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Corps and their staffs, accompanied by military occupation of the entire by 100 men of the 2d Cavalry, pro- portion of Cuba under the jurisdiction ceeded to the square of the city hall, of General Linares, which extended where, amid a great concourse of from Aserraderos on the southern people from the city and the Spanish coast, to the extreme eastern point; army, Santiago was formally turned and on the northeastern coast from over to the United States government. thence to Tanamo, and contained At the stroke of twelve, the Spanish forces approximating 25,000 men. flag floating over the municipal build- This was known as the Eastern Dising was replaced by that of the United trict of Santiago de Cuba, and posStates.

sessed, in addition to the city of SanAfter the surrender of Santiago, tiago, the important towns of Guanoccurred another of those unfortunate tanamo, Baracoa, and Tanamo. The controversies of which the war was so garrisons of the latter places surfruitful. As has been shown, all of rendered gladly when they were inthe negotiations were carried on by formed that the terms of surrender the officers of the army; the province included their trans-shipment to and city, in fact, being yielded up to Spain. As the result, therefore, of the authority of the same. The navy the campaign, a large territory was was thus ignored, doubtless uninten- gained from which future operations tionally, which caused Admiral Samp- on the island could be initiated. son to feel so aggrieved that he sent a With this highly important object vigorous protest both to General attained, it was needful now to look Shafter and to Washington. He after the well-being of the soldiers conceived that the navy had been af- who had so heroically accomplished fronted, and demanded as the navy's an extraordinary task. The wise share in the operations around San- course demanded the immediate withtiago the ships and naval material in- drawal of these men, and the substicluded in the articles of capitulation. tution of fresh troops not yet infected These were ultimately turned over to with tropical diseases. For various the navy, but not as prizes of war, the reasons, however, this was delayed, United States Supreme Court decid- despite the urgent recommendations ing that ships taken by joint opera

of General Shafter. It is not strange, tions of army and navy were not sub- hence, that the reports of the surgeons ject to prize laws. *

for August 1 state that there were By the terms of the capitulation 4,255 cases of fever in the army, many the United States became possessed of them undoubtedly yellow fever.

These were being cared-for as well as * The division of prize money among the crews of war-ships — a vestige of the old custom of conditions would permit by the medspoils of war — was definitely abrogated in the

ical corps, and the women of the Red United States navy by the passage of the Naval Reorganization Act of 1899.

Cross, who had volunteered to do this army must

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noble work under the direction of having the city placed under his parMiss Clara Barton. Nevertheless the ticular jurisdiction. situation was fast getting beyond The capitulation of Santiago to control. In view of the seriousness General Shafter was the cause of a of the situation General Shafter

further widening of the breach becalled for an expression on the part tween General Garcia and himself. of his commanders, who sent to him

The Cuban general thought that he a statement, signed by all, which

should be allowed to participate in the stated as strongly as words could ex

results of the campaign, and, with press it, the fearful condition of the

reason, in view of the policy made American forces. In it occurs the following passage: "

public at the beginning of the war. This

There is little doubt but that the Cube moved at once or it will perish.

bans were treated with no excess of As an army it can be safely moved now. Persons responsible for pre

tact by General Shafter and others,

and the result was Garcia's withventing such a move will be respon. sible for the unnecessary loss of thou

drawal from Santiago at the time of sands of lives.'

the capitulation. He sent in his This document, which became known resignation to the Cuban government, as the Round Robin, got into the press

and addressed to General Shafter a in some way, and its publication not communication in which he expressed only threw the administration into a his disappointment in terms both digpanic, but was also the cause of great nified and patriotic: distress to people in the United States,

“I have done my best, sir, to fulfill the wishes who had relatives or friends in the of my Government, and I have been until now one

of your most faithful subordinates, honoring my. army. It had, however, the effect of

self in carrying out your orders and instructions opening the eyes of the Secretary of

as far as my powers have allowed me to do it. War and others to the gravity of the The city of Santiago surrendered to the American situation, and immediate orders were

army, and news of that important event was

given to nie by persons entirely foreign to your issued August 4 providing for the staff.

I was neither honored, sir, with withdrawal of the 5th Army Corps

a kind word from you inviting myself or any

officer of my staff to represent the Cuban army from Santiago to an encampment at

that occasion.

You have left in Montauk Point, New York.

power at Santiago the same Spanish authorities During its occupation by the mili

that for three years I have fought as enemies of the independence of Cuba.

A rumor, tary forces of the United States, the

too absurd to be believed, General, ascribes the province of Santiago de Cuba was or- reason of your measures and of the orders for.

bidding my army to enter Santiago to fear of ganized as a department of the United

massacres and revenge against the Spaniards. States, General Lawton being as

Allow me, sir, to protest against even the shadow signed command of the same. Gen- of such an idea. We are not savages ignoring the

rules of civilized warfare. We are a poor, ragged erals Ewers and Wood were desig

army, as ragged and as poor as was the army of nated as his subordinates, the latter

your forefathers in their noble war for independ


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ence, but, as did the heroes of Saratoga and Yorktown, we respect too deeply our cause to disgrace it with barbarism and cowardice.”

when they found that they were cared for and fed and clothed as well as the American soldier himself, their gratitude was unbounded. The treatment, indeed, was so different from what they had been led to expect that the Spanish soldiers addressed a letter extraordinary later to the soldiers of the American army, the spirit of which is expressed in the following sentences:

There is much pathos in the position of this old hero of years of struggle for Cuban freedom, who when he thought that his long deferred dream of an independent Cuba was at last to be realized, should have that hope apparently snatched away by those who claimed to come saviors. Nor did he ever realize it on this earth, for long before America made good her pledge to Cuba, Calixto Garcia was in his grave.

A brighter phase of the end of the Santiago campaign resulted from the treatment of the Spanish prisoners of war by the American soldiers. Both armies had learned in their struggle to respect the prowess of the other. The wonderful defense of El Caney and San Juan and the equally heroic attack taught a lesson to each that could not be learned in any other way. The Spanish, also, learned that the American was far from being the

pig” and money-grubber that the foreign prints had portrayed, and

“We would not be fulfilling our duty as wellborn men, in whose breasts there lives gratitude and courtesy, shoull we embark for our beloved Spain without sending to you our most cordial and sincere good wishes and farewell. We fought you with ardor, with all our strength, endeavor. ing to gain the victory, but without the slightest rancor or hate toward the American nation. You have complied exactly with all the laws and usages of war as recognized by the armies of the most civilized nations of the world, have given honorable burial to the dead of the vanquished, have cured their wounded with great humanity, have respected and cared for your prisoners and their comfort, and lastly, to us whose condition was terrible, you have given us freely of food, of your stock of medicines, and you have honored us with distinction and courtesy, for after the fighting the two armies mingled with the utmost harmony. From 11,000 Spanish soldiers.


Soldier of Infantry.”




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The capture of Porto Rico a strategical necessity --Organization of the army for operations against

the same - Sailing of the expedition General Miles changes his plan and lands at Guanica instead of Fajardo — Ponce yields without a blow — Headquarters established there - Advance of the American forces across the island — A battle at Guayama prevented by the announcement of the signing of the peace protocol — General Miles.

From the very beginning of the war Miles offered other important reasons with Spain, Major-General Miles de- for selecting Porto Rico for the scene sired the first aggressive movements

of the first activities. This island was of the American army to be directed Spain's supply station in the West against the enemy in Porto Rico, for Indies. With Porto Rico occupied, a he considered this island the key to strategical position of first importance Spanish power in the West Indies. would be gained, and the line of comThe climate was more healthful than munication with Spain severed. An that of Cuba, and dangers to be en- interesting letter to Senator Morgan countered from fevers and malaria of Alabama, written by Admiral Amduring a summer campaign were men from Washington, February 3, vastly less than in Cuba. The fact prior to the opening of the war, shows that more than twice as many men not only remarkable insight into the died of fevers as from Spanish bullets Spanish situation, but outlines a plan during the Santiago campaign is of operations which if carried out alone proof enough that it would have might have proved successful: been a wise precaution to have con

“If Spain chooses to make war,

we should sidered the relative climates of the

at once take Puerto Rico, which will leave her two islands in planning operations;

without a point except the island of Cuba. Then

I would say we should knock all their defences and when the vast improvement this

down except those of Havana, for the comfort century has made in sanitation and and in aid of the insurgents, but not land a man medicine over a hundred years ago is

on the island, as we should do on Puerto Rico,

which we should occupy with a considerable force. considered, it is impossible not to

As for Havana, we might try our hand as bemarvel that out of an equal force of tween her guns and ours afloat. As for the

Spanish Xary, I have the idea that it is in a men, we lost by disease as inany as the

very bad condition, and it would be a question of British army lost during their opera- relative forces whether we should engage it.” tions on the Island of Cuba in 1762. Aside from the humane consideration About a month after Lieutenant of the welfare of the soldiers, General Rowan performed his famous feat of

carrying “A message to Garcia.”


ington he was promised immediate Lieutenant Henry Whitney sailed for reinforcements as well as necessary Porto Rico on a similar errand, and implements for disembarkation, and under disguise managed to explore a with these promises and the 3,314 great deal of the southern portion of men he had already, he set sail on the island, gathering information July 21. A weary altercation with which proved of inestimable value Admiral Sampson regarding the conlater on, and, as did Rowan, daily voy of battleships had added to the risking his life in the undertaking delay, and as two of the ships accomIn his interesting account of General panying bore troops, and could thereMiles' campaign in Porto Rico, Lieu- fore be classed as part of the transtenant Whitney does not mention that ports, it may be said the convoy conit was he who performed this valuable sisted of only the battleship Massaservice, yet it is interesting to note chusetts, the converted yachts Glouthat he had since been raised to the cester and Dixie. The cruisers Corank of not only captain but assistant lumbia and Yale were the two othadjutant-general, nor is it difficult to

ers of the convoy which bore troops. infer why.

Of transports proper, there were the It was General Miles' policy to do Lampasas, Neuces, City of Macon, nothing by halves. From the minutest Comanche, Unionist, Specialist, Rita to the most important detail he was and Stillwater. scrupulously exact. It is character- It had been planned to land at Faistic, then, that after receiving per- jardo, on the northeast coast, but this mission from Washington to proceed intention had somehow been comagainst Porto Rico, he delayed prepa- municated to the world at large by the rations until he had looked after the ever-vigilant and incautious American health of the fever-stricken men of press, and when General Miles realthe 5th Corps in Santiago. His last ized that his landing place had betelegram, sent on shipboard before come known to the Spanish he desailing, was one of caution and direc- cided to modify his plans without notions regarding the sanitation of the tice. Besides this, he was influenced camps, and the prevention of the by learning that troops were being spread of the disease.

concentrated at Fajardo. The water Now that fever was rife among there was shallow, and as a result Shafter's men, it would have been would probably make it difficult to get folly to have taken even those not yet the troops ashore. In striking coninfected from among them, and he trast to the undesirable Fajardo, therefore found himself obliged to Guanica, on the southern coast of the fall back almost entirely upon the island, offered him every advantage, forces he had personally conducted and more. It was of 412 fathoms of thither to aid Shafter. From Wash- water; it had within its harbor sugar

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