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tion there were at Manila 470 officers the two forces occurred until July 31, and 10,464 men. Opposed to these a month after the arrival of General was a military force of Spaniards of Anderson's command. The Spanish approximately twice the strength of were stationed in front of Malate, a the American army. On the arrival suburban village on the coast south of

. of the transports the men were estab- Manila. When they saw that the lished at Cavite and along the beach American soldiers were advancing controlled by the fleet after the battle. their trenches towards their position, General Merritt had not only the they made a sudden night attack on enemy to contend with but also Agui- the men of the 10th Pennsylvania, naldo and his Filipino insurgents, during one of the heavy storms comwhose relations with Admiral Dewey mon to the islands at that season. and the American generals had al- The men were already tired out with ready become strained. By diplo- their labors in digging the trenches, macy, however, they were controlled and suffering from the effects of reand the way was cleared for unham- maining in them for hours when they pered action on the part of the Amer- were half-filled with water and mud; ican forces.

nevertheless they showed their mettle The task that General Merritt had and replied to the firing as best they to accomplish was not an easy one. could, not yielding an inch, and keepManila, a city of nearly 200,000 inhab- ing up the firing until reinforced by a itants, strongly protected by outer detachment of the 3d U. S. Artillery, defenses and an inner wall, offered an the 1st California and the 1st Colalmost insuperable problem to a body orado. In moving forward to the aid of men as small as that of the Amer- of the Pennsylvania regiment these ican army. The Filipino allies could came within the zone of firing, suffernot be trusted, and Admiral Dewey ing severe losses before they reached was disinclined to attack the city until the front. Soon after the arrival of the monitor Monterey arrived, fear- these reinforcements, the Spanish ing that the powerful guns of the ceased firing and withdrew, taking shore batteries might send one of his their wounded and dead with them. light armored cruisers to the bottom. The Americans lost 15 killed and 53

The plan of General Merritt was to wounded during this affair in the advance his men from the position night, - a punishment almost as severe they occupied, south of Manila, and as that received by the regiments in by a combined frontal and flanking front of Guasimas and El Caney. attack, to endeavor to drive the Span- From July 31 to August 7 the iards back to the inner defences of the troops of General MacArthur's brigcity. Entrenchments were dug from ade were unable to land owing to the the coast paralleling the Spanish lines heavy surf produced by the storms, of defence, but no collision between and thus could not participate in

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1. FORT SAN ANTONIO ABAD, SHOWING EFFECT OF BOMBARDMENT BY DEWEY. 2. GENERAL FUNSTON, COL. METCALF AND MAJOR BISHOP, OF THE 2D OREGON

REGIMENT, AT SAN FERNANDO. 3. SOLDIERS' HOSPITAL IN CHURCH, SAN PEDRO, MACATI. 4. TROOPS AWAITING ORDERS AT LAGUNA DE BAY.

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the skirmishes that were occurring General notifying him that he should remove from nightly along the lines. The strain

the city all noncombatants within the next forty

eight hours, and that the operations against Manila of these constant alarms, and the ex- might begin at any time after the expiration of

that period. posure of the men in the trenches,

“This letter was sent August 7.

and were beginning to tell on the health

a reply was received the same date to the effect and spirits of the army, so General that the Spanish were without places of refuge for Merritt felt that the time had come

the increased numbers of wounded, sick women,

and children now lodged within the walls. On the to make a determined effort to put 9th a formal joint demand for the surrender of an end to what was developing the city was sent in.

This demand was into

based upon the hopelessness of the struggle on the very embarrassing situa

part of the Spaniards, and that every consideration. This was rendered easier by tion of humanity demanded that the city should the arrival of the powerful armored

not be subjected to bombardment under such cir.

cumstances. The Captain-General's reply of the monitor Monterey on August 4, and

same date

stated that the council of by the successful though hazardous defense had declared that the demand could not be landing of MacArthur's expedition. granted; but the Captain-General offered to con

sult his Government if we would allow him the The great ten and twelve inch guns of

time strictly necessary for the communications by the Monterey were more than a match way of Hong Kong. for the shore batteries of the enemy,

“ This was declined on our part for the reason

that it could, in the opinion of the Admiral and so Admiral Dewey was now willing to

myself, lead only to a continuance of the situation, coöperate with General Merritt in a with no immediate result favorable to us, and the general attack on Manilla. The story

necessity was apparent and very urgent that de

cisive action should be taken at once to compel of the succeeding operations is

the enemy to give up the town, in order to relieve graphically told in his report to the our troops from the trenches and from the great

exposure to unhealthy conditions which were unAdjutant-General, dated August 31

avoidable in a bivouac during the rainy season. and written when he was at sea on his The sea-coast batteries in defense of Manila are way to Paris where he was summoned

so situated that it is impossible for ships to ento aid the United States peace com

gage with them without firing into the town, and

as the bombardment of a city, filled with women missioners:

and children, sick and wounded, and containing

a large amount of neutral property, could only “Upon the assembly of MacArthur's brigade in

be justified as a last resort, it was agreed between support of Greene's, I had about 8,500 men in

Admiral Dewey and myself that position to attack, and I deemed that the time

an attempt had come for final action. During the time of

should be m:ide to carry the extreme right of the the night attacks I had communicated my desire

Spanish line of entrenchinents in front of the posito Admiral Dewey that he would allow his ships

tions at the time occupied by our troops, which,

with its flank on the seashore, was entirely open to open fire on the right of the Spanish line of

to the fire of the navy. entrenchments, believing that such action would stop the night firing and loss of life, but the " It was not my intention to press the assault Admiral had declined to order it unless we were at this point, in case the enemy should hold it in danger of losing our position by the assaults in strong force, until after the navy had made of the Spanish, for the reason that, in his opinion, practicable breaches in the works and had shaken it would precipitate a general engagement, for the troops holding them, which could not be done which he was not ready. Now, however, the by the army alone, owing to the absence of siege brigade of General MacArthur was in position guns.

This is indicated fully. It was and the Monterey had arrived, and under date of believed, however, as most desirable, and in accord. August 6 Admiral Dewey agreed to my suggestion ance with the principles of civilized warfare, that that we should send a joint letter to the Captain. the attempt should be made to drive the enemy

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out of his entrenchments before resorting to bom- “ The city of Manila was now in our possession, bardment of the city.

excepting the walled town, but shortly after the “ By orders issued some time previously, Mac- entry of our troops into Malate a white flag was Arthur's and Greene's brigades were organized as displayed on the walls, whereupon, Lieut.-Col. C. A. the Second Division of the 8th Army Corps, Brig. Whittier, U. S. V., of my staff, and Lieut. Brumby, adier-General Thomas M. Anderson commanding; U. S. Navy, representing Admiral Dewey, were and in anticipation of the attack General Ander- sent ashore to communicate with the Captain-Genson moved his headquarters from Cavite to the eral. I soon personally followed these officers into brigade camps and assumed direct command in the town, going at once to the palace of the Gover. the field. Copies of the written and verbal instruc- nor-General, and there, after a conversation with tions

were given to the division and the Spanish authorities, a preliminary agreement brigade commanders on the 12th, and all the troops of the terms of capitulation was signed by the were in position on the 13th at an early hour in Captain-General and myself. This agreement was the morning.

subsequently incorporated into the formal terms “ About 9 A. M. on that day our fleet steamed of capitulation, as arranged by the officers repreforward from Cavite and before 10 A. M. opened senting the two forces. a hot and accurate fire of heavy shells and rapid- Immediately after the surrender the Spanish fire projectiles on the sea flank of the Spanish

colors on the sea front were hauled down and the intrenchments at the powder magazine fort, and

American flag displayed and saluted by the guns at the same time the Utah batteries, in position of the Navy. The 24 Oregon Regiment, which had in our trenches near the ‘Calle Real,' began firing proceeded by sea from Cavite, was disembarked and with great accuracy. At 10:25 on a prearranged entered the walled town as a provost guard, and signal from our trenches that it was believed our the colonel was directed to receive the Spanish troops could advance, the navy ceased firing, and arms and deposit them in places of security. The immediately a light line of skirmishers from the town was filled with the troops of the enemy Colorado regiment of Greene's brigade passed over driven in from the intrenchments, regiments formed our trenches and deployed rapidly forward, an- and standing in line in the streets, but the work other line from the same regiment from the left of disarming proceeded quietly and nothing unflank of our earthworks advancing swiftly up the pleasant occurred. beach in open order. Both these lines found the "In leaving the subject of the operations of the powder-magazine fort and the trenches flanking it 13th, I desire here to record my appreciation of the deserted, but as they passed over the Spanish admirable manner in which the orders for attack works they were met by a sharp fire from a second and the plan for occupation of the city were carried line situated in the streets of Malate, by which out by the troops exactly as contemplated. I suba number of men were killed and wounded, among mit that for troops to enter under fire a town others the soldier who pulled down the Spanish covering a wide area, to rapidly deploy and guard colors still flying on the fort and raised our own all principal points in the extensive suburbs, to (Private Phoenix, Co. I, 1st Colorado)

keep out the insurgent forces pressing for admis“ The works of the second line soon gave way to sion, to quietly disarm an army of Spaniards the determined advance of Greene's troops, and that more than equal in numbers to the American officer pushed his brigade rapidily through Malate troops, and finally by all this to prevent entirely and over the bridges to occupy Binon lo and San all rapine, pillage, and disorder, and gain entire Miguel, as contemplated in his instructions. In and complete possession of a city of 300,000 people the meantime the brigade of General MacArthur, filled with natives hostile to the European interests, advancing simultaneously on the Pasay road, en- and stirred up by the knowledge that their own countered a very sharp fire, coming from the block- people were fighting in the outside trenches, was houses, trenches, and woods in his front, positions an act which only the law-abiding, temperate resowhich it was very difficult to carry, owing to the lute American soldier, well and skillfully handled swampy condition of the ground on both sides of by his regimental and brigade commanders, could the roads and the heavy undergrowth concealing accomplish . the enemy.

With much gallantry and excellent The amount of public funds and the numbers judgment on the part of the brigade commander

of prisoners of war have been reported in detail and the troops engaged, these difficulties were by cable.* It will be observed that the trophies of overcome with a minimum loss

and General MacArthur advanced and held the bridges *" About 7,000 prisoners of war taken. The and the town of Malate, as was contemplated in squadron has no casualties; no vessel injured his instruction,

Dewey." (Cablegram, August 13, 1898.)

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