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Church history Society.

Rules.-I. This Society is open to all readers of the Magazine, by payment of an annual FEE of Is. II. Questions are set each month. The answers to them must be sent (1) addressed to Bog-Oak, care of Messrs. A. D. Innes & Co., (2) not later than the 1st of the month following, (3) written on foolscap paper, on one side of the sheet, and occupying not much more than six sheets; (4) each sheet to be signed with a nom de plume. III. Fees also are to be sent to Bog-Oak. IV. Answers will be criticised in the Magazine. No private correspondence is undertaken with regard to them. V. Information in getting up the answers may be drawn from any source. But during, and after writing the answers, dictionaries only may be consulted. Prizes of books are given. In value and number, these depend on the number of entries. They are given for the year's work, but Competitors who have only taken six months may have a prize awarded.



Questions for December.

41. A short history of Ulrich Zwingle.

42. An account of the Conference of Marburg.

43. Some account of Calvin up to the Consensus Tigurinus.

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44. Give half a dozen lines on Calvin's Institutes'; and mention the teaching of the Swiss School of Reformers on

(a) Free Will;

(8) Predestination;
(y) The Atonement ;
(8) The Sacraments;

giving a short definition only of each, but examining one more fully.

Books recommended: Aubrey Moore's Lectures, Course IV.; Hardwick's History of the Christian Church; and Seebohm's History of the Protestant Revolution.

Answers to be sent to Bog-Oak, care of the Publishers, by January 1st.

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29. Only Water Wagtail and Fidelia give the general course of events in England in contrast with the Lutheran. Constans et Fidelis: The Reformation Parliament began in 1529. Veritas speaks as if it were constantly employed in 'ratifying the Acts of Convocation.' Unluckily the reverse was generally the case. Parliament legislated and Convocation either received and strove to modify the Acts, or else their assent was not even asked. Honeysuckle: The Probate, Mortuaries, and Pluralities Acts were passed in 1529, just after Parliament met, not 1530. Honeysuckle omits the bringing the nation under Præmunire, and the King's pardon in 1531. Her order of events is confused. The three great Acts of Separation from Rome were as follows (all in 1534) -1. Restraint of Annates (March 16th); 2. Peter's Pence and Indulgences; 3. Submission of Clergy and Restraint of Appeals (March 30th). She scatters them through three years. These Statutes are in Perry, Gardiner, and quite small histories. Verena: When the Commons passed the Act of Supreme Head the clause quantam per Christi leges licet, inserted by the clergy, was omitted. This Act and the Succession Act were passed before the deaths of More and Fisher. The best answers are by Etheldreda, Hermione, Water Wagtail, and Fidelia.

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30. The most insight into character is shown by Etheldreda, Hermione, and Water Wagtail. Gardiner, says Dixon, was eminently a man who knew his own mind, and stuck to it, at least till 1554. His face, clever and ascetic, was the index of his logical mind. Wily Winchester' may have been more a statesman even than an ecclesiastic, but in a 'Reign of Terror' he was fearless, and under Edward he would have been a martyr (as he was a confessor) if he had not been too well-liked for the Council to proceed to lengths. Maidenhair should not call him anti-reforming; he went along with most of Henry's reform, but had determined where to stop. He detested Cranmer, and this is probably the reason of his being thought to be anti-reforming. It is not enough brought out by the Members that Cromwell's great aim was to depress and spoil the Church, not so much from hatred, as because it was the only power which could stand up for the nation, and prevent Henry from being an absolute monarch. The influence of Italy and Machiavelli should have due weight in estimating his character, both as showing whence came his methods, and because his effort to centre all power in Henry was the same as his proverbial master's, to unite Italy under one Prince. Was Tyndale a great heretic or a true Reformer? is asked. Wishing to be the latter, he became the former, partly by impatience, partly by mismanagement. His version was forbidden, because almost always bound up with heretical tracts; also for its errors of translation. Gooseberry should not speak of Tyndale's and Coverdale's Bible as if they were one. Tyndale translated from Greek. Coverdale from the German or Latin.

31. The Court of Appeal is best answered by Etheldreda. Maidenhair, too, sends a good answer, pointing out that even the formal congé d'élire is an acknowledgment that the Church ought to choose her own Bishops, and

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it affords an opportunity of protest. She ends by saying (but it is impossible to say whether she speaks of the Court of Delegates, or of the Privy Council) : 'It has never been known to reverse a decision as to doctrine settled in Ecclesiastical Courts.' If she means the former, she is right; if the latter— remember Gorham. The supremacy question is exceedingly well worked out by Hermione, Water-Wagtail, Terne, and Aaußda. Hermione points out that former studies show that Royal Supremacy (though the word was never used) was no new thing. The King was supreme in all causes, only he must work through the right machinery: secular courts and officers in the things that be Cæsar's'; spiritual courts and officers in the things that be God's.' Gooseberry, therefore, should not say 'Papal Supremacy' was now abrogated. It never existed. Papal Jurisdiction had been unjustly claimed and exercised, and this was abolished.


32. Wolsey is the favourite, only four having chosen Cranmer. The best papers are by Etheldreda, Hermione, and Water-Wagtail. Etheldreda: It was Skelton, not Polydore Vergil, who reported that Wolsey's father was a butcher; this makes it very doubtful, as the latter would almost certainly have said so if he could. Hermione and others do not say that it is doubtful. Brewer says that, though unrivalled as a statesman, especially in foreign politics, he knew little of domestic politics, or of Church affairs, and was certain to fall into the background when these became all-important. was, too, one of those very efficient people who cannot train subordinates or successors. 'He was,' says Brewer, too great and really superior to Kings, Popes, and Princes to show any trace of the ostentation of vulgar triumph of gratified vanity.' Maidenhair: He died 1530, not 31. Constans et Fidelis: It was Henry who desired the Papacy for him. His correspondence shows no signs of his working for it. Terne: We cannot say Cranmer was always on the side of mercy, when we consider the burnings of such as John Frith, John Lambert, and Joan Bucher. Dixon gives a more sympathetic account of him than Aubrey Moore. To a mind so highly strung, we can hardly estimate the effect of living under a Terror, such as that of the Tudors. He was great in the more delicate virtues, rather than in the robust ones. If he was not fit to lead the Reformation,' no one else was. He had, as far as he himself was concerned, a single eye throughout, and his Archiepiscopate was one protracted torture. He was half-hearted even in his weakness and timidity, or he would have fled on Mary's accession. A desire to be courageous, that was almost sublime, animated him, and his terrible failures evoke more pity than blame.

'Fire hath passed upon his raiment: round his heart the red flames roll; Lord, accept the body's anguish for the saving of his soul.'



January.—The Order of Jesuits.

February.-New Religious Orders and the Inquisition.

March. The Council of Trent to the Peace of Augsburg.

April.—The Growth of the First Prayer-Book of King Edward.

May.-Foreign Reformers in England and the Second Prayer-Book.
June. Progress of Reformation in Germany and the North.
July.-Calvinism in France and Scotland.

August and September.-The Days of Queen Mary.


NO. 502.

October.—Queen Elizabeth and Archbishop Parker.
November.-End of the Council of Trent.

ecember.-History of the XXXIX. Articles.

Books recommended: Dixon's History of the Church in England, vols. II. to IV. (Routledge); Aubrey Moore's Lectures on the Reformation (Trench); Perry's History of the English Church, 2nd Series, 7s. 6d. (Murray); Miss Yonge's Cameos from English History, 4th Series, 5s. (Macmillan); Hardwick's History of the Christian Church during the Reformation, 10s. 6d. (Macmillan); Hardwick's History of the Articles (Bell); Littledale's Short History of the Council of Trent, Is. 6d. (S. P. C. K.); Ward's CounterReformation, in Epochs of Church History Series, 2s. 6d. (Longmans).

The China Cupboard.


(For the regulations of all Monthly Packet' Competitions, see p. 716.)




Is humility compatible with ambition?




'As to the hidden wills, they are innumerable, and the world of fiction could hardly get on without them.'-' Hackneys,' by C. M. Yonge.

Given: A Hidden Will-consequent Complication and Solution. Inven an outline Plot on these lines. 500 words allowed.

N.B.-The Editors undertake to regard the plots as copyright, and not to steal them!



1. What 'fair college' was turned to a hospital?

2. What fair maiden had 'but few words of English speech

3. What exiled Prince was called Giles?

4. When was a Norfolk biffin offered as a consolation in trouble?

5. Where is the line the 'pilot of the Galilean Lake'?

6. What lover excused his melancholy by pleading the toothache?

Answers to the October Search Questions will appear, together with the November ones, in January.





In answer to the inquiry for Hartley Coleridge's sonnets, they have never yet been published separately. Mr. E. H. Coleridge, Fieldside, Weybridge, might be applied to on the subject.

Mad Margaret.-'Two Sides of the Shield' begins in the 'Monthly Packet' for 1889.

H. G. B.-' When something tiresome occurs, what is the reason of the instinct to blame somebody for it'?

Because we are hurt and want to hit back.

Country Mouse.-Recipé is the pronunciation marked in Webster. We should call it rather pedantic than vulgar. Receipt means an acknowledgment of a payment.

Author of

'Beautiful, sublime, and glorious,

Mild, majestic, foaming, free,

Over time itself victorious,

Image of eternity.'

L. D. P.

Please give me the author of the following verse, and the rest of the ballad

'Though it's only women know how a woman can be tried;
How the chimney always smoked, and the children always cried ;
How there was no time for worship, for one had no decent shawl,

Yet one saw the ladies blamed one, when they sometimes came to call.'

THE MUFFIN MAN. What books of fiction are there other than Sir Walter Scott's and Miss Yonge's on the Elizabethan period.-M.

'Westward Ho'; 'Her Majesty's Bear,' by E. H. Mitchell (Masters); 'Cruise of the Bonny Kate Hayes).

'Who e'er his bread in sorrow atej'

is from a sonnet of Goethe, beginning

"Wer nie sein Brod mit Thränen ass.'

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