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calculating the actual saving of life bodies act incessantly, and a mutual to the community, by the introduc- conflict is the result. Life is alone tion of vaccination, admitting it to preserved by a permanent principle be a complete .prophylactic, have of re-action, which is here supposed reasoned very inconclusively while to be the principle of life, ånd which confining their observations to a is only known by its phænomena. mere comparison of the etfects pro- Life is divided into animal and ore duced by vaccination and variolation. ganic; and each of these into two The aggregate of lite and population, orders of functions : the existenca in a staustic view, can only fairly of animal life is evidenced in man, be contemplated in conjunction with and other animals; that of organic a variety of other causes, or agents, life in vegetables. The first order of which ought not to be separated from animal functions is, that which comthese. We shall conclude with ob- municates the impressions of the serving, that one of the chiet ojects senses to the brain ; the second, of the book before us is, to recom- that which communicates the inmend vaccination from a mode of pressions of the brain to the organs reasoning that has not hitherto been of loco-motion ; the first comprises applied to it, and.which is, neverthe- sensation, the second rolition. The less, perhaps possessed of as much, first order of the functions of organic or more validity, than any that bas life is denominated composition, rehitherto been brought forwards. sulting from digestion, circulation,

“Recherches Physiologiques sur respiration, and nutrition. This illusla Vie et la Mort, &c.” “ Phrysi- tration is unquestionably gratuitous ological Inquiries concerning Life and fanciful; for the second quali , and Death, by M. X. Bichat, is often incapable of proof in the physician of the Hôtel Dieu, pro- subjects of mereorganic life, the third fessor of anatomy, physiology, &c." nearly as often incapable, and the first This is the work of a man of some equally so in various instances. In de judgment, but of more fancy; yet author's inquiries concerning death, who has certainly studied his subject which constitute his second part, he with minute attention, and whose observes, that in all sudden deaths, theories are entitled to respect. It the organic survives the animal lite consists of two parts--Inquiries con- a certain greater or less time, and cerning Life-Inquiries concerning that the contrary cannot happen, Death. · Life,” observes our au- though the death of both may, is thor, is the union of those func- some cases, be nearly synchronous. tions which resist dissolution.” This, This, however, is by no means corhowever, is a vagne and unsatisfac- rect; for, on various occasions, both tory detinition; it gives us nothing kinds of death may be perfectly tangible or substantive ; a union of synchronous ; and we now allude to functions should imply a something death from electricity or lightning, that performs those functions, and and from a sudden and violent blow upon which such an union operates. on the stomach. Of sudden death, What is this something? We are indeed, produced by a violent blow completely out at sea, and without on the stoniach, so fully examined heln and compass. Living organis- into by the late Mr. John Hunter, eu bodies, we are told, are sur- and accompanied with the very es. rounded by agents of destruction. traordinary phænomenon of a del'pou such living bodies, inorganic struction of the coagulability of the

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blood, our author takes no notice Insects. V. Of the Internal Organiwhatever; his division of this partzation of Insects. VI. Of the Exof the subject being into sudden ternal Organization of Insects. VII. deaths, which have their origin in Of their Generation. VIII. Of their the heart, lungs, or brain ; the Instincts in the Preservation of their cause of death in the two surviving Offspring, and of their metemporgans from the inaction of the sychoses. This account of insects third; the mechanism by which the extends to the close of the third death of the body follows that of volume. The three ensuing are dethe affected organ ; the nature of voted to the new class of Crustacea, the different diseases affecting the which are described as animals “desheart, lungs, and brain.

titute of vertebræ, with articulated “ Histoire Naturelle, Génerále, et feet, often ten in number, apterous, Particulière, &c." “ Natural His- invested with a calcareous covering, tory, General and Particular, of furnished with four antennas, palCrustaceous Animals and Insects, pigerous mandibles, with several forming part of the continuation of jointed and imbricated peices bethe works of Leclerc, De Buffon, and neath, and feet destined only for of the complete Course of Natural walking or swimming; sometimes History, edited by C. S. Sovini, they are covered with a horny or member of various learned societies, soft substance, with not more than by P. A. Latreile, member of the the usual number of antennas, and National Institute of France, of the in a few instances none; mandibles Linnéan Society of London, &c. naked, and unprovided with the nu14 vols. 8vo." This is, indeed, a merous jointed peices beneath, feet very admirable work, and we hope bookless, some of them apparently to see it either wholly, or in an

furnished with branchial processes, abridged form, for it will admit of and two or four of them antennicompression, introduced to the Eng. form." This account of the cruslish reader in his own tongue. The tacea, whether regarded as definiintroductory volumes consist of eight tion, or description, is too loose dissertations, a sketch of eutomologi- and indigested for any system; and cal systems, and an exposition of we are sorry it should have been the families of the author's genera: given to the world in a shape so the dissertations are on the following extremely vague and unscientific. subjects : I. Of the Nature of In. We have only time to observe, that sects, and of their Order in the it is intended to include the Ento. series of Animals, in the course of mostraca of Muller and Lamark, which, M.L., following the division and the Malacostraca of the ancient of Lamark and Cuvier, separates Greek writers ; the former include them from the crustaceous tribes, ing the oyster, the latter the crabtribe and defines them as “ animals with- "Nouvelles Observations sur les out vertebræ, and with articulated Abeilles, &c.” “ New Observations feet ;" in most instances destitute relative to Bees, addressed to M, of red blood. II. Of the Manner of Ch. Bonnet, by Francis Huber, studying Insects. III. Of the In- 12mo.” This little work is the prostinct and Industry of Insects, as well duction of one of the most indefatiin their modes of nourishment as in gable eutomologists of the present their means of self-defence. IV. day, directed to a point of very conOf the Utility and Depredations of side able importance, and pregnant

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calculating the actual saving of life bodies act incessantly, and a mutual to the community, by the introduc- conflict is the result. Life is alone tion of vaccination, admitting it to preserved by a permanent principle be a complete .prophylactic, have of re-action, which is here supposed reasoned very muconclusively while to be the principle of life, and which confining their observations to a is only known by its phænomen. mere comparison of the effects pro- Life is divided into animal and orduced by vaccination and variolation. ganic; and each of these into two The aggregate of lite and population, orders of functions: the existence in a statistic view, can only fairly of animal life is evidenced in man, be contemplated in conjunction with and other animals; that of organic a variety of other causes, or agents, life in vegetables. The first order of which ought not to be separated from animal functions is, that which com. these. We shall conclude with ob- municates the impressions of tho serving, that one of the chief objects senses to the brain ; the second, of the book before us is, to recom- that which communicates the ini. mend vaccination from a mode of pressions of the brain to the organs reasoning that has not hitherto been of loco-motion ; the first comprises applied to it, and which is, neverthe- sensation, the second rolition. "The less, perhaps possessed of as much, first order of the functions of organic or more validity, than any that bas life is denominated composition, re. hitherto been brought forwards. sulting from digestion, circulation,

« Recherches Physiologiques sur respiration, and nutrition. This illusla Vie et la Mort, &c." “ Playsi- tration is unquestionably gratuitous ological Inquiries concerning Life and fanciful; for the second quali y and Death, by M. X. Bichat, is often incapable of proof in the physician of the Hotel Dieu, pro- subjects of mere organic life, the third ixsor of anatomy, physiology, &c.” nearly as often incapable, and :he first This is the work of a man of some equally so in various instances. In de judgment, but of more fancy; yet author's inquiries concerning death, who has certainly studied his subject which constitute his second part, he with minute attention, and wbose observes, that in all sudden deatbs, theories are entitled to respect. It the organic survives the animal life consists of two parts Inquiries con- a certain greater or less time, and cerning Life-Inquiries concerning that the contrary cannot happen, Death. “ Life," observes our au- though the death of both may, in thor, “is the union of those func- some cases, be nearly synchronous. tions which resist dissolution.” This, This, however, is by no means corhowever, is a vague and unsatisfac- rect; for, on various occasions, both tory definition ; it gives us nothing kinds of death may be perfectly tangible or substantive; a union of synchronous ; and we now allude 19 functions should imply a something death from electricity or lightning, that performs those functions, and and from a sudden and violent blow upon which such an union operates. on the stomach. Of sudden death, What is this something? We are indeed, produced by a violent blow completely out at sea, and without on the stomach, so fully examined honi and compass. Living organis- into by the late Mr. John Hunter, eu bodies, we are told, are sur- and accompanied with the very ex. rounded by agents of destruction. traordinary phænomenon of a deL'pou such living bodies, inorganic struction of the coagulability of the

blood

blood, our author takes no notice Insects. V. Of the Internal Organiwhatever; his division of this partzation of Insects. VI. Of the Exof the subject being into sudden ternal Organization of Insects. VII. deaths, which have their origin in Of their Generation. VIII. Of their the heart, lungs, or brain ; the Instincts in the Preservation of their cause of death in the two surviving Offspring, and of their metemporgans from the inaction of the sychoses. This account of insects third; the mechanism by which the extends to the close of the third cleath of the body follows that of volume. The three ensuing are dethe affected organ; the nature of voted to the new class of Crustacea, the different diseases affecting the which are described as animals “desheart, lungs, and brain.

titute of vertebræ, with articulated “ Histoire Naturelle, Génerále, et feet, often ten in number, apterous, Particulière, &c." “ Natural His- invested with a calcareous covering, tory, General and Particular, of furnished with four antennas, palCrustaceous Animals and Insects, pigerous mandibles, with several forming part of the continuation of jointed and imbricated peices bethe works of Leclerc, De Buffon, and neath, and feet destined only for of the complete Course of Natural walking or swimming; sometimes History, edited by C. S. Sonini, they are covered with a horny or member of various learned societies, soft substance, with not more than by P. A. Latreile, member of the the usual number of antennas, and National Institute of France, of the in a few instances none; mandibles Linnéan Society of London, &c. naked, and unprovided with the nu14 vols. 8vo." This is, indeed, a merous jointed peices beneath, feet very admirable work, and we hope hookless, some of them apparently to see it either wholly, or in an furnished with branchial processes, abridged form, for it will admit of and two or four of them antennicompression, introduced to the Eng. form.” This account of the cruslish reader in his own tongue. The tacea, whether regarded as definiintroductory volumes consist of eight tion, or description, is too loose dissertations, a sketch of eutomologi- and indigested for any system; and cal systems, and an exposition of we are sorry it should have been the families of the author's genera: given to the world in a shape so the dissertations are on the following extremely vague and unscientific. subjects : I. Of the Nature of In. We have only time to observe, that sects, and of their Order in the it is intended to include the Entoseries of Animals, in the course of mostraca of Muller and Lamark, which, M.L., following the division and the Malacostraca of the ancient of Lamark and Cuvier, separates Greek writers; the former include thein from the crustaceous tribes, ing the oyster, the latter the crabtribe and defines them as “ animals with- " Nouvelles Observations sur les out vertebræ, and with articulated Abeilles, &c." “ New Observations feet ;” in most instances destitute relative to Bees, addressed to M, of red blood. II. Of the Manner of Ch. Bonnet, by Francis Huber, studying Insects. III. Of the In- 12mo.” This little work is the prostinct and Industry of Insects, as well duction of one of the most indefatiin their modes of nourishment as in gable cutomologists of the present their means of self-defence. IV. day, directed to a point of very conOf the Utility and Depredations of siderable importance, and pregnant

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and argilloid. Metals are distin- itself, oliveoil, soda, alum, and gails, guished, as usual, into brittle and Chapter four contains minute details ductile. The numerous subdivi- respecting the various manipulations sions are exhibited in a convenient of different parts of the process : sjoptic table, prefixed to the body and chapter five gives an equally of the treatise.

distinct account of the means by “ L'Art de la Teinture du Coton which the cotton is made to assume en Rouge, &c." “ The Art of Dyeing the dye. The operation is divided Coron Red, by M. J. A. Chaptal, into four stages—the preparation of Member and Treasurer of the Se- the cotton-the application of the nate, &c. 8vo. with four plates, mordants—the application of the Puris.” Therc is no person to whom madder-and the brightening of the the perfection of modern nianutac- colour. The mordants employed are tures is more indebted than to the alum and galls, and the colour is indefatigable writer before us; who, brought out by nitrat of tio. with a singular and most fortunate. In our survey of the bigber union of talents for science and prac- branches of physical philosophy, we tical labour, bas for many years de- shall commence with noticing a Ger. voted a large portion of his time to man work of some consequence, the improvement of almost every art from the pen of M. Schroeter, enthat has any connection with che- titled " Seleno-Topographische Frage mistry. The general principles of menter and Beomachtunger, &c." dying were first developed by Berg- “ Seleno-Topographical Fragments man; the theory was considerably and Observations, with a view to an advanced by Berthollet, to whom exact Description of the Moon, the the work before us is dedicated ; and, changes to which she is liable, and if not brought to the highest state of the nature of her atmosphere; to perfection of which it is capable, is which are subjoined Maps and at least very considerably perfected Drawings. Gottingen, 4to, with by M. Chaptal. We may peruse 32 engravings." M. Schroeter is by this book, therefore, with a twofold no means unknown to our own advantage, since it not only presents countrymen, nor is the fame he has us with the ideas of an enlightened acquired amongst us of a vulgar kind. philosopher, but contains the result He is a valuable Fellow of our Roya! of an extensive application of them Society, and his paper on the planet to actual practice; for M. Chaptal Vesta, inserted of late in the Transinforms us, that he has for some actions of the Royal Society, cannot time conducted a large dying manu- fail of being known to the scientific factory, in which every individual readers of this excellent journal. process recommended in this volume He has for many years, noreover, has been sanctioned by ample expe- been particularly patronised by his rience. The first two chapters are Britannic Majesty, by whom the introductory, and describe the situ- most valuable of the astronomical ation proper for a dyeing establish instruments, lately at least, in the posment, the arrangements necessary session of the University at Gottinfor its various processes, and the in- gen, were presented gratuitously; struments requisite to be employed. and to whom, in proof of his gratiThe third chapter considers the tude, M. Schroeter has dedicated materials had recourse to in dyeing the work before us. For the rest, cotton by madder, viz. the madder together with much accuracy of re

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