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CHAPTER 11.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL.

Comprising the chief productions of France, Germany, Sweden.

IM

N the department of medicine, observes, " in order to ascertain the

M. E. Duvillard has furnished influence of the small-pox on the us with a very valuable and laborious mortality of each age, to know the work in his “ Analyse et Tableaux proportion of deaths produced by it, de l'Influence, &c." Analysis and compared with deaths produced by Tables of the Influence of the Small other diseases ; it is equally necesPox on Mortality at all ages; and of sary that the following important the Influence which such a preser- questions should also be resolved : vative as Vaccination may have on What are the laws of the mortality Population and Longevity, 4to, of a given country, and the number Paris.” The best inquiries which of persons living at different ages in have hitherto been pushed into this the natural state? What the number subject, are those of Daniel Ber- of those who have never had the nouilli, published in the volume of small-pox? Of these again, how the French Academy of Sciences, many annually catch it, and under for the year 1760; and that of what ages ? Of these moreover, how D'Alembert, published in the same many die, and under what ages ? work in the year ensuing, with a Amongst those who have died of view of controverting some of Ber- other diseases than the small-pox, nouilli's results. The question is here how many have not received this examined upon other grounds than complaint, together with their differthose of statistics, which, in point of ent ages? What is the law of the morfact, do not go to the root of the in- tality of those who have had the small. quiry; mathematics, in the papers pox, and of those who have never had before us, add their aid to statistics, it?" Among the more extraordinary and the investigation is continued results obtained by M. Duvillard, it through the medium of the differ- appears that the mortality of catchential and integral calculus. The ing the small-pox increases and deanalysis and tables before us are con- creases in a small degree only with ducted upon the same principles, the danger of dying when attacked and with a direct reference to the by this disease ; and that the disease antecedent labours of these great is less dangerous after the age of calculators ; and M. Duvillard has twenty-nine, and in proportion to a very considerable advantage over the patient's advance in years behis predecessors, by being able to yond this period. We are not quite draw a great body of facts from the satisfied, however, with the nature effect of vaccination, as a supposedly or extent of the tables upon whic! perfect preservative, and to muster this last result is founded, yet we them as a datum of new power and cannot avoid observing, that the influence. « It is not sufficient,” he vaccinists of our own country, in

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sexes violate the laws of nature, and disobey the dictates of prudence; while, on the contrary, in the fauxbourg Saint Antoine, industrious habits, regular hours, and more mo. derate and simple pleasures, instead of committing an outrage against nature, produce better health, protect against bodily infirmities, and ensure a peaceful and venerable old age. On remarking, in the cemetery of La Chaise, not only that all ranks of life, but that individuals of all religious sects, had deposited their bones in the same receptacle, he thus exclaims with genuine liberality, "Ah! who shall now dare to tell me, that if I do not adopt such particular opinions I shall be condemned to eternal punishment? What barbarian shall now dare to assert" out of my communion there is no salvation?" Incomprehensible and all-merciful Being! hast thou - then empowered any individual to avenge thyself? Does it belong to a vile creature to say to his fellow mortals, "subscribe my creed, or be for ever miserable?" What limits, great God ought finite beings like ourselves, to athix to thy clemency and justice? How shall I exclaim to thee, here shalt thou punish, and there shalt thou reward? Answer O ye dead! who are mouldering into dust,' was it possible for you all to follow the same creed? *

"Histoire Critique de la Philosophisme, &c." "Critical History of English Philosophism: by M: Tabarand." This is a more useful work in France than in our own country, in which the previous labours of LeJand, conducted upon a broader scale, and brought down to a lower period, have altogether superseded its scope and object. M. Tabarand

commences with Lord Herbert, and closes with Lord Shaftesbury: Blount, Hobbes, Locke, Collins, Tindal, Toland, and Woolston, filling up the interspace. The range of his inquiry, therefore, descends to the period of time in which Voltaire first imported these treasures of English philosophy, as he denominated thein, into France. The writer appears to have viewed the opinions of Locke, and even some few of those of Shaftesbury, through a false medium. His critical exami nation of the tenets of the rest is, for the most part, correct, and his refutation of their errors complete, and in several of his arguments, original.

From America we have received but little that is entitled to any degree of attention. Dr. Clarke, of Boston, in a work entitled "The Office of Reason in Religion," has called his countrymen to an examination of their religious creeds by the test of intellect. Nothing, bowever, can be more illogical. Reason or intellect should rather be applied to the facts on which such creed is founded, than to the doctrines of which it is composed, which, in many instances, cannot fail to bid de, fiance to its powers, not as being in congruous, but incomprehensible. In a book of a diametrically opposite character, the Rev. Mr. Edwards of Northampton, has published "A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising work of God, in the conversion of many hundred souls in Northampton, and the neighbouring towns and villages of New Hampshire in New England." This is, indeed, in the language of the writer, a surprising work! which is almost the only assertion it contains in which we can agree with him.

CHAPTER

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CHAPTER II.

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL.

Comprising the chief productions of France, Germany, Sweden.

I

N the department of medicine, M. E. Duvillard has furnished us with a very valuable and laborious work in his " Analyse et Tableaux de l'Influence, &c." "Analysis and Tables of the Influence of the Small Pox on Mortality at all ages; and of the Influence which such a preservative as Vaccination may have on Population and Longevity, 4to, Paris." The best inquiries which have hitherto been pushed into this subject, are those of Daniel Bernouilli, published in the volume of the French Academy of Sciences, for the year 1760; and that of D'Alembert, published in the same work in the year ensuing, with a view of controverting some of Bernouilli's results. The question is here examined upon other grounds than those of statistics, which, in point of fact, do not go to the root of the inquiry; mathematics, in the papers before us, add their aid to statistics, and the investigation is continued through the medium of the differential and integral calculus. The analysis and tables before us are conducted upon the same principles, and with a direct reference to the antecedent labours of these great calculators; and M. Duvillard has a very considerable advantage over his predecessors, by being able to draw a great body of facts from the effect of vaccination, as a supposedly perfect preservative, and to muster them as a datum of new power and influence. It is not sufficient," he

observes, "in order to ascertain the influence of the small-pox on the mortality of each age, to know the proportion of deaths produced by it, compared with deaths produced by other diseases; it is equally necessary that the following important questions should also be resolved: What are the laws of the mortality of a given country, and the number of persons living at different ages in the natural state? What the number of those who have never had the small-pox? Of these again, how many annually catch it, and under what ages? Of these moreover, how many die, and under what ages? Amongst those who have died of other diseases than the small-pox, how many have not received this complaint, together with their different ages? What is the law of the mortality of those who have had the smallpox, and of those who have never had it?" Among the more extraordinary results obtained by M. Duvillard, it appears that the mortality of catching the small-pox increases and decreases in a small degree only with the danger of dying when attacked by this disease; and that the discase is less dangerous after the age of twenty-nine, and in proportion to the patient's advance in years beyond this period. We are not quite satisfied, however, with the nature or extent of the tables upon which this last result is founded, yet we cannot avoid observing, that the vaccinists of our own country, in calculating

calculating the actual saving of life to the community, by the introduction of vaccination, admitting it to be a complete prophylactic, have reasoned very inconclusively while confining their observations to a mere comparison of the effects produced by vaccination and variolation. The aggregate of life and population, in a statistic view, can only fairly be contemplated in conjunction with a variety of other causes, or agents, which ought not to be separated from these. We shall conclude with observing, that one of the chief objects of the book before us is, to recommend vaccination from a mode of reasoning that has not hitherto been applied to it, and.which is, nevertheless, perhaps possessed of as much, or more validity, than any that has hitherto been brought forwards.

"Recherches Physiologiques sur la Vie et la Mort, &c."" Physiological Inquiries concerning Life and Death, by M. X. Bichat, physician of the Hotel Dieu, professor of anatomy, physiology, &c." This is the work of a man of some judgment, but of more fancy; yet who has certainly studied his subject with minute attention, and whose theories are entitled to respect. It consists of two parts-Inquiries concerning Life-Inquiries concerning Death. Life," observes our author," is the union of those functions which resist dissolution." This, however, is a vague and unsatisfactory definition; it gives us nothing tangible or substantive; a union of functions should imply a something that performs those functions, and upon which such an union operates. What is this something? We are completely out at sea, and without helni and compass. Living organised bodies, we are told, are surrounded by agents of destruction. Upon such living bodies, inorganic

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bodies act incessantly, and a mutual conflict is the result. Life is alone preserved by a permanent principle of re-action, which is here supposed to be the principle of life, and which is only known by its phænomena. Life is divided into animal and organic; and each of these into two orders of functions: the existence of animal life is evidenced in man, and other animals; that of organic life in vegetables. The first order of animal functions is, that which communicates the impressions of the senses to the brain; the second, that which communicates the inpressions of the brain to the organs of loco-motion; the first comprises sensation, the second volition. The first order of the functions of organic life is denominated composition, resulting from digestion, circulation, respiration, and nutrition. This illustration is unquestionably gratuitous and fanciful; for the second quali y is often incapable of proof in the subjects of mere orgánic life, the third nearly as often incapable, and the first equally so in various instances. In tde author's inquiries concerning death, which constitute his second part, he observes, that in all sudden deaths, the organic survives the animal life a certain greater or less time, and that the contrary cannot happen, though the death of both may, in some cases, be nearly synchronous. This, however, is by no means correct; for, on various occasions, both kinds of death may be perfectly synchronous; and we now allude to death from electricity or lightning, and from a sudden and violent blow on the stomach. Of sudden death, indeed, produced by a violent blow on the stomach, so fully examined into by the late Mr. John Hunter, and accompanied with the very extraordinary phænomenon of a destruction of the coagulability of the

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blood, our author takes no notice whatever; his division of this part of the subject being into sudden deaths, which have their origin in the heart, lungs, or brain; the cause of death in the two surviving organs from the inaction of the third; the mechanism by which the death of the body follows that of the affected organ; the nature of the different diseases affecting the heart, lungs, and brain.

Insects. V. Of the Internal Organi zation of Insects. VI. Of the External Organization of Insects. VII. Of their Generation. VIII. Of their Instincts in the Preservation of their Offspring, and of their metempsychoses. This account of insects extends to the close of the third volume. The three ensuing are devoted to the new class of Crustacea, which are described as animals "destitute of vertebræ, with articulated feet, often ten in number, apterous, invested with a calcareous covering, furnished with four antennas, palpigerous mandibles, with several jointed and imbricated peices beneath, and feet destined only for walking or swimming; sometimes they are covered with a horny or soft substance, with not more than the usual number of antennas, and in a few instances none; mandibles naked, and unprovided with the numerous jointed peices beneath, feet hookless, some of them apparently furnished with branchial processes, and two or four of them antenniform." This account of the crustacea, whether regarded as definition, or description, is too loose and indigested for any system; and we are sorry it should have been given to the world in a shape so extremely vague and unscientific. We have only time to observe, that it is intended to include the Entomostraca of Muller and Lamark, and the Malacostraca of the ancient Greek writers; the former includ ing the oyster, the latter the crab tribe

"Nouvelles Observations sur les Abeilles, &c." "New Observations relative to Bees, addressed to M. Ch. Bonnet, by Francis Huber, 12mo." This little work is the production of one of the most indefatigable cutomologists of the present day, directed to a point of very considerable importance, and pregnant

"Histoire Naturelle, Génerále, et Particulière, &c." "Natural History, General and Particular, of Crustaceous Animals and Insects, forming part of the continuation of the works of Leclerc, De Buffon, and of the complete Course of Natural History, edited by C. S. Sonini, member of various learned societies, by P. A. Latreile, member of the National Institute of France, of the Linnéan Society of London, &c. 14 vols. 8vo." This is, indeed, a very admirable work, and we hope to see it either wholly, or in an abridged form, for it will admit of compression, introduced to the Eng. lish reader in his own tongue. The introductory volumes consist of eight dissertations, a sketch of eutomological systems, and an exposition of the families of the author's genera: the dissertations are on the following subjects: I. Of the Nature of Insects, and of their Order in the series of Animals, in the course of which, M.L., following the division of Lamark and Cuvier, separates them from the crustaceous tribes, and defines them as " animals without vertebræ, and with articulated feet;" in most instances destitute of red blood. II. Of the Manner of studying Insects. III. Of the Instinct and Industry of Insects, as well, in their modes of nourishment as in their means of self-defence. IV. Of the Utility and Depredations of

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