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It was a joyful hour in Washington when the Massachusetts Eighth Regiment and the New York Seventh reached that city. Their presence

guaranteed the safety of the Capitol. In Illinois, troops from April 25.

Chicago took possession of Cairo. The occupation of that point greatly offended John M. Johnson, of Paducah, Ky. He had been elected to the Senate of that State, and deemed it his duty to send a solemn protest to the President.

“If I had suspected,” wrote Mr. Lincoln in reply, “that Cairo, in Illinois, was in Dr. Johnson's Kentucky Senatorial district, I would have thought twice before sending troops to Cairo." (")

By the prompt arrival of troops in Washington, and the occupation of Cairo, the plans of the Secessionists were overthrown.

NOTES TO CHAPTER XIII.

(') L. E. Chittenden, “Recollections of President Lincoln,” p. 66. (9) Ibid., p. 72.

(0) William Cabell Rives was boru in Nelson County, Va., 1793. He was educated at Hampden, Sidney, and Willian and Mary Colleges. Studied law under Jefferson. He was meniber of Congress, 1823–29. Minister to France, 1829–32. United States Senator, 1832–45. Again he was Minister to France from 1849–53. After the secession of Virginia he became a member of the Confederate Congress.-Author.

(*) James A. Seddon was born at Falmouth, Va., 1815. He studied law at the University of Virginia. He began practice in Richmond. He was member of Congress from 1845 to 1849; Mr. Lincoln was a member during his second term. The Governor of Virginia appointed him member of the Peace Conference. Upon the secession of the State he was appointed by Jefferson Davis Secretary of War for the Confederate States, succeeding Mr. Walker.-Anthor.

(5) L. E. Chittenden, " Recollections of Abraham Lincoln," p. 76.
(*) Ibid.
(*) Isaac N. Arnold, “Life of Lincoln," p. 199.

() Henry Wilson was born at Farmington, N. H., February 16, 1812. His parents were poor. His first years were spent on a farin, and in making shoes. He earned enough money to attend an academy at Concord, N. H., in 1837. He was studious, and became interested in politics. He began public speaking in 1840, advocating the election of Harrison. He was elected to the House of Representatives and Senate of Massachusetts. He was an uncompromising opponent of slavery. He was elected to the Senate, 1855. Was Vice-president of the United States during the Presidency of General Grant. He wrote a “History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power.” He died November 10, 1875.–Author.

(°) Joseph C. Abbott. He was proprietor of the Manchester, N. H., “Mirror," and had been an earnest opponent of slavery. He bad held the office of Adjutant-general of New Hampshire. He was appointed Lieutenant-colonel of the Seventh New Hampshire Regiment; took conspicuous part in the assault upon Fort Wagner, Morris Island.

After the war he settled in North Carolina, and was elected Senator from that State.-
Author.

(10) "Century Magazine,” February, 1888.
(") Ibid.
(12) “ Century Magazine,” March, 1888.
(**) J. G. N. (J. G. Nicolay.) “Century Magazine,” March, 1888.
(14) “Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln,” p. 455.

CHAPTER XIV.

FIRST MONTHS OF THE WAR.

PRES

RESIDENT LINCOLN, looking from the southern windows of

the White House, could see the flag of the Confederacy floating above the houses of Alexandria. Confederate troops were pouring into Richmond, with the avowed intention of marching upon Washington. Very confident were the predictions of Southern newspapers that the Confederate flag would erelong be flying above the unfinished dome of the Capitol, and Jefferson Davis occupying the White House.

This the telegram (April 22, 1861) from Davis to Governor Letcher:

“In addition to the forces heretofore ordered, requisitions have been made for thirteen regiments, eight to rendezvous at Lynchburg, four at Richmond, one at Harper's Ferry. Sustain Baltimore, if possible. We reinforce you."

came.

James M. Mason, of Virginia, a week before, had been in the Senate of the United States. He had gone to Baltimore, and was supplying the Secessionists with fire-arms. ()

Reverdy Johnson, (*) the great lawyer in the patent law case, whom the President had met in Cincinnati (see page 162), hastened to Washington to obtain assurance that the South was not to be subjugated. A committee from the churches, with a clergyman as chairman, also

“ We ask that you recognize the independence of the Southern States,” the request. This the reply of the President: “You, gentlemen, come here to me and ask for peace on any terms, and yet have no word of condemnation for those who are making war upon us. You express great horror of bloodshed, and yet would not lay a straw in the way of those who are organizing in Virginia and else. where to capture this city. The rebels attack Fort Sumter, and your citizens attack troops sent to the defence of the Government and the lives and property in Washington, and yet would have me break my oath and surrender the Government without a blow. There is no Washington in that --no Jackson in that there is no manhood or

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bonor in that. I have no desire to invade the South, but I must have troops to defend this Capitol. Geographically it lies surrounded by the soil of Maryland, and mathematically the necessity exists that they should come over her territory. Our men are not moles, and can't dig under the earth; they are not birds, and can't fly through the air. There is no way but to march across, and that they must do. But in doing this there is no need of collision. Take care of your rowdies in Baltimore, and there will be no bloodshed. Go home and tell your people that if they will not attack us we will not attack them ; but if they do attack us, we will return it, and that severely.”

Governor Hicks, (*) of Maryland, was loyal to the Union, but was surrounded by Secessionists. He was timid about taking responsibility. Those whom he highly esteemed were using their influence to bring

about the secession of the State. The Legislature assembled at April 27.

Frederick. The Governor, in his message, said the only safety for the State was to remain neutral. He admitted the right of the United States to take troops through Baltimore. Once more regiments were passing through that city and moving on

to Washington—troops of the United States Army from the Far May 9.

West: Sherman's battery, which had won fame on the field of Buena Vista; three months' men, responding to the call of the President.

The sky was lurid with lightning and rain falling on the evening of May 13th; but the driving storm, the flashing lightning, did not bring to a halt the 1000 men commanded by General Butler. They entered Baltimore and took permanent possession of the city. The crisis had passed; the Confederate flag never would wave above the dome of the Capitol; Jefferson Davis never enter the White House ; Maryland never secede.

It was seen that cannon planted near the home of Robert E. Lee, on Arlington Heights, might send their missiles crashing into the

White House. Nearly 20,000 troops had arrived in Washington. May 24.

The time had come to take possession of the hills commanding the Potomac and the Capitol. The night was calm and still, the full moon shining, when the Union soldiers rolled up their blankets, fell into line, and marched across the Long Bridge. Three regiments crossed at Georgetown. The “Fire Zouaves," commanded by Colonel Ellsworth, went down the Potomac on a steamer and landed at Alexandria. Colonel Ellsworth had studied law in Mr. Lincoln's office, and was one of the party that accompanied him to Washington. He saw a Confederate flag waving above the Marshall House, kept by Mr. Jackson. He went to the roof and tore it from the staff; but while descending was shot by Mr. Jackson, who in turn was killed by a Zouave. Great the grief of the President. It was the beginning of his many sorrows. The first hostile shot had struck into his own household, as it were, and taken one whom he tenderly loved.

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