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place," still holds its position as one of the most beautiful and valuable estates in Massachusetts. Ed. ward Garfield, Sr., had two sons, viz., Edward, Jr., and Samuel. The latter lived a bachelor's life, but Edward, Jr., was a selectman three years, and married a lady of Newton, Massachusetts, who died April 16, 1661. She had, however, before her death, given birth to three sons and two daughters, viz., Samuel, the date of whose birth we cannot ascertain, but who died November 20, 1684; Joseph, who was born August 14, 1631; Rebecca, who was born March 10, 1640; Benjamin, who was born in 1643, and died November 28, 1717; and Abigail, who was born June 29, 1646.

BENJAMIN GARFIELD, Edward, Jr.'s fourth child, remained at home in the old mansion, and married Mehitable Hawkins, in 1673. After the birth of two children, viz., Benjamin and Benoni, she died December 9, 1675, and her gravestone is still standing in the cemetery at Watertown. Benjamin married. Elizabeth Bridge, of Watertown, for his second wife, January 17, 1677. By this second marriage there were born to him Elizabeth, whose birth was June 30, 1679; Thomas, born December 12, 1680, and who died in Weston, Mass., February, 1752; Anne, who was born June 2, 1683; Abigail, who was born July 13, 1685; Mehitable, whose birth was December 7, 1687; Samuel, whose birth was September 3, 1690; and Mary, who was born October 2, 1695.

Captain Benjamin Garfield, the father, was a distinguished citizen of Watertown, and was given a

captain's commission by the Governor, in the Colonial Militia. He held numerous town offices, and was elected nine times to the Colonial Legislature. He was a stout, broad-shouldered man, with an open, cheerful countenance, and most affable and kind in his manners. His light complexion, and especially the light hair, appear to have descended to the present generation.

It appears, from the old records, that Captain Garfield's house and barn were burned on the night of March 29, 168-, by his negro servant, Joshua, and on the night of April 9th, Joshua was discovered with his throat cut, a knife clasped in his hand. He had, perhaps, committed suicide out of remorse. In 1684 the captain's fence was burned by Christopher Thompson, who was ordered to be sold into a neighboring colony. Both of these were probably slaves.

His eldest son by his second wife, LIEUT. THOMAS GARFIELD, was married to Mercy Bigelow, daughter of Joshua and Elizabeth (Flagg) Bigelow, January 2, 1706, and he also made his home at the old homestead. At his death, the estate passed out of the family. He appears to have inherited many of his father's natural qualities, and to have won for himself the esteem and friendship of the people of his town.. He was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Militia, and saw active service in a campaign against the Indians. His wife died February 28, 1744. He died February 4, 1752. They had twelve children, viz., Elizabeth, born August 10, 1708; Eunice, born August 23, 1710; THOMAS, JR., March, 1713, and who

died January 3, 1774; Thankful, born February 15, 1715; Isaac, born February 19, 1716; John, born December 3, 1718; Samuel, born April 11, 1720; Mercy, born June 17, 1722; Ann, born June 1, 1724; Lucy, October 5, 1725; Elisha, November 11, 1728; and Enoch, June 23, 1730.

THOMAS GARFIELD, JR., married Rebecca Johnson, daughter of Samuel and Rebecca Johnson, of Lunenburg, Mass., and moved to Weston, and afterwards. to Lincoln, Mass., where he owned a large farm, and where he died, January 3, 1774. Their children were born as follows, viz., Solomon, July 18, 1743; Rebecca, September 23, 1745; Abraham, April 3, 1748; Hannah, August 15, 1750; Lucy, March 3, 1754.

SOLOMON GARFIELD, the eldest son of Thomas, Jr., married Sarah Stimson, of Sudbury, May 20, 1766, and soon after his marriage they moved to Worcester, Otsego County, N. Y., where he purchased a farm. He was accidentally killed by falling from a beam in his barn, in 1806. His children were Thomas, Solomon, Rebecca, Hannah, and Lucy.

Solomon's brother Abraham was an earnest devotee of American independence, and lived at Lincoln, Massachusetts, when the Revolutionary war began. He was one of the first volunteers who enlisted in defense of the Colonies, and was in the fight at Concord, and was side by side with the ancestors of many illustrious Americans, including Judge E. Rockwood Hoar of Massachusetts. The signature of Judge Hoar's great-grandfather, John Hoar, and Abraham

Garfield are still preserved, and the curious document they signed was an important matter in its time.

At the beginning of the revolution, separation from England was not generally meditated, and it was deemed important to endeavor to fix the responsibility for the beginning of the conflict, showing which side struck the first blow, in the event of a settlement of the troubles. Therefore the affidavits of many persons concerned were secured and preserved. Their deposition, showing how the attack on Concord Bridge began, was as follows:

LEXINGTON, April 23, 1775.

WE, John Hoar, John Whithead, Abraham Garfield, Benjamin Munroe, Isaac Parker, William Hosmer, John Adams, Gregory Stone, all of Lincoln, in the County of Middlesex, Massachusetts Bay, all of lawful age, do testify and say that, on Wednesday last, we were assembled at Concord, in the morning of said day, in consequence of information received that a brigade of regular troops were on their march to the said town of Concord, who had killed. six men at the town of Lexington; about an hour afterwards we saw them approaching, to the number, as we apprehended, of about 1200, on which we retreated to a hill about 80 rods back, and the said troops then took possession of the hill where we were first posted; presently after this, we saw the troops moving toward the north bridge, about one mile from the said Concord meeting-house; we then immediately went before them and passed the bridge, just before a party of them, to the number of about 200, arrived; they then left about one-half of their 200 at

the bridge, and proceeded, with the rest, toward Col. Barrett's, about two miles from the said bridge; and the troops that were stationed there, observing our approach, marched back over the bridge and then took up some of the planks; we then hastened our march toward the bridge, and when we had got near the bridge, they fired on our men, first, three guns, one after the other, and then a considerable number more; and then, and not before (having orders from our commanding officer not to fire. till we were fired upon), we fired upon the regulars and they retreated. On their retreat through the town of Lexington to Charlestown they ravaged and destroyed private property and burnt three houses, one barn, and one shop.

Signed by each of the above deponents.

Solomon was also a strong advocate of American Independence, and met with a company on trainingday, but for some reason was not called into the militia.

Solomon's eldest son, THOMAS GARFIELD, was born in 1775, and lived a farmer's life at Worcester, Otsego County, N. Y., and married Asenath Hill, of Sharon, N. Y. Their children were Polly, Betsey, Abram, and Thomas. Abram was named for his patriotic uncle, who fought at Concord.

This Abram Garfield was the father of James A. Garfield, the subject of this biography. Abram was born December 28, 1799, at Worcester, Otsego County, N. Y., and, as his father, Thomas Garfield, was an industrious man, and not a wealthy farmer, he kept Abram at close and hard labor during his early years. Abram had but little opportunity for obtaining an education, although naturally a gifted and thoughtful

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