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hundred and seven wounded, and ten missing. The Confederate loss was reported as twenty-five killed, ninety-seven wounded, and thirty prisoners, among them a major and several other officers.

At Huntersville, about forty miles from Staunton, the Confederates had a dépôt of munitions and stores, which General Milroy, on the 31st of December, sent a force of seven hundred and fifty men to break up. On the 3d of January the advancing force encountered the Confederate pickets at Greenbrier River, six miles from Huntersville. The rebels fell back upon the main body four miles in the rear, when the whole retreated, leaving the Union troops in possession of the stores, which were destroyed to the amount of $25,000 or $30,000.

On the 4th of January, 1862, the Confederate General Jackson made a reconnoissance in force towards Hancock, Md., where General Lander was in command. After tearing up a portion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the neighborhood of this place, and partly destroying the Little Cacapon bridge, he sent a flag of truce over to Hancock, demanding its surrender within an hour, under threat of bombardment. General Lander replied by planting his cannon on a hill, and bombarding Jackson's camp, which led to his speedy withdrawal.

On the 7th of January a detachment of General Kelley's forces, commanded by Colonel Dunning, Fifth Ohio, left Romney, and attacked the Confederates, two thousand strong, at Blue Gap, Va., east of Romney. The enemy were completely routed, with a loss of fifteen killed, two pieces of cannon, their wagons, tents, &c., with twenty prisoners, including one commissioned officer.

The operations of the Cenfederates became less energetic in that section of the State until February 13th, when their force having concentrated at Blooming Gap, it was surprised and dispersed by General Lander, with a loss of thirteen killed and seventy-five prisoners. General Lander then reported the department entirely clear of Confederates, and asked to be relieved of his command on the ground of illhealth, he having never recovered from the wound received at Edwards's Ferry. He died on the 2d of March, 1862, of congestion of the brain, induced by over-exertion while still suffering from his wound.

CHAPTER XIV.

Strength of the Navy.-Blockade.-Captures by the Navy.-Large Increase of Ships of War-Right of Blockade.-Propositions of the American Government.-Action of England and France.—Privateers.-The Sumter.-The Nashville.—Trial of Privateers.-Laws of Piracy.—Retaliation of the Confederates.—Exchange of Prisoners.

THE navy of the United States, like the army, had never previous to the rebellion been kept up on a scale in any degree proportioned to the commercial interests, or the rank of the nation, as compared with other Governments. The commercial marine was of itself, however, regarded as the main portion of our naval power, since in it were nur

tured and trained those hardy seamen who, in time of war, man the national ships, or, as privateers, form the "militia of the seas." Any nation which has a large and thriving commerce is necessarily a naval power: on the other hand, those Governments which have not a welldeveloped commerce cannot become great naval powers, no matter what may be their resources in other respects; at least, this has heretofore been the experience of the world. The immense changes wrought by steam in naval science, however, render a comparatively smaller number of trained seamen necessary to work powerful steam batteries, and may therefore alter the relative naval strength of nations. The United States had made but little progress in this direction, and on the outbreak of the war, vessels, whether steam or sail, were by no means in sufficient numbers for the exigencies of the Government. On the 16th of January, 1861, the whole naval strength of the United States, available for the defence of the entire Atlantic coast, according to a report of the Congressional Committee, was the steamer Brooklyn, of twenty-five gun's, and the store-ship Relief, of two guns. The committee called attention to the extraordinary defenceless state in which the coast was thus left, stating that the number of ships lying in port dismantled and unfit for service was twenty-eight, mounting eight hundred and seventy-four guns, and that from six weeks' to six months' time would be required to make them serviceable. The gradual arrival of vessels from abroad soon imparted more strength to the coast defence. In March, the Cumberland, flag-ship of Commodore Pendergrast, arrived at Norfolk, and was detained there. Commodore McCauley, in command of the Norfolk navy-yard, was cautioned in the beginning of April to put the public property there in a condition to be moved, but to act so cautiously as not excite alarm at the South. The results we have seen in a previous chapter, where the loss of the Gosport navy-yard was recounted. The Government, on learning the aggressions of the Confederates, exerted itself to hasten at once the completion of all pubic armed vessels, and issued orders in Boston, Philadelphia, and New York to purchase, charter, arm, and equip all such steamers as could be found suitable for the public service. The whole naval force was required to carry into effect the proclamations declaring an embargo or blockade of the Southern ports. On account of the great extent of coast, three thousand miles, the force was divided into two squadrons, one for the Gulf of Mexico and one for the Atlantic. At Hampton Roads notice was given of this blockade by Flag-officer Pendergrast, and on the 13th of May, Flag-officer Stringham, having arrived in Hampton Roads with the Minnesota, proceeded to carry it into effect. Meantime the President had issued the following proclamation :

"BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

"Whereas, for the reasons assigned in my proclamation of the 19th instant, a blockade of the ports of the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, was ordered to be established; and whereas, since that date public property of the United States has been seized, the collection of the revenue obstructed, and duly commissioned officers of the United States, while engaged in executing the orders of their superiors, have been arrested and held in cus

tody as prisoners, or have been impeded in the discharge of their official duties, without due legal process, by persons claiming to act under authority of the States of Virginia and North Carolina, an efficient blockade of the ports of these States will therefore also be established.

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

"Done at the City of Washington, this 27th day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the independence of the United States the eighty-fifth.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN.

"By the President: "WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State."

As the Government vessels returned from foreign stations, they were immediately employed in carrying out the blockade. The Niagara arrived at Boston, from Japan, April 24th, and immediately proceeded to Charleston Harbor, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico, to intercept the shipment of arms and munitions from Europe to the Gulf States. Flag-officer Mervine arrived in the Gulf, June 8th, with the steamer Mississippi, in advance of his flag-ship, the Colorado. The blockade of Mobile (Ala.) harbor was commenced May 27th, and Fort Morgan, which guards its entrance, welcomed the blockading fleet by displaying the United States flag, with the Union down, below the Confederate flag, on the same staff. The Cumberland, Pawnee, Monticello, and Yankee were enforcing the blockade off Fortress Monroe. The steamers Philadelphia, Baltimore, Powhatan, and Mount Vernon, of the Aquia Creek line, recently taken possession of by the Federal Government, were cruising on the Potomac, all heavily armed.

In Chapter IX. we have given the condition of the navy as stated in the report of the Secretary, July 4th, to Congress. According to that report, from March 4th to July, two hundred and fifty-nine officers had resigned from the navy. This number, with those that previously gave up their commissions, made three hundred and thirty that left the service after November, 1860. For this reason, many vessels were without a full complement of officers. There were, however, numbers who, having in times past left the service for civil pursuits, came promptly forward to offer their services, and many masters and masters' mates were taken from the mercantile service. So promptly did seamen present themselves, that only two or three vessels experienced any detention for want of crews. The navy underwent a most rapid increase, as well in men as vessels. The aggregate of the purchases up to January, 1862, was as follows:

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The side-wheel vessels carried from one to ten guns each, the screws from one to nine, the ships one to eight. Of the side-wheel steamers, nine were first-class ships. Among the steamers were eighteen ferryboats, bought from the Brooklyn and New Jersey ferry companies. The armed vessels, in the operation of enforcing the blockade, captured a considerable number of vessels, from April to November.

The vessels purchased were, however, few of them suitable for the blockading service, which required continuous duty off the coast in all weathers. The department therefore contracted for the construction of twenty-three gunboats, of five hundred tons each, and made arrangements for larger and fleeter vessels, in addition to taking steps towards carrying out the order of Congress of the preceding session, for the construction of seven sloops-of-war. Of these latter, two were directed to be built at each navy-yard-Portsmouth, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia-making eight. The following table gives the names, character, and cost of the vessels built:

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Unadilla

Ottawa.. Pembina.. Seneca... Chippewa... Winona.... Owasco. Kanawha.. Cayuga.

Huron

Chocura

Sagamore
Marblehead.

Kennebec....
Aroostook

Name.

Taboma
Wissahickon ....
Sciota

Itasca

Name.

Sebago
Mohaska

Sonoma

Conemaugh.
Maratanza

FOURTEEN SCREW SLOOPS, 1,200 TONS EACH, CARRYING SEVEN GUNS,

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Philadelphia..

66

66

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.New York.

64

66

66

66

66

66

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Kineo

Bath

Katahdin
Penobscot..... Belfast
Pinola..

Mystic River..
East Haddam

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.Kennebec
Portland

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Boston

66

44

.Baltimore

............

Place built.
Portsmouth

........

TWENTY-THREE SCREW GUNBOATS, 500 tons each, carrying four guns.
Place built

Builder of
machinery.

.$53,500... Reany & Archbold.... $46,500
58,500... Merrick & Sons...
52,000..J. P. Morris & Co....
58,000... 66

45,000
44,000

" 66

66

45,000

31,500

81.500

Builder of hull.
Wilmington, Del....W. & A. Thatcher
Philadelphia.... ..John Lynn....
Jacob Birely.
Hillman & Streaker...
.John Englis.....
.J. A. Westervelt.
.Thomas Stack..
.J. Simonson
Webb & Bell...
C. & R. Poillon.
.Maxon, Fish & Co...
.E. G. & W. H. Goodspeed.
Portland, Conn.....Gildersleeve & Son..
.Boston

81,500

31,500

.Paul Curtis.

66

44

Curtis & Tilden.

....A. & G. Sampson... Newburyport......G. W. Jackman, Jr... .Thomaston, Me..... G. W. Lawrence..

Tioga....

Genesee.

Octorara
Port Royal
Miami

Cimerone

Paul Jones.....Baltimore

.New York..

46

66

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Builder of hull.
.Government.

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...N W. Thompson..
..J. W. Dyer..

Larrabee & Allen.
.C. P Carter..

..J. J. Abrahams.........

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Builder of hull.
Government

36
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46

66

46

64

Thomas Stack.
Philadelphia... ..Government..
Bordentown, N. J...D. S. Merchon.

.J. J. Abrahams.....

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TWELVE SIDE-WHEEL STEAMERS, 700 TONS EACH, CARRYING FOUR GUNS.

Builder of
machinery,
.Novelty Works
.Morgan Works..
Novelty Works.

66

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46

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56.500... Novelty Works.
56,500...

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56,500...
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46,000

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46,000

55,000...Morgan Works
55,000...Allaire Works..
53,000...Novelty Works..
52,000...Pacific Works..
52,000... Woodruff & Beach.... 45,500
55,000...H. Loring...
53,000...

45,500

Price of machinery.

64

47,500

55,000...Atlantic Works.....
52,000...Highland Works.
52,000...Novelty Works.
53,000.
52,000...Morgan Works
52,000.. 66
52,000..Allaire Works........ 42,000
52,000...C. Reeder.....

46,500
45,500

6

46,000

.H. Loring..
Morgan Works
.Neptune Works

66

46,000 ... 45,000

46,000 43.000 45.500

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Price of machinery. ....$50.000

50,000 50,000 50,000 48,000

50,000

48,000 48.000

Vessel complete.. .100.000 Merrick & Sons....... 48,000 .Complete ..100.000 ..Reany & Archbold.... 50,000

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THREE IRON-CLAD STEAMERS, 1,500 TONS EACH, CARRYING TWO, TWELVE, AND EIGHTEEN GUNS,

Price of machinery. ........$235.000 28.14-0

780,000

Name.

Galena
Monitor

Ironsides

Place built.

Mystic....
New York..
.Philadelphia.

Builder of hull.
Bushnell & Co..
John Ericsson.
Merrick & Sons..

.Complete for..

The names of most of this new fleet are of Indian origin, imparting at least “an odor of nationality," if they are not easily borne in mind. The first of the gunboats launched was the Unadilla, August 17th, and thirty days later she made a very satisfactory trial trip. A description of her construction will serve for that of all. Her length is one hundred and sixty-eight feet, width twenty-eight feet, and depth of hold twelve feet. She is schooner rigged, and has two engines, furnished by the Novelty Works, each complete in itself. They are what is termed back action; the cylinders are thirty inches in diameter, with an eighteen-inch stroke; the boilers are of the vertical tubular form; there are fifty-two feet of grate surface, and two thousand feet of heating surface. The propeller is nine feet in diameter, with a mean pitch of twelve feet; the shaft is sixty-four feet long. There is accommodation for over one hundred and fifty tons of coal on board. She averaged nine miles per hour, the boiler showing twenty-eight pounds of steam, and the propeller making seventy-five to eighty revolutions per minute. With the aid of canvas, her speed was estimated at fifteen miles per hour.

As the strength of the Federal navy increased, greater effect was given to those proclamations of the President by which a blockade. of the Southern coast was established. Out of this right of blockade, however, grew many interesting questions, particularly in respect to the effectiveness of the blockade. The authority of the President to institute a blockade at all was, in some quarters, denied. It was insisted that this power, under the Constitution, could exist only in the legislature. The Circuit Court of Washington, however, held that the President was commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and, as such, had a right to employ them in the manner he deemed most effectual to subdue the enemy; as chief of the navy, he had an undoubted right to order a ship to capture an enemy's vessel, and to shut up his port is only another mode of attack. The facts set forth in the proclamation show that civil war exists. Blockade is a belligerent right, and can only legally have place in a state of war. A sovereign nation, engaged in the duty of suppressing an insurrection of its citizens, may act in the twofold capacity of sovereign and belligerent. By inflicting through the judiciary the penalty which the law affixes to the crimes. of treason and piracy upon those found guilty of those offences, it acts in its capacity of sovereign. By instituting a blockade of the ports of its rebellious subjects, and enforcing that measure by capturing its vessels and cargoes, and capturing the vessels of any or all nations that shall attempt to violate the blockade, it is exercising a belligerent right, and the courts in adjudication of prizes are organized as prize

courts.

The question was also raised whether a nation could blockade its own ports and collect duties, since the Constitution declares that no

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