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horses; and several other vessels were wrecked, with more or less loss in stores and munitions. Much difficulty was encountered in passing over the bar at Hatteras Inlet into Pamlico Sound, in consequence of miscalculations in regard to draft of water, and it was not until February that this was effected. The enemy held Roanoke Island, with a force of three thousand men. The place was strongly intrenched, and was supposed capable of resisting any force that might be sent into the sound. On the 7th of February, the day after the surrender of Fort Henry to the gunboats of Flag-officer Foote, an attack was commenced. The gunboats, under Flag-officer Goldsborough, having cleared an entrance into Croatan Sound, and driven off the rebel fleet, consisting of seven gunboats, the Federal troops, under Generals Foster, Reno, and Parks, effected a landing at night, beyond the reach of the rebel guns, and advanced at daybreak on the 8th of February, through a dense swamp, upon the principal intrenchments, which extended across the only road leading through the island, and were protected on either flank by swamps and artificial obstructions of a formidable character. The main Federal column skirmished in front of these, until the rebel wings were simultaneously attacked by flanking parties, when with a determined rush it carried the works by storm. The enemy forthwith abandoned the place, and fled towards the upper end of the island, closely pursued. There were, however, no means of escape, and the whole force of nearly three thousand men surrendered at discretion. Among the killed on the side of the Confederates was Captain O. J. Wise, a son of Ex-Governor Henry A. Wise, who was shot while attempting to escape in a boat. H. A. Wise had been in command of the island, but had left it a few days before on account of illness. With this island fell the defences of the enemy in that region. On the 9th a portion of the fleet passed into Albemalre Sound and attacked the Confederate flotilla near Elizabeth City, capturing one and destroying four vessels. The troops, without encountering further resistance, took possession of Elizabeth, Edenton, and other towns, and the Union occupation of the Carolina sounds became well established. Thus almost simultaneously with the penetration of Kentucky and Tennessee, in the northwestern part of the proposed Confederacy, by the gunboats, the defences of North Carolina fell by the same means. The interior of that State and the rear of Norfolk were thus opened to the Union force.

Little of interest occurred at Fort Pickens until September 13th, when Lieutenant Russell, with five launches, containing each thirty men, pulled across from Santa Rosa Island to the navy-yard, two miles distant, and, with singular audacity and address, burned the schooner Judith, fitting out as a privateer or blockad-erunner, under the guns of the yard. At midnight on the 8th of October, about twelve hundred of the enemy, under command of General Anderson, landed on Santa Rosa Island and surprised the camp of the Sixth New York Zouaves, who were driven out in confusion. A party of regulars arriving from Fort Pickens, and the Zouaves partially rallying, the rebels were in turn driven off, their departure being hastened by a heavy fire opened upon them at short range after they had embarked. The loss was not large on either side.

In November, the force on the island was thirteen hundred men, under Colonel Brown. The enemy's force was rated at eight thousand men, occupying the navy-yard, with four long Dahlgren thirty-twos; Fort McRea, with four columbiads and a number of heavy guns; and Fort Barrancas, with twenty-five Dahlgren thirty-twos. There were also fourteen batteries between these points, with one to four columbiads each. Colonel Brown determined to open upon them, and he invited Flag-officer McKean to co-operate. On the morning of November 22d, Colonel Brown began his fire. The enemy's batteries formed a segment of a circle, all nearly equidistant from Pickens. The steam frigates Niagara and Richmond drew in as near to Fort McRea as soundings would permit. The fire of Pickens was incessant until dark. By noon the guns of McRea were silenced, and several other batteries ceased firing before sundown. The next morning Fort Pickens opened again, but many of the enemy's guns were silent, and at noon the village of Warrington and the navy-yard took fire, when the cannonade was brought to an end. Fort Pickens lost one gun, and six men wounded. The report of Colonel Brown dwelt at length upon the efficiency of rifled guns, and particularly of Parrott guns.


The defences of the city of Galveston (Texas) were abandoned in the month of November, as not being available against the long range and heavy calibre of the blockading force. It is the most populous sea-port of Texas, and had in 1860 a population of eight thousand one hundred and seventy-seven. It is situated on an island at the mouth of Galveston Bay, about four hundred and fifty miles west by south of New Orleans, and two hundred and thirty miles southeast of Austin City. The island, which separates the bay from the Gulf of Mexico, is about thirty miles long from east to west, and about a mile and a half wide. The distance from the island across the bay by the railroad bridge to the mainland is about two miles. For the defence of the city, guns were placed during the year at the east end of the island, at Bolivar Point, and at Pelican Spit Island, commanding the bay. Its commerce under the blockade ceased entirely. The cause of the South was ardently espoused by the inhabitants, and numbers entered the army. No important occurrence of a hostile nature, however, took place here until August 3d, when a few shots were fired from the blockading schooner Dart at the batteries on Galveston Island. This was intended as a sort of a reconnoissance. Again, on the 5th, the steamer North Carolina opened her fire upon the batteries, and threw some shells into the city. A large number of persons having collected on the sand-hills, a little eastward of the batteries, a shell fell among them, killing one man and wounding three others. This led to a protest by the foreign consuls resident in the city, addressed to Captain Alden, commanding the blockading squadron, against bombarding without notice given. He, in reply, disclaimed the intention, but stated that he had been fired upon by the batteries first. Nothing further of importance took place until November 20th, when, after consultation of the citizens, it was thought impossible to defend the town, all public and private property of a movable kind was sent to Houston, and a line of signals established which should cause the

concentration of troops on the first approach of an enemy; no further events, however, occurred.

At New Orleans, Captain G. N. Hollins, of the Confederate navy, formerly of the United States navy, and who directed the bombardment of Greyton, Nicaragua, under the administration of Mr. Pierce, was engaged during the summer in fitting out a fleet, and among other vessels constructed a steam ram, called the Manassas, which was the hull of a steamboat, plated with railroad iron, and having a projection from her bow beneath the water-line, sufficient to punch a hole in the hull of a wooden vessel if striking her with force. The Federal blockading force in the Mississippi, in October, consisted of the steamship Richmond, Captain John Pope, the sloops-of-war Preble and Vincennes, and the small steamer Water Witch. The Richmond, October 12th, was lying at the Southwest Pass, taking in coal from a schooner, when, at four o'clock A. M., the ram was discovered close to the ship. It struck her abreast of the fore channels, making a breach in her side and tearing loose the schooner. Five planks were stove in the ship's side, two feet below the water-line. Passing aft, the ram made an attempt to breach the stern of the ship. As she passed, the Richmond delivered her fire with all her port guns, but with what effect is not known. The sloops of war were at anchor a short distance below, and were signalled to get under way. When the ram struck she sent up a rocket, and soon three large fire-rafts, stretching across the river, were seen rapidly approaching, towed by a propeller and some steamers. The squadron immediately got under way and drifted down the river. The Richmond, Preble, and Vincennes got ashore on the bar, and while there were attacked by the rebels, but without receiving any damage. But one shot took effect, and that struck the Richmond on the quarter. They were beaten off by the Vincennes with two guns, she having thrown overboard the rest of her armament, with her chains, anchors, &c., to lighten her, as she was very much exposed to the fire of the enemy. The fire-rafts soon grounded and burnt up. The Union vessels escaped with no damage except to the Richmond, and no one was killed or wounded on the Federal fleet.

The operations of the navy in blockading and in aid of the expedition were now very effective, and the complaints that had, at the commencement of the war, been more or less just, in relation to the effectiveness of the blockade, subsided. It was generally admitted that the blockade was as effective as any had ever been, while successive occupation of important points on the coast encouraged the hope that the South, cut off from intercourse with the outer world, would soon be reduced to submit.



Army of the Potomac.-Volunteers.-Union Advance.-Lewinsville.-Ball's Bluff. — Gereral Scott Retires.-McClellan in Command.—Dranesville.—Programme of Movement.-President's Proclamation.

IN Chapter XI. we left the Army of the Potomac gradually acquiring discipline and consolidation under the command of General McClellan. The matériel and discipline of the army meantime improved, and became more permanently effective. The three-months' men had all retired, and the new troops were learning those duties and becoming inured to those hardships that they had voluntarily undertaken for the war. The difference between three-months men, or the militia, and volunteers for the war was a distinction that had grown out of our long peace. In 1795, soon after the formation of the Government, when the hardships of war were yet fresh in the minds of the people, Congress had, in consequence of the whiskey rebellion, authorized the President to call forth the militia to suppress insurrections, and to use such militia until thirty days after the next meeting of Congress, no man to be compelled to serve longer than three months after his arrival at the place of rendezvous in any one year. In 1812-15 the law was amended so as to require the men to serve six months, but the amendment applied only to that war. Under the law as it stood, therefore, the troops called our by Mr. Lincoln could only serve three months. The volunteers who so eagerly filled up the ranks for three years or the war could now devote the necessary time to acquiring the trade of war; and this they were doing under the continued supervision of General McClellan. While being constantly exercised in the drill and in the use of arms, the troops were employed in strengthening and increasing the numerous works around the city. The enemy meantime made no active demonstration. He was in no force to do so, and the fact that he was permitted with an army, probably scarcely more than one-third so great as McClellan's, to coop up the Federal troops within the defences of Washington, was to many loyal people a source of mortification. The majority, however, had unbounded confidence in McClellan, and yielded up their scruples to what they considered his better judgment. Hence the rebel outposts were pushed slowly towards the Potomac, and in the middle of September occupied Munson's Hill, in sight of the Capitol. Skirmishes continued along the line, of more or less importance. Towards the close of September the enemy fell back along his whole line towards Fairfax Court-House, his main body occupying nearly the same position as at Bull Run. On September 28th the Union troops pushed forward and occupied Munson's and Upton's Hills, and Fall's Church village. Two advance bodies of the Union troops came into collision by mistaking each other for the enemy, near Fall's Church. An attack was made and answered,

and before the error was discovered ten men were killed and about twenty wounded. On the 9th of October General Smith's division of the Union troops, from the chain bridge, occupied Lewinsville. A portion of the troops under Brigadier-General Porter also advanced and occupied Miner's Hill, to the right of Fall's Church, and commanding that village and Barrel's Hill, which latter was in possession of rebel pickets. On October 16th Vienna was occupied by the Union forces, and on the 17th Fairfax Court-House, the enemy retiring upon Centreville and Manassas.

On the 30th of September, General McClellan issued an order of the day, containing regulations for the troops, and affixing names to the thirty-two fortifications that had been erected around Washington. This was followed by the following regulation, which carries on its face the necessity for its issue :


"WASHINGTON, October 1, 1861

"The attention of the general commanding has recently been directed to depredations of an atrocious character that have been committed upon the persons and property of citizens in Virginia, by the troops under his command. The property of inoffensive people has been lawlessly and violently taken from them, their houses broken open, and in some instances burned to the ground. The general is perfectly aware of the fact that these outrages are perpetrated by a few bad men, and do not receive the sanction of the mass of the army. He feels confident, therefore, that all officers and soldiers who have the interest of the service at heart will cordially unite their efforts with his in endeavoring to suppress practices which disgrace the name of a soldier.

"The general commanding direct that in future all persons connected with this army who are detected in depredating upon the property of citizens shall be arrested and brought to trial; and he assures all concerned, that crimes of such enormity will admit of no remission of the death penalty which the military law attaches to offences of this nature. When depredations are committed on property in charge of a guard, the commander, as well as the other members of the guard, will be held responsible for the same as principals, and punished accordingly.

"By command of Major-General MCCLELLAN.

"S. WILLIAMS, Assistant Adjutant-General. "RICHARD B. IRWIN, Aide-de-Camp."

Colonel John W. Geary, of the Pennsylvania Twenty-eighth Regiment, with detachments from his own, the Thirteenth Massachusetts, and Third Wisconsin Regiments, in all four hundred men, crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, October 8th, and captured twenty-one thousand bushels of wheat. While upon his return and on the Charleston road, near Bolivar Heights, midway between the Potomac and the Shenandoah Rivers, he was attacked, October 13th, by a large Confederate force with infantry, artillery, and cavalry. Rebel batteries upon London and Bolivar Heights participated in the action, as did also a National battery upon the Maryland side. After several hours of intermittent fighting, the rebels were driven off, with considerable loss. The National loss was four killed and seven wounded, and two prisoners. Colonel Geary took from the rebels one thirty-two-pounder. The Union troops subsequently fell back from the Virginia side of the Potomac.

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