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trains to escape. Finding, however (October 7th), that Buell's leading corps, under McCook and Gilbert, who formed the left and the centre respectively, had outmarched Crittenden, whose corps formed Buell's right, he turned fiercely upon his pursuers, in hopes of defeating them before Crittenden could get up; then he might fall upon Crittenden, or retreat be fore his arrival.
and turns upon them.
THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE.
Gilbert's corps first overtook Bragg, but McCook came The battle of Per- up about 11 A.M. (October 8th), having suf fered much on the march for want of water. He took post on Gilbert's left. Soon afterward, in the early part of the afternoon, Bragg assailed them furiously. The shock fell on McCook's corps, and for several hours he had to sustain it alone. General Jackson, one of the division commanders, was killed at the first fire. He was struck by a fragment of shell on the breast. Terrill's brigade was panic-stricken, and he himself killed. McCook's left was thus driven back. Meantime, on his right, Rous seau had also been forced back. It was late in the day before any re-enforcements were sent them. Colonel Gooding was at length ordered by Gilbert, with the thir tieth brigade, to the extreme left. He maintained a des perate encounter for two hours; his horse was shot under him, and he was made prisoner. This brigade, out of 1923 men, lost 549. McCook's corps had thus been assaulted on both flanks, and nearly overwhelmed. This had brought the Confederates on the left flank of Gilbert's, the centre corps. There, however, they were not only successfully resisted, but driven back by Generals R. B. Mitchell and Philip H.Sheridan, through Perryville, as night came on. Bragg, knowing that Crittenden would now come up, took advantage of the darkness and retreated. He had lost in the battle 2500. Buell's losses, as reported by himself, were 916 killed, 2943 wounded,
Continued retreat of Bragg.
489 missing, and 10 guns taken. Bragg left behind him more than 1000 wounded, and eight of the captured guns. He withdrew to Harrodsburg, and thence, with Kirby Smith, to Camp Dick Robinson. They then hastened back to Chattanooga through Cumberland Gap. Buell followed them as far as London, but at that point gave up the pursuit and returned to Bowling Green. His movements had been so languid that the government, dissatisfied with the very inadequate use he had made of his large army, removed him from command. (October 30th) from its command, and assigned Rosecrans to it in his stead.
Buell is removed
So far as gaining a firm foothold in Kentucky was concerned, the Confederate expedition had proved a failure. In the other particular, the gathering of supplies, its success had been better. The Richmond newspapers boasted that "the wagon-train of supplies brought
FAILURE OF BRAGG'S SORTIE.
The supplies obtained by Bragg.
out of Kentucky by Kirby Smith was forty miles long. It brought a million yards of jeans, with a large amount of clothing, boots and shoes, and 200 wagon-loads of bacon, 6000 barrels of pork, 1500 mules and horses, 8000 beeves, and a large lot of swine."
Bragg had thus retreated from Kentucky, his main obFailure of Bragg's ject unaccomplished. He had gained no operations. brilliant victory; he had not taken either Louisville or Cincinnati; the Northwestern States had not sought an alliance with the Confederacy; but few Kentuckians had voluntarily joined his army. The number of those whom he had seized by conscription was exceeded by those he had lost, through desertion. Persons of substance throughout the state not only felt outraged by the seizure of their property paid for in Confederate money, but indignant at the needless destruction and devastation he had committed. Instead of able-bodied volunteers, crowds of refugees accompanied his retreat, carrying with
CHAP. LIII.] HE IS ORDERED TO RENEW HIS ATTEMPT.
them their negroes, whose emancipation they foresaw was at hand.
Bragg's expedition into Kentucky had, however, occa Evacuation of Cum- sioned the evacuation of Cumberland Gap Gap. by the national forces under General Morgan. His supplies were cut off. On September 17th he blew up the magazine, burnt his tents, wagons, gun-carriages, and whatever he could not withdraw. He then retreated 250 miles to the Ohio, incessantly skirmishing with the enemy, foraging on the country, and often suf fering for want of water. He reached the Ohio on October 4th. The force which he had brought from the Gap was more than 10,000, with 20 pieces of artillery and 400 wagons.
The Confederate government was greatly disappointed with the issue of Bragg's campaign. Scarcerenew his attempt. ly had he reached Chattanooga when he was ordered to move northward again.
Bragg ordered to
Rosecrans, on assuming the command of Buell's army, Rosecrans succeeds now known as the 14th Army Corps, found Buell in command. it in a very dilapidated condition; but, receiving large re-enforcements from the new levy of 600,000 men called out by the government, he reorganized it rapidly, and, having repaired the railroad from Louisville to Nashville, which had been greatly injured, he concentrat ed his forces at Nashville, and there accumulated large supplies. This was necessary to be done before he could safely move southward to confront Bragg, for he could not rely on the country which had been wasted by the movements of two mies, and the Confederate cavalry could easily sever the railroad in his rear.
He re-enforces and reorganizes the army.
Bragg had already reached Murfreesborough on his second northward march from Chattanooga. Rosecrans
had given out that it was his intention to take up his winter quarters at Nashville, and Bragg, supposing that this would be the case, sent out strong detachments of cavalry under Morgan and Forrest, the former being ordered to break Rosecrans's communications. As it was about the season of Christmas, Murfreesborough was the scene of much gayety. Davis, the President of the Confederacy, had come from Richmond to counsel-perhaps to invigorate-Bragg. There were wedding festivities, at one of which the Bishop-general Polk officiated, and the giddy Confederates danced on floors carpeted with the American flag.
Bragg returns to
Winter festivities there.
Suddenly, on the 26th of December, Rosecrans moved. Rosecrans suddenly His march commenced in a heavy rain. The moves on Bragg. Confederate outposts retired before his advance, the pressure upon them being so vigorous that they had not time to destroy the bridges on the Jefferson and Murfreesborough turnpikes. On the 30th, Bragg, finding he was about to be assailed, had concentrated his army a couple of miles in front of Murfreesborough.
The position of the national army, which was 43,000 Position of Rose- strong on the evening of that day, was on crans's army. the west side of Stone River, a sluggish stream fringed with cedar brakes, and here flowing in a north-northwesterly course. The line ranged nearly north and south, and was three or four miles in length. Crittenden was on its left, with three divisions, Wood, Vancleve, Palmer; Thomas in the centre, with two divisions, Negley and Rousseau, the latter in reserve; McCook on the right, with three, Sheridan, Davis, Johnson. The left wing touched the river, the right stretched a little beyond the Franklin Road.
Bragg's army, 62,000 strong, stood between Rosecrans and Murfreesborough, ranged, for the most part, parallel
CHAP. LIII.] POSITION OF THE CONFEDERATE ARMY.
DEC. 31 ST
PALMER VAN CLEVE
BATTLE OF MURFREESBOROUGH.
31ST A. M.
Position of the Con- to the national line; his right, however, federate army. faced almost north. Breckinridge's division formed his right; in his centre, under Polk, were two divisions, those of Withers and Cheatham; on his left, under Hardee, two divisions, Cleburne and McCown. The river separated Breckinridge from the rest of the Confederate army.
Rosecrans had concentrated two thirds of his force on Rosecrans's plan of his left. His intention was that his right wing, standing on the defensive, should simply hold its ground; but his extreme left, the divisions of Wood and Vancleve, crossing Stone River, should as