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manding at Cairo, stating that Tennessee troops had entered Columbus. Governor Magoffin telegraphed to Governor Harris, protesting against this, to which Governor Harris replied, that he would request President Davis to withdraw the troops at once. General Polk issued the fol lowing proclamation at Columbus, Kentucky, September 14th:-

"The Federal Government having, in defiance of the wishes of the people of Kentucky, disregarded their neutrality by establishing camp dépôts of armies, and by organizing military companies within her territory, and by constructing military works on the Missouri shore, immediately opposite and commanding Columbus, evidently intended to cover the landing of troops for the seizure of that town, it has become a military necessity, for the defence of the territory of the Confederate States, that the Confederates occupy Columbus in advance. The major-general commanding has, therefore, not felt himself at liberty to risk the loss of so important a position, but has decided to occupy it in pursuance of this decision. He has thrown sufficient force into the town, and ordered to fortify it. It is gratifying to know that the presence of his troops is acceptable to the people of Columbus, and on this occasion he assures them that every precaution shall be taken to insure their quiet, protection to their property, with personal and corporate rights."

In consequence of this movement of General Polk, General Grant left Cairo on the 6th with two regiments of infantry, one company of. light artillery, and two gunboats, and took possession of Paducah, Kentucky, near the mouth of the Tennessee River. He found secession flags flying in different parts of the city, in expectation of the arrival of the Southern army, which was reported three thousand eight hundred strong, sixteen miles distant. The loyal citizens tore down the secession flags on the arrival of the Federal troops.

General Grant took possession of the telegraph cffice, railroad dépôt, and marine hospital. He found large quantities of complete rations and leather for the Southern army. He then issued the following proclamation:

"I have come among you, not as an enemy, but as your fellow-citizen. Not to maltreat or annoy you, but to respect and enforce the rights of all loyal citizens.

An enemy in rebellion against our common Government has taken possession of and planted his guns on the soil of Kentucky and fired upon you. Columbus and Hickman are in his hands. He is moving upon your city. I am here to defend you against this enemy, to assist the authority and sovereignty of your Government.

"I have nothing to do with opinions, and shall deal only with armed rebellion and its aiders and abettors. You can pursue your usual avocations without fear. The strong arm of the Government is here to protect its friends and punish its enemies. "Whenever it is manifest that you are able to defend yourselves, and maintain the authority of the Government, and protect the rights of loyal citizens, I shall withdraw the forces under my command.

"U. S. GRANT, Brigadier-General Commanding."

On the 9th, the following statement by four commissioners, appointed from Tennessee to maintain friendly relations with Kentucky, was communicated by Governor Magoffin to the Legislature :

"The undersigned yesterday received a verbal message, through a messenger, from Governor Harris. The message was-that he. (Governor Harris) had, by telegraph dispatch, requested General Polk to withdraw the Confederate troops from Kentucky, and that General Polk had declined to do so; that Governor Harris then telegraphed to Secretary Walker, at Richmond, requesting that General Polk be ordered to withdraw his troops from Kentucky, and that such order was issued from the War Department of the Confederacy; that General Polk replied to the War Department that the

retention of the post was a military necessity, and that the retiring from it would be attended by the loss of many lives."

On the same day a dispatch from General Polk to Governor Magoffin was laid before the Legislature, the substance of which was, that he had occupied Columbus and Hickman, on account of reliable information that the Federal forces were about to occupy these points; that he considered the safety of Western Tennessee and of the Confederate army in the vicinity of Hickman and Columbus demanded their occupation by the Confederate forces; and that, in corroboration of these statements, the Federal troops had been drawn up in line on the river opposite to Columbus prior to its occupation by the Confederate forces, causing many of the citizens of Columbus to flee from their homes, for fear of the entrance of the Federal troops. General Polk proposed substantially, that the Federal and Confederate forces should be simultaneously withdrawn from Kentucky, and enter into recognizances and stipulations to respect the neutrality of that State.

It was so evident that the purpose of this proposal was to place Kentucky in a condition favorable to her being dragged into secession, that the loyal Legislature had no hesitation in regard to the course to be pursued. On the 11th of September the House of Representatives adopted a series of resolutions directing the Governor to call out the military of the State to expel the Confederate troops, encamped on the soil of Kentucky. The vote on the passage of the resolutions stood seventy-one in favor to twenty-six against. The House then refused to amend the resolutions, in order to require both the Federal and Confederate troops to evacuate the State. The Governor vetoed the resolutions passed. Both houses, however, immediately passed them

over his veto.

Meantime, General Felix Zollicoffer, of Tennessee, had, with a large body of rebel troops, marched through Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. He telegraphed to Governor Magoffin on September 14th that the safety of Tennessee demanded the occupation of Cumberland Gap and the three long mountains in Kentucky, and that he should hold them until the Union forces were withdrawn. This was laid before the Legislature.

The decision expressed by the resolutions above mentioned was hailed with great satisfaction by the friends of Union. It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of this act on the part of the State. Whether viewed in its relation to the material or moral aspects of the civil strife in the land, the active adhesion of Kentucky to the Union cause was a momentous event. But it was specially valuable for the testimony it bore to the rightfulness and the necessity of the belligerent issue which the National Government had been compelled to accept. Colonel Thomas L. Crittenden, of the Sixth Indiana Regiment, was the first to bring troops in aid of the State; and Governor Magoffin issued his proclamation, ordering him to execute the objects contemplated by the resolutions of the Kentucky Legislature in reference to the expulsion of the invaders. General Crittenden ordered the military to muster forthwith into service. Hamilton Pope, Briga

dier-General of the Home Guard, also called on the people of each ward to meet in the evening, and organize into companies for the protection of the city.

General Robert Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter, by order of the Federal Government, assumed command of the State and National forces on September 20th, and issued the following proclamation, September 21st:

"KENTUCKIANS :-Called by the Legislature of this my native State, I hereby assume command of this department. I come to enforce, not to make laws, and, God willing, to protect your property and lives. The enemies of the country have dared to invade our soil. Kentucky is in danger. She has vainly striven to keep peace with her neighbors. Our State is now invaded by those who professed to be her friends, but who now seek to conquer her. No true son of Kentucky can longer hesitate as to his duty to his State and country. The invaders must, and, God willing, will be expelled. The leader of the hostile forces [General Buckner] who now approaches is, I regret to say, a Kentuckian, making war on Kentucky and Kentuckians. Let all past differences of opinion be overlooked. Every one who now rallies to the support of our Union and our State is a friend. Rally, then, my countrymen, around the flag our fathers loved, and which has shielded us so long. I call you to arms for self-defence, and for the protection of all that is dear to freemen. Let us trust in God, and do our duty as did our fathers. ROBERT ANDERSON, Brigadier-General U. S. A."

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Brigadier-General Crittenden also issued a proclamation calling for troops, and directing the State Guard to rendezvous at Louisville. Immediately upon the appearance of these documents, General A. S. Johnston, general and commander of the Western Department of the army of the Confederate States, head-quarters at Memphis, issued a counter-proclamation, to the effect that his troops were present to aid the people of Kentucky in maintaining their neutrality, by helping them to drive out the Federal invaders. Thus was Kentucky launched into the contest for the maintenance of the Government and the preservation of the Union. On the 23d of September, a bill was passed by her Legislature, authorizing a loan of one million dollars, for the defence of the State, in addition to a like sum authorized May 24th, in State bonds, payable in ten years, and levying a tax to pay the bonds and interest. A bill calling out forty thousand volunteers was also passed-sixty-seven to thirteen in the House, twenty-one to five in the Senate to serve one to three years; and one declaring that Kentuck ians voluntarily taking service with the Confederate States should be incapable of acquiring real estate in Kentucky, unless they returned to their allegiance within sixty days. Thanks were returned to Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, for forwarding troops to the State's aid. On the 1st of October, a resolution was passed-twenty to five in the Senate, fifty-five to thirty-one in the House-requesting John C. Breckinridge and L. W. Powell to resign their seats as senators in Congress. Should they fail to comply, Congress was requested to investigate their conduct, and if it was found to be in opposition to the Government, to expel them. The banks of Kentucky promised to furnish their quota of the two loans of a million dollars each, which had been authorized in May and September. Under these laws, the State was brought fully into the field, with arms and money, for the cause of the Union.

The Legislature then adjourned until November 27th, having issued an address to the people of the State, in which it was declared that the neutral attitude of Kentucky had been admitted by the United States, but violated by the Confederates, leaving the State no choice but to exert its authority and drive out the invaders. In the mean time, the Confederates continued to pour across the border, and gradually concentrated to the number of thirteen regiments of infantry, six field batteries, three battalions of cavalry, with three steamboats on the Mississippi River, at Columbus under Generals Polk and Pillow, and at Cumberland Gap under General Zollicoffer. General Buckner, formerly commander of the State forces, to whose treachery the Legislature charged the demoralization of the State troops, appeared within twenty-five miles of Louisville. He had advanced under assurances of large re-enforcements, but as these were not forthcoming, he fell back upon Bowling Green.

The different recruiting stations and points occupied by the Confederates for offensive operations in Kentucky, at the beginuing of October, were estimated to contain forces nnmbering as follows:

Hickman, under General Polk................
Bowling Green, under General Buckner..
Cumberland Gap, under General Zollicoffer..
Owen County, under Humphrey Marshall..

Near Hazel Green, under J. C. Breckinridge.
Near West Point..

Bloomfield. . . . . .

Total rebel forces in Kentucky......










The Union forces near Louisville numbered twenty thousand. Considerable bodies of troops also continued to pour in from Ohio and Indiana, centring at Covington and other points. There had been numerous organizations, under the name of home guards, in the State, for drill and elementary instruction. These embraced many troops who ultimately left the State, the larger portion joining the Confederates, though some were incorporated with Federal troops.

The force under Zollicoffer had a slight skirmish at Barbourville, September 18th, with the home guards at that place. The Confeder ates had been scouring the country to Winchester, committing more or less depredations, and on October 1st retreated to Cumberland Ford, which they fortified. This is fifteen miles within the Kentucky line, and thus commanded Cumberland Gap in their rear, a point very essential to communication between Kentucky and Western Virginia. A Federal force of Ohio and Indiana troops, with some Kentucky volunteers, under the command of General Schoepf, was about this time assembled at Camp Wild Cat, in Southeastern Kentucky; and on the 21st of October, Colonel Coburn, of the Thirty-third Indiana, pursuant to orders, took three hundred and fifty men, with a portion of Colonel Woolford's Kentucky Cavalry, and advanced to take possession of an eminence, half a mile to the east of the camp. This force was attacked by two regiments of Zollicoffer's troops, who, shouting

that they were Union men, approached within a short distance, and took deliberate aim before the falsehood was discovered. The Indiana troops, not relishing this cowardly trick, returned a well-directed and steady fire, and the enemy precipitately retired. During the engagement Colonel Coburn was twice re-enforced, and repelled two successive attacks made by Zollicoffer's troops, who finally retired to Barbourville. The Federal loss was six killed and twenty wounded. The rebel loss was much more considerable. General Schoepf's head-quarters were soon after established at Somerset, thirty miles east of London, where he had command of about seven thousand men, or, with the force at Camp Calvert, ten thousand. General George B. Crittenden commanded the Confederate troops in East Tennessee and East Kentucky, and was at Cumberland with a large force, threatening East Kentucky. There were also a number of Union troops at London and Wild Cat, on the Lexington and Cumberland road.

General Buckner, on occupying Bowling Green, issued a proclamation to the people of Kentucky, dated September 18th. He charged the Legislature with having been faithless to the will of the people, and asserted that it was only after the State had, under the proclamation of President Lincoln, been occupied by United States troops, that the Confederates entered the State; also, that the Confederate troops, on the invitation of the citizens of Kentucky, entered the State to assume a defensive position only. .

"We do not," said he, "come to molest any citizen, whatever may be his political opinions. Unlike the agent of the Northern despotism, who seek to reduce us to the condition of dependent vassals, we believe that the recognition of the civil rights of citizens is the foundation of constitutional liberty, and that the claim of the President of the United States to declare martial law, to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, and to convert every barrack and prison in the land into a Bastile, is nothing but the claim which other tyrants have assumed to subjugate a free people. The Confederate States occupy Bowling Green as a defensive position."

The southern portion of Kentucky was now in complete possession of the Confederates. The re-enforcements that Buckner expected on his advance to Louisville he did not get; but the news of the surrender of Mulligan at Lexington, Missouri, caused great numbers to rally round him, and all opposition to the Southern invaders seemed to be extinguished in Southern Kentucky. Bowling Green was fortified and held, and Buckner sent troops from town to town, expelling the refractory, receiving the submission of the weak and mercenary, and bringing the whole country under Confederate sway. On the 24th of September General Anderson issued the following order :


GMBERLAND, "LOUISVILLE, KY., September 24th, 1861. "The commanding general, understanding that apprehension is entertained by citi zens of this State who have hitherto been in opposition to the policy now adopted by the State, hereby gives notice that no Kentuckian shall be arrested who remains at home, attending to his business, and does not take part, either by action or speech, against the authority of the General or State Government, or does not hold correspondence with, or give aid or assistance to, those who have chosen to array themselves against us as our enemies. ROBERT ANDERSON, "Brigadier-General U. S. A., Commanding.”

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