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the left of the national left wing, for it rested on the Whiteoak Swamp. In the most determined manner they were trying to pass down between the right of that wing and the Chickahominy, and force their way to Bottom's Bridge. If this could be done, nothing remained for the entire left wing but to surrender. It had no



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Steadily the Confederates forced their way. The evening was coming on dark and gloomy-dark and gloomy was the prospect for Heintzelman and Keyes.

federate advance.

Sumner had got Sedgwick's division across the rickety He checks the Con- bridge, and with it had dragged over a battery of twenty-four Napoleon guns, which he had planted in a clearing of the woods. The Confederate column, pressing on victoriously for Bottom's Bridge, must show its flank to this battery. The flanker was outflanked.

The flood in the


No man could pass the fire-storm from this battery. The South Carolina troops rushed at it in vain; the march of the Confederate column was checked-it wavered. Volleys of musketry were poured into it. Ter ror-stricken, and with fearful slaughter, it was hurled back upon Fair Oaks Station.

About sunset, General Johnston, the Confederate commander, was severely wounded by a frag Johnston. ment of a shell, and General Smith took the command.

Wounding of

What now-asks the Prince de Joinville, who was an Mismanagement of eye-witness of the battle-what now would the national troops. have happened if, instead of fifteen thou sand men whom Sumner had brought over, the whole right wing-fifty thousand-had crossed?

It was not until seven o'clock that evening that the idea of throwing bridges across the stream and crossing the whole army was entertain



ed. It was then too late-the water was fast rising; in

the course of the night it flooded Sumner's bridges, and

by morning filled the entire valley.

In the morning the Confederates renewed the attack bravely, but without order. The wounding of Johnston was a serious mischance to them. They were finally repulsed about noon, and recoiled in inextricable confusion. They carried off as trophies the spoils of the camps of Casey and Couch, which they had captured; but McClellan made no attempt to follow them. Importunately and incessantly he had called on the gov ernment for more troops-here, at this critical moment, he had thirty-five thousand men doing nothing.

It is now known that the fugitives might have been followed into Richmond, so great was the disorganization and dismay following this Confederate repulse. Their loss in the battle had been 4233; the national, 5739, of whom 890 were killed.

McClellan recovered shortly after, without resistance, the posts of Fair Oaks and Seven Pines, the two armies resuming substantially their former positions.

On the second day after the battle of Fair Oaks General Hooker advanced within four miles of Richmond, but was ordered to withdraw by McClellan, to whom the government dispatched a division from McDowell's corps and whatever re-enforcements they could collect. Still, however, the telegraph brought the staple excuses-the dreadful state of the roads, the weather, the overwhelming number of the enemy in front-still the same cry for re-enforcements. Day after day the great army lay idle and chafing at its lot. It heard with amazement and indignation that the Confederate General J. E. B. Stuart, with 1500 cavalry, had ridden round its right flank (June 12, 13) and gained its rear without resistance, de

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Repulse of the

Losses in the battles.

Advance of Hooker.


Stuart rides round the army.



stroying forage and supplies, capturing prisoners, and returning with impunity to Richmond. The middle of June (14th) came. It brought nothing but the telegram "All quiet in every direction." McClellan's force was now 156,838, of whom 115,102 were present for duty. General Johnston having been disabled at Fair Oaks, the command of the Confederate army had been devolved on General Robert E. Lee. He had been appointed in March general in chief, an office specially created for him. His plan was to construct fortifications for Richmond, so that the city might be defended by a minimum of men, and then, taking the mass of the army, to operate with it on the north of the Chickahominy, and break McClellan's communications with York River. He therefore began at once to strengthen his army in front of Richmond by rapidly drawing to it all the forces within reach. He intended to strike a decisive blow against the dilatocampaign. ry and hesitating McClellan. For this purpose, among other re-enforcements, Stonewall Jackson was brought from the Valley, every means being used to deceive McClellan as to what was going on, and with so much success that he was led to believe that the movement was in the other direction, and that re-enforcements were being sent from Richmond to Jackson. It was not until June 24th that McClellan discovered the truthJackson being then close upon him, making ready to attack his rear. At once McClellan took alarm, telegraphing to Washington that he was about to be assailed by 200,000 men-that if his army should be destroyed by such overwhelming numbers, it was his purpose to die with it and share its fate. But, in truth, the force of his antagonist was but little more than half his own: it amounted to about 80,000

Lee's plan of


Lee assigned to the Confederate command.

McClellan's groundless alarms.




Stonewall Jackson, after throwing the North into consternation by a brilliant offensive movement in the Shenandoah Valley, made good his junction with the army of Lee in front of Richmond.

The Confederates, taking the initiative, compelled McClellan to change his base. He retreated, during a week of fighting, to James River.

The Peninsular campaign ended in a complete triumph for the Confederacy. The national government withdrew the Army of the Potomac to the front of Washington.

Stonewall Jackson's

FOR a clear comprehension of the second period of the Peninsular campaign, it is necessary to recampaign. late the operations of Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley: they constitute a brilliant portion of the military annals of the Confederacy.

In the autumn of 1861, after the battle of Bull Run, Jackson had been assigned to the command of the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley.

Two days (February 24th, 1862) after the time desig nated by the President's order for the simul

Banks's movement


on the Confederate taneous movement of the national armies, Banks took possession of Harper's Ferry, partly with a view to the reconstruction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and partly for the purpose of threatening the Confederate left flank. This movement, together with advices received from female spies in Washington that McClellan was about to advance on Richmond, led to the evacuation of Manassas, Johnston, who commanded the Confederate forces there, falling back toward Richmond.

Under these circumstances, Jackson also retired

up the


Jackson retires up the Valley.

Valley, so as to be in easy communication with Johnston; he evacuated Winchester on the 11th of March. Learning, however, that Shields, of Banks's corps, who was following him, had been weakened by the withdrawal of a part of his force, he deter mined to turn upon him. Shields feigned to retreat, and concealed his true strength. In an action which took place (March 23d) at Winchester, the Confederates accordingly suffered a severe defeat. They were compelled to resume their retreat up the Valley, and remained in communication with Johnston until he went to the Peninsula to confront McClellan. At that time Ewell's division was sent to Jackson, increasing his force by about 10,000 men.



The purpose of the Confederate government in retaining this large force in the Valley was to threaten Washington and embarrass the movements of McClellan in the Peninsula.

Position of the national armies.


Jackson was therefore now confronting three national armies-that of Fremont, on his left; that of Banks, before him; that of McDowell, on his

Jackson checks

Fremont had been ordered by the President to come down to Franklin and Harrisonburg, converging toward Banks. Jackson, learning this, determined to strike at them in succession. Leav ing Ewell to confront Banks, he himself rapidly moved against Fremont's advance, compelling it to retreat to Franklin. Then, quickly crossing the Shenandoah Mountains, he rejoined Ewell at Newmarket, and, moving up the Valley between the Blue Ridge and the Masanutten range to Front Royal, he accomplished a double object; he created a panic in Washington, and, indeed, as we shall and attacks Kenly see, all throughout the North, and fell in overwhelming force on Colonel Kenly, who

at Front Royal.

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