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These energetic and able movements cleared Western Virginia of Confederate forces, and exposed Johnston, who was then in front of Patterson. They closed General McClellan's career in the Department of the Ohio, within a few days of the disastrous events which disorganized the Army of the Potomac, and the prestige which he thus acquired seeming to indicate his ability to reorganize and consolidate the Army of the North, he was transferred to the command of the Army of the Potomac.
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Effect of the Battle of Bull Run.-Confederate Congress.-Davis's Message.-Privateering.-Affairs in Missouri.-Commissioners to Europe.-Southern Armies and Finances.
WE have now brought our history to the close of its first period, when the impatience of the people, and the imperfect preparation and training of the troops, hitherto unskilled in the art of war, led to the disastrous battle of Bull Run. From the humiliation which followed that defeat, the North emerged with a purer patriotism, a courage and zeal which rose above defeat, and a determination to put forth all her energies to crush out the rebellion. The work of enlistment went on with great rapidity, and before the Confederate forces had recovered from the terrible havoc made in their ranks, the danger which for a few days after the battle had threatened the Federal capital was past, and new regiments were stretching their lines of defence in every direction around it. At the South the effect was different; it seemed to sustain the views there held, that the Northern troops could not withstand the shock of arms when opposed to the South. This impression, it has been alleged, was of great detriment to the Southern cause, since it prevented that persevering and energetic preparation which was indispensable even to a defensive policy, and which the North undertook with vigorous determination and patient perseverance.
The Confederate Congress, which had adjourned May 20th, at Montgomery, to meet in Richmond, assembled July 20th, in the hall of the House of Delegates. The names of the executive, cabinet, and members of Congress of all the States except Tennessee, Texas, and Arkansas, are embraced in the following list:
Secretary of State...
...Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi.* Alexander H. Stephens, of Georgia.f
.Robert Toombs, of Georgia.t
MEMBERS OF CONGRESS.
Virginia.-James A. Seddon, Wm. Ballard Preston, R. M. T. Hunter, John Tyler, Wm. H. Macfarland, Roger A. Pryor, Thomas S. Bococke, Wm. S. Rives, Robert E. Scott, James M. Mason, J. W. Brockenbrough, Chas. W. Russell, Robert Johnson, Walter R. Staples, Walter Preston.
North Carolina.-Geo. Davis, W. W. Avery, W. N. H. Smith, Thomas Ruffin, T. D. McDowell, A. W. Venable, J. M. Morehead, R. C. Puryear, Burton Craige, E. A. Davidson.
Alabama.-R. W. Walker, R. H. Smith, J. L. M. Curry, W. P. Chilton, S. F. Hale, Colin J. McRae, John Gill Shorter, David P. Lewis, Thomas Fearn.
Florida.-Jackson Morton, J. P. Anderson, J. Powers.
*Jefferson Davis was born June 3d, 1808, in Christian County, Kentucky, but removed with his family in childhood to Mississippi. He entered Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky, in 1822 or 1823, and in 1824 left the University to enter the Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated in 1828. He remained in the army sever. years, was promoted to a first-lieutenancy, served in the Black Hawk war, and in 1835 resigned his commission and retired to a plantation in Mississippi. In 1844 he was one of the Democratic Presidential electors. In 1845 he was elected a Representative in Congress, and in July, 1846, resigned his seat, and took command of the First Regiment of Mississippi Volunteers in the Mexican war, distinguished himself at Monterey and at Buena Vista, and in the latter battle was severely wounded. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers by President Polk, but declined on State Rights grounds. He was elected to the United States Senate in January, 1848, to fill an unexpired time, and in 1850 re-elected. He resigned in 1851, to run as candidate for Governor of Mississippi, but was defeated by Henry S. Foote, the Union candidate. In 1858 he was called into President Pierce's cabinet as Secretary of War, and in 1857 returned again to the Senate. He resigned his seat in the Senate on the 21st of January, 1861, on the occasion of the Becession of Mississippi, and in February was elected provisional President of the Confederate States. In the succeeding November he was elected first permanent President under the regular constitution, and retained that office until captured at Irwinsville, Georgia, in May, 1865, and conveyed to Fortress Monroe. On May 26th,
he was indicted for treason by the grand jury of the District of Columbia.
+ Alexander H. Stephens was born in Georgia on the 11th of February, 1812. Assisted by friends, he entered the University of Georgia in 1828, and in 1832 graduated at the head of his class. In 1834 he commenced the study of the law, and soon entered upon a lucrative practice. From 1887 to 1840 he was a member of the Geor gia Legislature. In 1842 he was elected to the State Senate, and in 1843 was elected to Congress as a Whig, retaining his seat unti! 1859. In 1854 he was Chairman of the Committee on Territories, and effected the pas sage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill through the House. He was at first a strenuous opponent of secession, but nevertheless was elected provisional Vice-President of the Confederate States in February, 1861, and in November permanent VicePresident. In May, 1865, he was arrested in Georgia, and imprisoned in Fort Warren, Boston harbor.
Robert Toombs was born in Washington, Wilkes County, Georgia, July 2d, 1810, graduated at Union College, Schenectady, New York. in 1828, and studied law at the University of Virginia. In 1886 he served as captain of volunteers under General Scott, in the Creek war. He was elected to the State Legislature in 1837, to Congress in 1845, to the United States Senate in 1858, and re-elected in 1859. He withdrew from the Senate January 23d, 1861, on the secession of Georgia, was appointed Secretary of State of the Confederate States, February 21st, and in July resigned, and was soon after appointed a brigadier-general in the Confederate army. In this capacity he never rose above mediocrity.
Georgia.-Robert Toombs, Howell Cobb, Pres't, Francis S. Bartow, Martin J. Crawford, Eugenius A. Nisbett, Benjamin H. Hill, A. B. Wright, Thomas R. R. Cobb, Augustus H. Keenan, Alex. H. Stephens.
HISTORY OF THE GREAT REBELLION.
Louisiana.-John Perkins, Jr., A. Declouet, Charles M. Conrad, D. F. Kenner, Edward Sparrow, Henry Marshall.
Mississippi.-Willie P. Harris, Walker Brooke, W. S. Wilson, A. M. Clayton, W. S. Barry, James T. Harrison, J. A. P. Campbell.
South Carolina.-R. B. Rhett, Sr., R. W. Barnwell, L. M. Keitt, James Chesnut, Jr., C. G. Memminger, W. Porcher Miles, Thomas J. Withers, W. W. Boyce.
Mr. Davis sent in a message, in which he congratulated the Congress on the accession of new members from North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. He criticised with great severity the message of President Lincoln recently communicated to Congress, and charged that the acts of the Federal authorities implied a recognition of the Confederate Government; also that the war was waged with a savage ferocity unknown in modern civilization; that grain crops and private houses, deserted by peaceable citizens flying from the outrages of a brutal soldiery, were consumed by the torch; and that property respected by British and Hessians in 1781, was pillaged and destroyed by people pretending to be fellow-citizens. "Mankind," he said, "will shudder at the tales of outrages committed on defenceless families by soldiers of the United States;" and he complained that special war was made upon the sick women and children by seeking to deprive them of medicines. He referred to the Border States and their sympathies with the South; to the suspension of the habeas corpus by the Federal executive, and other measures.
"We may well rejoice," said he, "that we have forever severed our connection with a Government that thus tramples on all principles of constitutional liberty, and with a people in whose presence such avowals could be hazarded."
He alluded to the additional force required; to the abundance of the crops; and stated that fifty millions had been subscribed in cotton.
The proceedings of the Congress were mostly conducted in secret session, and among its first acts was the ratification of the convention of Paris in 1856 in respect to maritime law. The interpolations of the Paris convention into maritime law had been a subject of discussion between the foreign powers and Mr. Pierce's cabinet. The proposition had been made that enemies' goods should be respected in neutral ships, and that neutral ships and goods should be free from the belligerent right of search. To this was added the abolition of privateering in time of war. Mr. Marcy, then Secretary of State, replied that the United States Government would accept the proposition in all respects except in relation to privateers. He stated that it was not the policy of the United States to maintain large standing armies or navies, which were opposed to the genius of our institutions; that the United States depended in time of war upon militia for protection; that merchant vessels or privateers were our "militia of the seas," and we could not be expected to deprive ourselves of that arm. Never