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Richmond. Until the preceding afternoon no black person had been permitted to set foot upon that ground. But now it swarmed with emancipated slaves. They were frantic with excitement. They sang, they danced, they shouted hallelujah! They were expecting something, but what I did not know. Suddenly a great hush fell upon us all, and the President, in an open carriage, was driven into the square. Slowly his vehicle moved as he bowed and threw his salutations to those who were ready to worship him. The carriage crossed the open space and halted in the street beyond. Mr. Lincoln arose from the back seat, on which he had been sitting, turned half round, faced the great multitude of blacks who thronged the area behind his carriage, and reached out his hands till he stood in the attitude of a minister pronouncing the benediction. Thus he remained, without speaking a word, for more than a minute, while the carriage stood still; and, when the horses moved forward, in the same attitude he was driven out of sight." (")

The President made a second visit to Richmond on April 5, and held a conference with Mr. Campbell.

"I had," said Mr. Campbell to Mr. Lincoln, "an interview with Jefferson Davis, Benjamin, and Breckinridge just before they left the city. I said to them: "The military power of the Confederacy is broken; its independence is hopeless. It only remains for us to make the best terms we can. The trouble is, the President of the United States cannot enter into negotiations with you, but he recognizes the States. The troops of Virginia will recognize the authority of the Legislature.' If you, Mr. President, will permit that body to convene, it will doubtless recall them."


Judge Campbell," the President replied, "let us have no misunderstanding. I will give you in black and white my only terms:

"1. The territorial integrity of the Republic.

"2. No change of Executive or Congressional action on the subject of slavery.

"3. No armistice."

"Could you not make a modification of the third point in relation to an armistice?" Campbell asked.

"I will not," the President replied, "negotiate with men so long as they are fighting against us. The last election established the deliberate determination of the country."

He was lenient, charitable, but inflexible in his decision to secure abiding peace. No further attempt was made to secure a modification of the terms.

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The President returned to Fortress Monroe, and visited the hos

pitals. Although weary and burdened with care, he spent sevApril 8, eral hours with the sick and suffering, informing them that the war would soon be over, and thanking them for what they had accomplished.



(1) Mary Tucker Magill, "Independent," January, 1886.

(2) E. A. Pollard, "Lost Cause," p. 694.

(3) General Ewell to J. B. Lossing, "Independent," March 11, 1866.
(*) Ibid.

(5) William Burnett Wright, "Congregationalist," vol. xl., No. 22.

() Mr. Wallace to C. C. Carpenter, "Century Magazine," June, 1890, p. 306.

(7) A Confederate Courier's Experience, "Watchman," February 3, 1866.
(*) Ibid.

(") Author's account in Boston "Journal," written April 4, 1865.

(10) William Burnett Wright, "Congregationalist," vol. xl., No. 22.




N the farm-house of William McLean, at Appomattox, General Lee surrendered the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to General Grant. The thrilling news ran along the lines of the Union army. A mighty shout rent the air. Men cheered and yelled with irreApril 9, pressible delight. No more fighting nor weary marches. No ghastly wounds; but home, wife, and children awaited them. Thenceforth joy, peace, and rest!


President Lincoln had returned to Washington. He had been but a short time in the executive mansion when the following despatch came from General Grant:

"General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia this afternoon on terms proposed by myself."

It was the supreme moment of Mr. Lincoln's life. The country was saved, the nation redeemed. All he had labored for, lived for, prayed for, had been accomplished. Bells rang, cannon thundered, thanks ascended to God in every city, town, and hamlet.

A multitude gathered in the grounds around the White House to express their congratulations. Beneficent the countenance of April 11, the President as he looked into the radiant faces of his fellow



"We meet this evening in gladness of heart," he said. "The surrender of the insurgent army gives hope of righteousness and peace. . . In the midst of this, He from whom all blessings flow must not be forgotten."

During the war there had been much apprehension among the people for the safety of the President.

"You are not sufficiently careful of yourself," said a member of the Cabinet to Mr. Lincoln, just before his re-election. "There are bad men in Washington."

The President took a package of letters from his desk.

"Every one of these letters," he said, " contains a threat of assassination. I might be nervous if I were to dwell upon the subject, but I have come to the conclusion there are opportunities enough to kill me every day of my life if there are persons disposed to do it. It is not possible to avoid exposure. I shall not trouble myself about it."

Solicitude for the President's safety was not confined to the City of Washington. General Van Allen, of New York, the day after Mr. Lincoln returned from Richmond, addressed a letter to him expressing his apprehensions.

"I intend to adopt the advice of my friends and use due precautions," the President wrote in reply.

April 14,

The day commemorating the entombment of the World's Redeemer was not celebrated by fasting and solemn reflections, but by thanksgiving and hallelujahs. It was Good Friday, and also the anniFriday, versary of the surrender of Sumter. Four years had passed. 1865. The time had come when the emblem of national authority was to float again in beauty where it had been dishonored. General Robert Anderson was to raise the same flag which he had lowered when surrendering the fort. On that December morning, 1860, when he took possession of Sumter, the voice of Rev. Matthias Harris was heard in prayer. Once more he kneeled and led the assembled multitude in devotion. Selections from the Bible were read alternately by Rev. Richard S. Storrs and the people:

"The Lord hath done great things for us; whereof we are glad.' “Turn again our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the south.' They that sow in tears shall reap in joy.'

'He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him.'

"Some trust in chariots, and some in horses; but we will remember the name of the Lord our God.'

"We will rejoice in thy salvation, and in the name of our God we will set up our banners.""



With orchestra, choir, and congregation joining in the "Gloria of the Church Universal," the Stars and Stripes floated once more where it had been humiliated by treason.

An address was given by Henry Ward Beecher which breathed the spirit of brotherhood and charity.

"We offer," he said, in conclusion, "to the President of these United States our solemn congratulations that God has sustained his life and health under the unparalleled burdens and sufferings of four bloody

years, and permitted him to behold this auspicious consummation of that national unity for which he has waited with so much patience and fortitude, and for which he has labored with such disinterested wisdom."

It was a day of joy and gladness in the White House. Captain Robert Lincoln, who had witnessed the surrender of Lee, arrived in season to breakfast with his father and mother. He narrated the last scene at Appomattox. Breakfast finished, the President passed a pleasant hour with Mr. Colfax, speaker of the House, who was about to make a journey across the continent. At eleven o'clock the Cabinet met in regular session. General Grant arrived, and was warmly welcomed.

"I am somewhat anxious in regard to Sherman," said General Grant.

"We shall have news from him soon," said Mr. Lincoln, "for I had my usual dream last night-the one I have had just before the occurrence of several important events."

"What are the particular features of your dream?" asked Mr. Welles.

"I might say that it relates to your department," the President replied. "I am always in a vessel which I cannot describe, and am moving rapidly towards a dark and undefined shore. I had the dream before the firing on Sumter, before the Bull Run battles, Antietam, Gettysburg, Stone River, Vicksburg, and Wilmington."

"Stone River was no victory, Mr. President," said General Grant. "A few such victories as that would have ruined us. I do not know that anything of importance resulted from that battle."

"I might not wholly agree with you about that," said the President, "but I had this dream before that engagement. Victory has not always followed my dream. I have no doubt that a battle has been, or is soon to be fought, between Sherman and Johnston, for my thoughts were in that direction, and I know of no other important event likely to occur."

At the moment of this conversation a Confederate officer was approaching General Sherman's lines with a letter from General Johnston asking for a conference, with the view of surrendering his army. Richly endowed natures behold at times by mental vision what others may not see. The Bible tells us that by the eastern wall of Jerusalem the first martyr of the Christian Church, while laying down his life for his faith, beheld heaven opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God. Saul, fierce persecutor, beheld a blinding light,

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