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sented his town in the general assembly and discharged the office of a justice of the peace for the county of Litchfield. Destitute of a finished education, without a learned profession, he applied himself to the study of agriculture, and laboured personally in the field. By his natural stability, good sense, affability, kindness, and integrity, he gained the confidence of his fellow citizens, and many important offices which the town of Salisbury had to bestow were secured to him. With a numerous and growing family, a mind formed for adventures, and a firmness which nothing could subdue, he determined to lay a foundation for their future prosperity by emigrating on to the Newhampshire grants: In the year 1773 he removed to Williston on Onion river; some part of the way was through an almost trackless wilderness; here he settled on fine lands which opened a wide field for industry, and here he assisted and encouraged many new settlers. In the year 1776 the troubles occasioned by the late war rendering it necessary for him to remove, he purchased an estate in Arlington, and continued in that town until 1787, when he returned to his former residence in Williston. During the troubles occasioned by the claims of New-York on the Newhampshire grants, Governor Chittenden was a faithful adviser, and a strong supporter of the feeble settlers. During the American revolution, while Warner, Allen, and many others were in the field, he was assiduously engaged in the Council of Safety at home, where he rendered essential service to his country. In the year 1778, when the state of Vermont assumed the powers of government and established a constitution, the eyes of the freemen were immediately fixed on Mr. Chittenden as their first magistrate: He was accordingly elected to that difficult and arduous office, and continued therein, one year only excepted, until his death. To presume to say how well he conducted in the most trying times would be arrogance in an individual; let the felicity of his constituents evince, let the history of Vermont declare it. From a little band of associates, he saw his government surpass a hundred thousand souls in number; he saw them rise superior to oppression, brave the horrors of a foreign war, and finally taking her oppressor by the hand, receive her embrace as a sister state, and rise a constellation in the federal dome.

He enjoyed an excellent constitution until about a year before his death. In October last he took an affecting leave of his compatriots in general assembly, feelingly imploring the benediction of heaven on them and their constituents. He some time since announced his declining the honor of being esteemed a candidate at the ensuing election, and died on the 24th [25th] ult. as we are informed, without apparent distress, and even without a groan.

That governor Chittenden was possest of great talents and a keen discernment, in affairs relative to men and things, no one can deny. His conversation was easy, simple, and instructive, and although his enemies sometimes abused his open frankness, yet it is a truth, that no person knew better how to compass great designs with secrecy than himself. His particular address and negociations during the late war, were master-strokes of policy. His talents at reconciling jarring interests among the people were peculiar. His many and useful services to his country, to the state of Vermont, and the vicinity wherein he dwelt, will be long remembered by a grateful public, and entitle him to be named with the Washingtons, the Hancocks, and Adamses of his day. Nor were his private virtues less conspicuous: In times of scarcity and distress, too common in new settlements, never did a man display more rational or more noble benevolence. His granary was open to all the needy. He was a professor of religion, a worshipper of God, believing in the Son to the glory of the Father. Such was the man, and such the citizen Vermont has lost. Superior to a PRINCE, A GREAT MAN here has fallen.

ON THE DEATH OF DR. JONATHAN ARNOLD.-Feb. 1 1793.1 The following was extracted from a Providence [R. I.] paper of March 9 [1793.]

The Hon. JONATHAN ARNOLD, Esq. (whose death was mentioned in our last) departed this life at his house in St. Johnsbury, in the state of Vermont, on the 1st ult. in the 53d year of his age. He was a native of this town, and descended from one of its first settlers. For some time he was one of its representatives in the General Assembly, and afterwards filled the place of an assistant to the Governor in Council. In the late war, he commanded the independent company of grenadiers of this town; and was a delegate from this state to Congress under the old confederation. He was educated a Physician, and chosen by this state, in the late war, director of their Hospitals. At the time of his death, he was Chief Justice of the court of common pleas for the county of Orange, and a member of the Governor's Council in Vermont. Among the first traits of his character, was a peculiar accuracy in penmanship, and excellence in composition-this qualification, at an early period in his life, recommended to the office of Clerk of the Superior Court [of Rhode Island,] a place which he filled, as he did every other office, with singular ability, integrity, and applause. He had a rare taste for music and poetry, and was himself a proficient in both. His knowledge was practical, and the objects of it the best interests of society. The improvements made by him in mechanics evince the force of an original genius. His capacities were general and variegated as the arts of human life, all of which he seemed calculated to advance and improve. He took an active and zealous part in establishing the independence of this country. He was a republican of the genuine stamp. He hailed men of all nations as his brethren; and gloried in the doctrine of their natural equality. His social virtues are not to be forgotten. He was an entertaining companion, and a faithful friend. He had power to strike the attention, engage the affections, and attach the heart in the bands of friendship -to smooth the wrinkled front of care, and calm the mind in friendly relaxation. In fine, let the reader figure the most extraordinary assemblage of virtues and abilities-these were all seen in the real life of Dr. ARNOLD.

"Slave to no Sect, who takes no private Road,
"But looks thro' Nature up to Nature's God--
"And knows where Faith, Law, Morals all began,
"All end-in Love of God, and Love of Man.“

'From Spooner's Vermont Journal of July 8 1793.




IN GRAND COMMITTEE, Oct. 16 1797. The requisite oaths being administered by the honorable Nathaniel Chipman, Esq. Chief Judge of the supreme court of judicature, his excellency then addressed the legislature in the following speech, viz. Fellow Citizens of the Council & General Assembly, 1

Accustomed to regard the public voice with sentiments of respect, I now appear before you to resign the Office of Senator of the United States, and accept the more arduous & difficult task allotted to the Chief Majistrate of this State. While I acknowledge, with gratitude, this token of the public confidence, it is with diffidence and anxiety that I contemplate the difficulties which I shall have to encounter, in discharge of the Duties attached to it; and nothing but a firm reliance on your candour, friendship and support, under the present existing state of things, would have induced me to hazzard an acceptance of the important trust but however uncertain may be the Success of my administration, no endeavours shall be wanting, on my part, to discharge my Duty with fidelity to the public, and satisfaction to my own Conscience.

The general prosperity which attends the public affairs of this State, cannot but afford us much encouragement and satisfaction.-Freed from the embarassments which attended us in the infancy of our government -Favored with the blessings of an excellent Constitution-Zealously attached to the Interest, prosperity & Glory of our Country-Free from the alarms and Distresses of War, from foreign manners, influence & Connexions; depending on agriculture, the most certain of all resources perhaps few States in the Union, can be considered in a more favourable situation, or have fairer prospects of deriving substantial benefits from a judicious regulation of their internal affairs.

It has become our Duty to consult and promote the interest of our fellow Citizens, by a faithful discharge of the different offices and trusts which have been assigned to us; and in the performance of this Duty, we ought invariably to be governed by the Constitution of this State, which, designating our various powers, while we adhere to it, in every Legislative & Executive act, we shall proceed on established & just principles. And in all our deliberations upon measures calculated to promote the happiness and prosperity of the state with which we are more immediately connected, we ought to have a constant view to the great Interests of the Nation, of which this State constitutes, though not the greatest, yet a very respectable part.

This speech is copied from the original manuscript in Ms. Vermont State Papers, Vol. 38, p. 31.

All the burden of national concerns is by the Constitution of the United States, deligated to the national Government; to that government it belongs to regulate our intercourse with foreign Nations,-to secure their friendship by every mean, consistent with our national dignity, our national happiness and prosperity; or, in Cases of the last necessity, with the combined powers of these States, to repel all hostile invasions of our rights.-From this same Government we derive an additional Guarantee of our internal tranquility & the freedom of our Laws & Governm

The wisdom with which that Govt has been administered, in the times of the greatest Difficulty and danger-the success which has hitherto attended the national measures-the known experience, firmness, & integrity of those who are placed at the head of its Administration, ought to inspire us with a proper Degree of Confidence in the future, & to excite us to every patriotic exertion, in support of those measures, which, under Providence, may secure the national prosperity. Happily the Constitution of this State & that of the United States, tho' embracing different objects, are founded in the same republican principles, & coincide in the same important end, the security of the Rights & happiness of the People; Constitutions thus coincident, & confirming each other, leave no room for a difference of principle, but only for a diversity of sentiment respecting measures, best suited to promote the public Interest. There cannot, therefore, be any just occasion among us, for the spirit of party & faction, the greatest evil to which republican Governments are subject; it is only in judging of the tendency & utility of the nieasures of Govt that there can be the prospect of a diversity of Sentiment; while principles are the same the freest debates & the most critical examination of every subject that may come before you will be of the greatest use; and on every subject while the majority must in all cases decide, temperance & candor will best conduct the Debate.

The necessary business of the Session will come before you from a variety of sources. From the sudden transision of an appointment in the federal Government to the Office & Duty on which I now enter, it cannot be expected, that I should be prepared to detail to you the public business, which will demand your consideration. Any communications which may have been made to my deceased Predecessor, Gov. Chittenden, shall be laid before you and while I mention his name, permit me to pay a respectful tribute to his memory. It must be a pleasing reflection, not only to his particular friends, but to our fellow Citizens at large, that under his administration, this Govt has flourished & obtained a respectable Character among her Sister States. The public good unquestionably was the chief object, to which his political conduct was directed.

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives.

The state of the public expences & Revenues is an object which most properly belongs to your Department, & cannot fail to engage your careful attention. The Economy that will prove eventually the most favourable to the People, is to guard agt, the introduction of a public Debt; nothing of this nature ought to exist in a time of prosperity & peace; and in whatever form a public Debt may exist, it cannot fail, in its operations, to prove unfavourable to the People. While the public expences are managed with Economy, the easiest way to support them, will be to make the annual provision always adequate to the necessary expenditures.

Gentlemen of the Council and General Assembly,

In any measures which may tend to the promotion of education, & the progress of useful knowledge, in this State,-to the encouragement

of industry & frugality, so necessary to the happiness & prosperity of a People-to insure uniformity & stability to our Code of Laws, without which justice cannot be impartially administered, & to give an extensive & lasting influence to the principles of Virtue & Religion, I shall be happy to co-operate in your Councils & Labours.

As, by our Constitution & Laws, the powers of the different branches of our Govt in appointments, in many respects, are to be as well jointly as separately exercised-you will permit me to observe, that it is from among Men of Principle, Virtue and integrity you will find the best public officers; and it is from [the influence of] such men that the wisest measures of Govt are adopted, and a steady conformity to the Constitution & Laws of our Country is secured;-By a faithful discharge therefore of the Duties, as well joint as separate, thus deligated, you will exhibit to the good People of this State, an example worthy of their confidence. [Signed ISAAC TICHENOR.]' His Excellency the Governor and Council withdrawing, the house proceeded to business.

On motion, Resolved, That Mr. Israel Smith, Mr. Amos Marsh, and Mr. Speaker [Abel Spencer,] be a committee to draft an answer to his Excellency's speech to both branches of the legislature..

Accordingly, on the 18th of October, Mr. Smith reported an answer, responding seriatim to the sentiments of the governor. This answer was laid on the table, and seems to have been left there. It was not printed in the Vermont newspapers of that period.


IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY, Oct. 12 1798. His excellency the governor, accompanied by the honorable council, came into the house, and delivered the following speech.

Gentlemen of the Council, and gentlemen of the House of Representatives. The political world presents no fairer sight, than the representatives of an independent people convened to deliberate for the common good, and with united information and abilities, to advance the common prosperity.

Collected, indiscriminately from the various classes of our citizens, from all parts of the state, you bring with you to this assembly the unequivocal representation of the interests of your constituents; and your persons and property, being subject equally with theirs, to your legislative doings, affords them a complete assurance of the integrity of your

official conduct.

I rejoice that the benificent Ruler of the universe has been pleased to continue unto us the blessings of our excellent constitution of government. I sincerely rejoice that, in the course of his providence, we are connected with our sister states, in one general government. As a separate state, we were comparatively weak; sometimes, disquieted with domestic insurrections, and at all times exposed to foreign insults: we have become with them, strong to depress domestic inquietude, and to repel foreign oppression [aggression].

'See printed Assembly Journal for 1797, pp. 22-27, where the speech is slightly changed-probably by the governor.

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