief and the then vice

† Foster, American Diplomacy in the Orient, king, Tamasese. They finally induced him to embroil the islands in another $ In his annual message of December 6. See

Richardson, Messages and Papers, vol. viii., pp. civil war, to the great detriment of

|| See the report of John B. Thurston, the * Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions, British commissioner, House Ex. Doc. No. 238, p. 216; House Ex. Doc. No. 238, 50th Congress, 50th Congress, 1st session, extracts of which are Ist session.

given in Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 398-406.

226.

p. 390.

503-504.

The United States now insisted that Count Herbert Bismarck Holstein and Great Britain and Germany enter a Dr. R. Krauel; of Great Britain, Sir conference for the purpose of drafting Edward Malet, J. C. Crowe and Mr. a new treaty guaranteeing the inde- Charles S. Scott; and of the United pendence of Samoa, using as a basis States, Mr. John A. Kasson, of Iowa, the report of the three agents above Mr. George H. Bates, and Mr. William mentioned. A conference between W. Phelps, assisted by Consul Sewall delegates from the three powers in- and Lieutenants Buckingham and terested was held at Washington in Parker. The result of this conference June and July, 1887. The German was a declaration by the three powers delegate proposed that a foreign ad- of the independence of the islands, visor should control the government and the creation of a supreme court to of the islands for a term of five years, decide all disputes respecting titles to and that this advisor be nominated by land. Malietoa was also restored to the power having the largest material his station. The treaty, after being interests in Samoa. Mr. Bayard made signed by King Malietoa and the a counter proposition — to place the British, German and American consupreme authority in the hands of the suls, was duly ratified, exchanges beking, the vice-king, and three foreign- ing made at Berlin, April 12, 1890, and ers, one from each of the great powers. the treaty proclaimed May 21, 1890.* No agreement could be reached, and This treaty continued in force until on July 26th, the conference was sus- abrogated by the treaty of December pended, but not abrogated.* As 2, 1899. President Cleveland's term of office But before the conference met, diswas now nearly at an end, the renewal aster had overtaken the ships of war of the conference did not take place of Great Britain, Germany and the till President Harrison had been in- United States lying in the harbor of augurated and Mr. Blaine had become Apia. A furious storm broke over the Secretary of State.

islands on March 15, and wrecked the On April 29, 1889, the suspended majority of vessels lying in the harbor. conference was resumed at Berlin, the The Trenton and Vandalia (U. S.) berepresentatives of Germany being came total wrecks, as did the Adler

The report of the American representative, George H. Bates, is given in Foreign Relations for 1889, p. 237 et seq., and in House Ex. Doc. No. 238, 50th Congress, 1st session, the German version by 'Travers being also found in the same volume. Robert Louis Stevenson's Foot-note to History, pp. 1-243, contains some interesting facts regarding the early part of the Samoan imbroglio.

* Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions, pp. 228–232; Foster, American Diplomacy, p. 391; Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 407-409.

* For the treaty see Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 417–422; Foreign Relations, 1889, p. 353; McPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1890, pp. 9197; Henderson, American Diplomatic Questions, pp. 250–257. See also Hamilton's Blaine, pp. 655-659; Foreign Relations, 1889, pp. 179-423; House Ex. Doc. No. 238, 50th Congress, 1st ses. sion; Senate Ex. Docs. Nos. 31, 68, 102; House Ex. Docs. Nos. 118, 119, 50th Congress, 2d session; Callahan, American Relations in the Pacific,

p. 144.

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and Eber (German), but the Nipsic the Edmunds-Tucker Act, which dis(U. S.) and the Olga (German), es

solved the Mormon Church as a corcaped with little damage. The Cal- porate body and confiscated all its liope (British) succeeded in gaining property in excess of $50,000 devoting open water and suffered no damage. it to public use. This incident, however, had no effect During the night of August 31, on the outcome of the conference. 1886, the eastern portion of the

Other events had also taken place United States was shaken by an earthduring these years.

quake, the heaviest shocks centering in In 1886, the statue," Liberty En- and around Charleston, South Carolightening the World” by Bartholdi, lina. The city suffered a loss of propwas transferred to the United States erty to the value of $8,000,000 and by France. The cost of the statue about 65 persons were killed. The was defrayed by public subscription

* For the history of these bills see McPherson, throughout France and the pedestal Handbook of Politics, 1882, pp. 51-56; 1884, pp. on which the figure stands was com

179–185; 1886, pp. 166–174; 1888, pp. 33–38. In

1889 the Supreme Court rendered a decision in pleted by popular subscription in

the case of Mormon Church vs. U. S. (136 U. S. America. The statue, which stands in 1, 42, 44) in which it said that the power of New York harbor, facing the east, is

Congress over the territories is general and

plenary; that the power to acquire territory is 151 feet high. It is a draped female derived from the treaty-making power; and that figure crowned by a diadem, holding a territory once acquired “Congress may legislate

directly for its local government and has full a tablet close to the body in the left

and complete legislative authority over its hand, and a torch in the uplifted right people.” In another Utah case (Murphy vs. Ramhand, and standing upon a square

sey, 114 U. S. 44), Mr. Justice Matthews said:

"The People of the United States are sovereign pedestal 155 feet high, built of granite

of the national territories and have and concrete.

supreme power over them and their inhabitants.

But in ordaining government for the In 1886, the government made a

territories and the people inhabiting them, all the strenuous effort to put an end to the discretion which belongs to the legislative power practice of polygamy in Utah and

is vested in Congress.

It rests with

Congress to say whether in a given case any of many Mormons were tried and con

the people resident in the territory shall particivicted, but the results of these efforts pate in the election of its offices or the making of were not very far reaching. Several

its laws; and it may, therefore, take from them

any rights of suffrage it may previously have violent outbreaks occurred which

conferred, or at any time modify or abridge it as were put down by United States it may deem expedient.

The personal

and civil rights of the inhabitants of the territroops. In 1887, Congress passed

tories are secured to them, as to other citizens, (the Senate, February 18, by a vote by the principle of constitutional liberty, which of 37 to 13, the House on the 17th, 203

restrains the agencies of government, state and

national. Their political rights are franchises to 40) an anti-polygamy bill known as

which they hold as privileges under the legisla.

tive discretion of the Congress of the United * Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. ii., pp. States." For limitations on Congress see also 215-219; R. L. Stevenson, Foot-Note to History, Downes vs. Bidwell, 182 U. S. Reports, 244 pp. 244-267.

(1901).

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