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President Garfield inaugurated — His Cabinet — Dispute over nomination of Judge Robertson

Conkling and Platt resign in protest Not re-elected — The President shot by Guiteau Efforts to save his life unavailing — He dies September 19— Vice-President Arthur sworn in

- Cabinet changes — Blaine's diplomatic intercourse: with Great Britain: with Chili: with South and Central American republics — Business conditions unsettled — Crops poor — Large sur. plus in treasury Congress proceeds to spend it — River and Harbor bill — “Star Route" frauds — Changes in politic. I situation — Internal revenue and tariff bills — Financial distress in 1884 — Record of failures — Political nominees and platforms — Cleveland elected - Other events.

President Garfield was inaugurated also because the former incumbent was March 4, 1881, and chose the following closely affiliated with Conkling in men as his Cabinet officers, who were politics. confirmed without debate: Secretary Robertson had gained the enmity of of State, James G. Blaine, of Maine; Conkling at the convention which Secretary of the Treasury, William nominated Garfield for the presidency Windom, of Minnesota; Secretary of by refusing to vote for Grant, for War, Robert T. Lincoln, of Illinois, whom Conkling was endeavoring to son of President Lincoln ; Secretary of secure a third term. The minority of the Navy, William H. Hunt, cf Louis- the New York delegation under the iana; Secretary of the Interior,

the Interior, leadership of Robertson refused to acSamuel J. Kirkwood, of Iowa; Post- cept the unit rule in voting and this master-General, Thomas L. James, of example had great influence in the New York; Attorney-General, Wayne convention, so much so that Conkling MacVeagh, of Pennsylvania.

could not secure the two-thirds maThe President's subsequent nomina- jority necessary to nominate Grant. tions were not so well received by "he This defection finally resulted in Senate. Judge William H. Robertson swinging the necessary votes to Gar. was nominated for the office of col- field. For this aid, therefore, Garfield lector of customs for the port of New appointed Robertson to the position York, but his confirmation was op- named, and Conkling used this arguposed by Senator Conkling, of New ment as a reason for his rejection ov York, because the latter considered the Senate. that the appointment was made in pay- Conkling also held that nominations ment for political services rendered to for Federal offices should be made Garfield by Judge Robertson* and upon the recommendation or at least

* A. R. Conkling, Life of Conkling, p. 636. with the approval of the Senators of

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the State wherein these offices were but after examination it was ascerlocated. He called upon the Senate to

tained that the wound was not fatal reject Robertson because Garfield in and that he was still alive. Guiteau presenting his name had acted con- was arrested and conveyed to prison trary to the courtesy of the Senate." to await the result of his deed. Conkling succeeded in withholding the The President was removed to the consent of the Senate, but Garfield re- White House and the best medical and fused to make another nomination, surgical skill employed in an and the two Senators from New York deavor to save his life. He gradually --Conkling and Platt-resigned their became weaker, however, and as the seats (May 16) as a protest, supposing White House

House was considered unthat their immediate re-election would healthy he was removed to the searebuke Garfield sufficiently to induce coast at Elberon, New Jersey. There him to withdraw Robertson's name. for a few days he seemed to gain

The conflict was now transferred to strength, but the hope was vain as Albany and carried on with much bit neither change of place nor of climate terness, even Vice-President Arthur proved to be of lasting benefit. He stooping to mingle in the fray. But lost strength daily and finally died greatly to their surprise, instead of September 19.* being endorsed and re-elected by the The assassin was brought to trial State legislature, Conkling and Platt before Judge Cox in the District of were rejected and retired from public Columbia, on November 14, and the life for a season. Garfield had won.* case lasted until January 25, 1882, be

Garfield, however, did not enjoy the cause of the obstructive tactics emfruits of his victory very long, for ployed by counsel. He was found soon after this political struggle had guilty, and on February 3 was senended he was struck down by the hand tenced to be executed.. of an assassin. On July 2 the Presi- Immediately after President Gardent had determined to leave Wash- field's death was announced Viceington for a brief holiday and in com- President Arthur took the oath of pany with Secretary Blaine


office as President in his home in New awaiting the arrival of the train in the York, and two days afterward was railway station, when an assassin, sworn in by Chief Justice Waite at Charles J. Guiteau, crept stealthily Washington. Garfield's Cabinet then behind the President and shot him in tendered their resignations, as is usual the back. Garfield fell to the ground, under such circumstances, but they to retain their positions until com- Blaine was particularly desirous of espetent successors could be found. Mr. tablishing closer relations with the Windom, Secretary of the Treasury, Central and South American republics was the first of the officials to leave and two events which now transpired the Cabinet. He resigned in order to confirmed his opinion that stronger represent Minnesota in the Senate, friendship with these countries would and was succeeded on November 15, be mutually advantageous. 1881, by Judge Charles J. Folger, of The question of national rights in New York. Folger died in 1884 and connection with the projected Panama Gresham was transferred to the canal was one of these things. In a Treasury portfolio, but he soon re- circular letter to the American represigned and was succeeded by Hugh sentatives in Europe Mr. Blaine very McCulloch. In December, 1881, At- forcibly expressed his adherence to the torney-General MacVeagh gave way " Monroe Doctrine." * In November, to Benjamin H. Brewster, of Penn- 1881, in a dispatch to Minister Lowell, sylvania. On January 5, 1882, Tim- he proposed a revision or revocation othy D. Howe, of Wisconsin, became of the Clayton-Bulwer treatyř by the Postmaster-General, but in April,

were requested by the new President * Conwell's Garfield, pp. 346-348; Conkling, Life of Conkling, pp. 638–643; Crawford's Blaine, * Conwell's Garfield, pp. 349–376; Bundy's Garpp. 488–492; Boutwell's Reminiscences, vol. ii., field, pp. 233-274; Crawford's Blaine, pp. 498pp. 260-276; McClure's Recollections, pp. 11l113; Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. i., pp. † Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. i., pp. 319-329.



but in April, terms of which any interoceanic canal 1883, Walter Q. Gresham, of Indiana, was to be under the guarantee of the took his place. Upon Folger's death, two contracting powers and of any as we have seen, Gresham became others who might join them in the proSecretary of the Treasury and the jeet. Mr. Blaine claimed that the Postmaster-Generalship was filled in United States should have jurisdiction October, 1884, by Frank Hatton, of over the territory and that it should be Iowa. In April, 1882, William E. under our guarantee and protection. Chandler, of New Hampshire, suc- The British government, however, ceeded Mr. Hunt as Secretary of the declined to accept the amendments Navy; and in the same month Henry suggested by Mr. Blaine, and conM. Teller, of Colorado, took the place siderable diplomatic correspondence of Mr. Kirkwood as Secretary of the ensued with Blaine and with his sucInterior. The final withdrawal of Mr.

cessor, Mr. Frelinghuysen. I The Blaine took place late in 1881, and he latter held that as Great Britain had was succeeded as Secretary of State violated the treaty, it was voidable at by Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of the option of the United States. He New Jersey, whose views were more also said that the canal needed a proin harmony with those of the new tectorate only of the United States President than Mr. Blaine's had been.

Diplomatic Correspondence, 1881, p. 537. Before Blaine relinquished his

Ibid, 1881, p. 554; Crawford's Blaine, pp. office, however, several important mat- 510-514; Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 341-342. ters in connection with our foreign re

I Senate Ex. Doc. No. 194, 47th Congress, 1st

session; Senate Er. Doc. No. 26, 48th Congress. lations had come up for consideration. 1st session; Tucker, Monroe Doctrine, pp. 55-76.

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