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achieve action addition administration adopted agency amendment appeal application approved assignment assistance attendance authorities basis Board of Education boundary Brown changes Chesterfield concerning considered constitutional construction continue County decision defendants denied desegregation determine directed discrimination district court effect efforts elementary schools enrollment equal established existing facilities fact factors Federal financing findings funds further grant held Henrico high school housing integration interest involved issue Junior minority necessary Negro officials operation opinion opportunity parents percent persons plaintiffs population practices present problems proposed protection public schools pupils question race racial reason requested residents resolution respect result Richmond rule school board school districts school division school system segregation separate statute substantial superintendent Supp supra Supreme Court teachers tion transportation United Virginia zone
Page 4 - Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship. Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment.
Page 5 - Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to retard the educational and mental development of Negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racially integrated school system.
Page 4 - In approaching this problem, we cannot turn the clock back to 1868 when the Amendment was adopted, or even to 1896 when Plessy v. Ferguson was written. We must consider public education in the light of its full development and its present place in American life throughout the Nation.
Page 2 - Amendments undoubtedly intended them to remove all legal distinctions among "all persons born or naturalized in the United States." Their opponents, just as certainly, were antagonistic to both the letter and the spirit of the Amendments and wished them to have the most limited effect. What others in Congress and the state legislatures had in mind cannot be determined with any degree of certainty.
Page 155 - What is this but declaring that the law in the States shall be the same for the black as for the white ; that all persons, whether colored or white, shall stand equal before the laws of the States, and, in regard to the colored race, for whose protection the amendment was primarily designed, that no discrimination shall be made against them by law because of their color?
Page 49 - Desegregation" means the assignment of students to public schools and within such schools without regard to their race, color, religion, or national origin, but "desegregation" shall not mean the assignment of students to public schools in order to overcome racial imbalance.
Page 579 - Upon timely application anyone shall be permitted to intervene in an action: (1) when a statute of the United States confers an unconditional right to intervene; or (2) when the applicant claims an interest relating to the property or transaction which is the subject of the action...
Page 521 - In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority...