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It is impossible to give an adequate idea of the effect of these tidings on the Northern people. They literally rose up as one man. When, as we are now to find, all communication with Washington was for several days cut off by the partial success of the plot, and nothing was known of what had befallen the government, the patriotic fervor knew no bounds.



On the day after the proclamation was issued some Pennsylvania companies reported for duty in the defense of the Washington. They marched at once to the Capitol, and were quartered in the Hall of Representatives. They were just in time to prevent the seizure of the city. Matters had become so urgent that Senator Wilson had already telegraphed to the Governor of Massachusetts to send instantly twenty companies. Four regiments forthwith mustered with full ranks on Boston Common. General Butler was commissioned by the governor as a brigadier general. The Massachusetts Sixth was ordered without delay through Baltimore; another regiment was dispatched to secure Fortress Monroe. Thus, in four days, that state, true to her glorious annals, had troops five hundred miles on their march, and in less than a week her whole quota was far advanced toward Washington. The Legislature of Pennsylvania passed a resolution pledging the faith and power of that state to support the government, sanctioned a loan of three millions of dollars, and organized a reserve corps. The Legislature of New York, instead of furnishing 17,000 men for three months, gave 30,000 for two years, and added a war loan of three millions of dollars. Many other of the states acted in like manner. Rhode Island not only instantly sent her quota and added a loan, but her governor, Sprague, went at the head of her troops.

The Sixth Massachusetts left Boston on the 17th, and

Energy in supporting the government.



reached Baltimore on the 19th. They found that city the scene of great excitement, news having just arrived of the capture of Harper's Ferry by the Virginians. The slavery and secession party received them with threatening cheers for "the Southern Confederacy and President Davis," and in passing from the Philadelphia to the Washington Railroad station they were assaulted by a mob. A part of the reg iment which happened to be in the rear cars was separated, and compelled to fight its way through an infuriated rabble who had obstructed the track in the streets. The mayor, with a police force, attempted to clear the way; but one of the soldiers being shot dead with his own musket, wrested from him by a rioter, the troops were compelled to fire, killing eleven and wounding four of their assailants. The fire being returned with revolvers and muskets, the loss of the regiment was three killed and eight wounded. In this manner they forced their way for two miles and a half, from the Philadelphia to the Washington station in Baltimore, bricks, stones, pieces of iron being thrown from the upper windows of the houses upon them. Even after they had reached the cars for Washington they were fired at, and attempts were made to tear up the rails.

As soon as the news reached Massachusetts, the gov ernor of that state telegraphed to the Mayor of Balti


Attack on the Mas-
sachusetts troops
in Baltimore.

Attempts to prevent re-enforcements

passing through that city.

"I pray you to cause the bodies of our Massachusetts soldiers dead in Baltimore to be laid out, preserved in ice, and tenderly sent forward by express to me. All expenses will be paid by this Com


To this the mayor returned an appropriate reply, deploring the event, and declaring that the authorities had exerted themselves to the best of their ability to prevent the trouble; but that the people viewed the passage of




armed troops of another state through the streets as an invasion of their soil, and could not be restrained.

The Governor of Massachusetts replied:

"I appreciate your kind attention to our wounded and our dead. I am overwhelmed with surprise that a peaceful march of American citizens over the highway to the defense of our common capital should be deemed aggressive to Baltimoreans."

Concessions of the

The excitement had now reached such a pitch that President Lincoln was obliged to interfere. government. He requested the Governor of Maryland and the Mayor of Baltimore to come to him for consultation. The governor happening to be absent, the mayor went without him, and was informed by the President that either troops must be brought through Maryland, or the capital surrendered to armed treason. The wishes of the Baltimoreans were, however, so far gratified that some Pennsylvania troops then approaching by railroad were ordered back to their own state.

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This, however, did not end the commotion. Maryland was full of emissaries from the Cotton States.

The bridges burned. The rioters were determined that Washington should not be relieved. They therefore destroyed the bridges over the streams. They stopped the mails, cut the telegraph wires, and detained military stores belonging to the government. The more audacious of them made ready for an attack on Fort M'Henry. Still unwilling to be drawn into a collision, though compelled to have troops from the North to defend the national capital, the President, under the advice of General Scott, directed that the regiments should march round Baltimore, and not through it.

Among the influences brought to bear upon the Presi dent by the Baltimoreans was that of a soChristian Asso- ciety known as the Young Men's Christian Association. A deputation from this body

of the



requested that an end should be put to the unnatural conflict impending by a concession of all the demands of the Slave States; that the forces in Washington should be dismissed; and particularly that no more troops should be brought to the capital through Maryland. Religious men throughout the South had become blind to the atroc ity of slavery. They had forgotten what their great statesman Jefferson had written: "We must wait with patience the workings of an overruling Providence, and hope that that is preparing the deliverance of these our brethren. When the measure of their tears shall be fullwhen their groans shall have involved heaven itself in darkness, doubtless a God of Justice will awaken to their distress. Nothing is more certainly written in the Book of Fate than that this people shall be free." "I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice can not sleep forever; that, considering numbers, nature, and natural means only, a revolution in the wheel of Fortune, an exchange of situation, is among possible events-that it may become probable by supernatural interference! The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest."


The Governor of

foreign mediation.

Encouraged by the forbearance that had been shown, the Governor of Maryland again (April 22d) Maryland desires entreated the President that no more troops should be brought through the state, and that those at present in it should be sent elsewhere. He farther urged that a truce should be offered to the insurgents, and suggested that the English minister should be asked to mediate between the contending parties.

Reply of the Secre

To this the President directed the Secretary of State to reply that the forces brought through tary of State to him. Maryland were intended solely for the defense of the capital; that "the national highway had been selected, after consultation with prominent magistrates



and citizens of Maryland, as the one which, while a route is absolutely necessary, is farthest removed from the populous cities of the state, and with the expectation that it would therefore be the least objectionable." With respect to the suggestion of foreign mediation, he added that." no domestic contention whatever that might arise among the parties of this republic ought in any case to be referred to any foreign arbitrament, and least of all to the arbitrament of a European monarchy.”

force their

General Butler, on arriving at the Susquehanna (April The Massachusetts 20th) with his detachment of Massachusetts way to Washing- troops, found the bridges burned. Determined to make his way to Washington, he seized a steam-boat at the ferry of Havre de Grace, and


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