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GEORGE E. VAN KENNEN. Chairman JAMES W. FLEMING, Commissioner

ALBERT E. HOYT, Secretary JOHN D. MOORE, Commissioner

JOHN J. FARRELL, Ass's Secretary

DIVISION OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CLIFFORD R. PETTIS.

Supt. State Forests
WILLIAM G. HOWARD.

Asst. Supt. State Forests
FREDERICK A. GAYLORD.

Forester
GEORGE L. BARRUS.

Forester
ALBERT H. KING..

Forester

frestry a 2-6-1934

INTRODUCTION

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Any successful system of forest management must be based upon reliable and complete knowledge of the property. Such information can best be secured by what foresters term a naissance," or valuation survey. This means an examination of a sufficient percentage of the area, under average conditions, to enable the forester to prepare a report of the whole based upon such partial examination. This plan offers the most accurate, cheap and feasible plan to secure reliable data.

The information gained as a result of a valuation survey corresponds to the stock-taking or inventory of the business man or merchant. Timberland is the stock in trade of the operating forester. He cannot conduct his business along rational lines unless he knows what that stock in trade is. He cannot plan timber sales unless he knows how much timber he has to sell, and its location; or improvement cuttings, unless the condition of the forest is such as to warrant them; or reforesting operations, unless he knows the areas which require them; or securing financial assistance for operating the tract until he can produce proof to convince capital that he is able to offer adequate security.

A valuation survey is the first logical step to be taken before beginning to operate a tract of forest. Let us analyze what we obtain from it:

1. A written description of the land and timber on the tract which shows the various types and classes of timber.

2. Accompanying the written description a map which shows (a) the location of the different forest types, their area and the possible cut per acre; (b) the non-timbered areas, such as ponds, lakes, swamps, burns, etc., upon which may be indicated the portions needing reforesting; (c) and the topography including roads and streams, which when considered with the location of timbered areas and of markets enable the prospective operator to plan his work in advance and estimate closely the cost of each step in the work.

With the aid of an accurate topographic forest map log roads or railroads can be laid out, camps located, and the whole season's

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