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nostrils at base of bill, lateral, and pervious; 1 of Capricorn, from their touching the ecliptic face covered with feathers; wings long and in the first points of those signs. (See CANCER, pointed, the first primary the longest; tarsi and CAPRICORN.) It is between the tropics short and strong, feet small, and toes fully that the sun's path is circumscribed, its annual webbed; hind toe small; tail with two long, movement being from one to the other and straw-like feathers, whence the French name back again in the ecliptic.-In geography, the paille en queue or straw-tail; sailors call them tropics, also known as that of Cancer and that boatswain bird and marlinspike. In habits of Capricorn, are the two parallels of latitude and appearance they come near the gulls and about 23° 28' N. and S.) over which the sun terns; they are chiefly confined to the tropics. is vertical at the solstices. (See SOLSTICE.) Their powers of flight are great, and they are TROPLONG, Raymond Théodore, a French juusually seen at considerable distances from rist, born at St. Gaudens, Haute-Garonne, Oct. land; they live almost entirely on the wing, 8, 1795, died in Paris, March 2, 1869. He and, when they do not return to the distant early held important judicial offices. In 1846 shore to roost, rest upon the surface of the he was made a peer, in 1848 first president of ocean; they are excellent swimmers. The the court of Paris, and in 1852 of the court food consists of fish and other marine animals, of cassation. In 1852 he was made a senator, which they dart upon from a great height; and in 1854 president of the senate. His printhey are fond of following the shoals of flying cipal work, Le Code civil expliqué (28 vols., fish, seizing them as they emerge from the sea. 1833–58), is a collection of treatises in continuThey are not larger in the body than a pigeon, ation of Toullier's Commentaire du Code civil, though longer; they congregate in considerable many of which have been published separately. numbers at their breeding places, on rocky TROPPAU, a city and the capital of Austrian shores and desert islands, placing the nest on Silesia, on the Oppa, 35 m. N. E. of Olmütz;
pop. in 1870, 16,608. It has six Catholic churches, a palace, a gymnasium with a large library, a museum, and manufactories of beet sugar, flax, and cloth. A congress of sovereigns was held here from Oct. 20 to Dec. 20, 1820, preliminary to that of Laybach.The former duchy of Troppau, having been divided into the principalities of Troppau and Jägerndorf, was partly annexed to Prussia in Frederick the Great's conquest of Silesia, and forms the S. W. part of Prussian Silesia, with Leobschütz, of the Jägerndorf division, as capital. The territory which remained to Austria after the peace of 1763 constitutes most of the
N. part of Austrian Silesia, comprising, besides Tropic Bird (Phaëton æthereus).
the capital, Jägerndorf and other manufactur
ing towns. the ground or in holes in trees; the eggs are TROUBADOUBS. See PROVENÇAL LANGUAGE two; their flesh is fishy and tough. The com- AND LITERATURE. mon tropic bird (P. æthereus, Linn.) is about TROUP, a W. county of Georgia, bordering 30 in. long and 38 in. in alar extent; it is of on Alabama, and intersected by the Chattaa satiny white, the wings banded with black, hoochee river; area, about 370 sq. m.; pop. in and the head, back, and wings tinged with 1870, 17,632, of whom 11,224 were colored. cream color or light pink; first five primaries The surface is hilly and the soil generally ferblack on the outer webs, and the shafts of the tile. It is intersected by the Atlanta and West long tail feathers black to near the end, where Point railroad. The chief productions in 1870 they are white; a black mark over eyes to oc- were 26,645 bushels of wheat, 162,946 of Inciput; bill orange red and iris brown; tarsus dian corn, 34,514 of oats, 29,290 of sweet poand toes yellow at base, webs and claws black. tatoes, and 9,963 bales of cotton. There were It sometimes comes near the Florida coast, 680 horses, 1,698 mules and asses, 1,519 milch but is usually seen in the tropical Atlantic far cows, 3,027 other cattle, 1,203 sheep, and 6,516 from land. The long tail feathers of the P. swine; 1 manufactory of boots and shoes, 2 phænicurus (Gmel.), inhabiting the tropical of cotton goods, 1 of iron castings, 2 of maPacific, are bright red, and are used as orna- chinery, and 3 saw mills. Capital, La Grange. ments by the South sea islanders.
TROUP, George McIntosh, an American statesTROPICS (Gr. rpoth, a turning), in astron- man, born on the Tombigbee river, Sept. 8, omy, two circles parallel to the equator, at 1780, died in Laurens co., Ga., May 3, 1866. such distance from it as is equal to the greatest He graduated at Princeton college in 1797, was recession of the sun from it toward the poles, admitted to the bar, and at the age of 21 was or to the sun's greatest declination. That in elected to the state legislature. Between 1807 the northern hemisphere is called the tropic and 1815 he was a representative in congress of Cancer, and that in the southern the tropic from Georgia, and in 1816 was elected a United States senator. From 1823 to 1827 he was Paris, is next in value to the salmon, which governor of the state, and in 1829 was a second it resembles in habits. The so-called sea trout time elected to the United States senate, from of the gulf of St. Lawrence (salmo immaculawhich he retired before the expiration of his tus, H. R. Storer) has the flesh of a fine pink term, on account of ill health. He was one of color and superior flavor; the color is seathe most earnest and able of the advocates of green above, lower parts and the fins white; it state sovereignty. His life was written by E. rarely exceeds a weight of 7 lbs.; it probably J. Harden (Savannah, 1859).
belongs to the genus fario. There are several TROUSDALE, a N. county of Middle Tennes- species called salmon trout in lakes shut off see, intersected in the S. E. by the Cumber- from the sea and near the mouths of the rivers land river; area, about 110 sq. m. It has been of Maine. The spots of trout resist the action formed since the census of 1870 from portions of heat and even of alcohol for a long time.of Macon, Smith, Sumner, and Wilson coun. The common brook or speckled trout of North ties. The greater part of the surface is made America (salmo fontinalis, Mitch.) is from 8 up of valleys separated by ridges, the soil of to 20 in. long, pale brownish above with darkboth being productive. The timber consists er reticulated markings; sides lighter, with of poplar, white oak, walnut, &c., but is not numerous circular yellow spots, many with a abundant. Blue grass is abundant. The sta- bright red spot in the centre; white or yelples are corn, wheat, tobacco, and hay. Cap- lowish white below; the first ray of pectorals, ital, Hartsville.
ventrals, and anal edged with white and black, TROUSSEAU, Armand, a French physician, born with the rest of these fins reddish. It is found in Tours, Oct. 14, 1801, died June 23, 1867. abundantly in the streams of the British provHe graduated in medicine at Paris in 1825. inces, the New England, middle, and western In 1828 he was sent by government to inves- states, and is everywhere highly esteemed as tigate endemic and epidemic diseases prevalent food; it is rarely taken weighing more than in the central departments of France, and the 11 lb.; the markings vary considerably acyellow fever at Gibraltar. In 1831 he was cording to locality and season; in New Brunsappointed hospital physician; in 1837 he received the grand prize of the academy of medicine for a treatise on phthisis laryngea ; and in 1839 he was appointed professor of therapeutics and materia medica in the faculty of medicine. He was prominent in introducing and establishing the practice of tracheotomy in croup and paracentesis thoracis in cases of dangerous or long continued pleuritio effusion. His most important works are Traité élémen
Speckled Trout (Salmo fontinalis). taire de thérapeutique et de matière médicale (Paris, 1836; 8th ed., 2 vols., 1867), which was wick and Nova Scotia it descends to the sea translated into English, Spanish, and Italian, when it can; it is the same species from and Nouvelles recherches sur la trachéotomie Labrador to Pennsylvania and Ohio. It is a dans la période extrème du croup (1851). great favorite with anglers; it is taken by the
TROUT, a name popularly restricted to the hook and line baited with a minnow, shrimp, species of the salmon family inhabiting ex- worm, or artificial fly; in narrow streams, clusively or principally fresh water, and em- just before the spawning season, when it is bracing members of the three subgenera of the little inclined to bite, it may be caught by titilold genus salmo made by Valenciennes, viz., lation, by passing the hand carefully under the salmo, fario, and salar; the family characters tail, and, as the tickling is gently performed, have been given under Salmon. The salmon slowly moving it toward the head, until by a trouts belong to the genus fario (Val.), having sudden grasp it is seized and landed.—In the one row of teeth on the vomer, the true sal- genus salmo belongs also the char of the Britmons having the palate smooth; the species ish and Swiss lakes (S. umbla, Linn.), usually are so called from the redness of the flesh, but 9 to 12 in. long, but sometimes 18 or 20 in.; all the trouts have this color at some epoch of it is umber-brown above, the sides lighter with their lives, depending probably on their food. numerous red spots, the lower parts and fins The salmon trout of Europe (F. argenteus, reddish orange; it varies like all other trouts, Val.; salmo trutta, Linn.), called also white and occasionally attains a larger size than the or sea trout, is found in the larger lakes and above; it frequents the deep part of the lakes, rivers of that continent; it varies considerably feeds chiefly at night, and affords but little in color, like all of the family, according to sport to the angler. Its American representathe character of the water and the quality of tive is the $. oquassa (Girard) of the great the food; it is greenish gray or bluish black lakes of Maine.—In the genus salar (Val.) above, lighter on the sides, and silvery white there are two rows of teeth on the vomer. below, with a few black spots above the lat- The common European brook trout (salar faeral line; it attains a length of 2 to 21 ft., and, rio, Val.) is usually 10 to 14 in. long, though being abundant the markets of London and sometimes considerably larger, even to a weight
of 15 lbs. ; it is shorter and stouter than the time the losing and finding have been regarded salmon, yellowish brown above, passing to as mere legal fictions, which the defendant is yellow on the sides, and silvery below, the not at liberty to deny. The action is mainback spotted with reddish brown and the sides tainable : 1, where the property in question is with bright red; the young are transversely a personal chattel ; 2, where the plaintiff had banded; deformed specimens are frequently a general or special property in the thing with seen. The colors are brightest in rapid streams a right of possession ; 3, where the defendant with rocky or gravelly bottom; the flavor is has wrongfully converted the thing to his own finest from the end of May to the end of Sep- use, which conversion may be proved by his tember, soon after which the spawning season wrongful taking of it, or his wrongful detenbegins. This species is highly prized by an- tion of it, or his wrongful use or misuse of it. glers, and especially fly-fishers. As it is fond The action demands not the thing itself, but of swiftly running waters, and swims almost damages for the wrongful conversion; and if always against the current, the bait must be the plaintiff recovers, the damages should be thrown up stream. The eggs are deposited in measured by the value of the thing at the time nests or holes in the sand, as with the salmon. of the conversion, with interest, and the judgThe gray trout of the North American great ment is for these damages and costs. lakes, from the northern United States to the TROWBRIDGE, John Townsend, an American Arctic ocean, is the S. namaycush of Valen- author, born in Ogden, Monroe co., N. Y., ciennes, and the salmo amethystus of Mitchill Sept. 18, 1827. At the age of 20 he went to and De Kay; it is called togue by the Cana- Boston, connected himself with the public dian lumbermen, and from its size and vora- press, and became known as a writer of popucity the tyrant of the lakes; it is greenish ashy lar stories. With Lucy Larcom he edited * Our above with yellowish gray spots, and below Young Folks” till January, 1874. He has white with bluish reflections; the average published “Father Brighthopes, or an Old weight is 12 to 20 lbs., though it attains some- Clergyman's Vacation,” “Burr Cliff
, its Suntimes more than twice this size. The siskiwit shine and its Clouds,” and “Hearts and Faces" (S. siscowet, Ag.) belongs to the genus salar (1853); “Martin Merrivale, his X Mark” (Val.); it is of large size, stout and thick, of (1854); "Iron Thorpe" (1856); "Neighbor a rich flavor, but so fat as to almost unfit Jackwood” (1857); “The Old Battle Ground" for food; for description and figure see Agas- (1859); “The Drummer Boy ; “The Vagasiz's “Lake Superior,” p. 333 (8vo, Boston, bonds" (1863, and with other poems, 1869); 1850).—The trout, both in Europe and Amer- “Cudjo's Cave" (1864); "The Three Scouts" ica, is a favorite subject for pisciculture, from (1865); “Lucy Arlyn," " Coupon Bonds,” and the ease with which artificial fecundation of ^ The South : a Tour of its Battle Fields and the eggs can be effected; but it has as yet Ruined Cities" (1866); “Neighbors' Wives" been practised here on a small scale only; the (1867); “The Story of Columbus” (1869); labor and expense attending a large vivarium “ Laurence's Adventures" (1870); of trout are very small, while the remuneration Hazard and his Fortunes" (1871); "A Chance may be made very large. For an illustrated for Himself” (1872); “Doing his Best” (1873); account of the manner of hatching trout arti- "Fast Friends" (1874); and “The Young ficially, see American Naturalist," vol. iii., p. Surveyor” (1875). 202, and vol. iv., p. 601 (1870).
TROY (TROJA), the name of an ancient city TROUVILLE, a French watering place, in the in the N. W. part of Asia Minor, applied also department of Calvados, Normandy, prettily to its territory. The latter, generally known situated at the foot of a hill near a forest, at as the Troad (Troas), comprised for a time the mouth of the Touques in the English chan the coast lands on the Propontis, Hellespont, nel, 107 m. W. N. W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, Ægean sea, and Adramyttian gulf, as far E. as 5,761. Until recently it was a small fishing vil the river Rhodius, the Granicus, or even the lage. The bathing season begins in June, and Æsepus, but later, according to Strabo, only lasts till the middle of October. Deauville, a the region from the promontory of Lectum to rival watering place, is on the opposite bank. the Hellespont. The city of Troy, also called
TROVER (Fr. trouver, to find), the name of Ilium ('Invov), according to the Homeric poems, an action at law in common use in England was situated at the foot of Mt. Ida, far enough and in the United States, to determine the from the sea to allow of the movements of ownership of property. The plaintiff declares, two large armies, and in a position which comin substance, that he was lawfully possessed of manded a view of the plain before it and of a 8 certain article on a certain day, and lost the smaller one behind it. In front of it were two same; that it came into the possession of the rivers, the Simoïs and Scamander, flowing pardefendant by finding; and that the defendant allel for some distance, which united and emphas refused to deliver it to the plaintiff, and tied into the Hellespont, between the promonhas converted it to his own use. This action tories of Sigeum and Rhæteum. This city, is one form of trespass on the case. (See Tres- the existence of which is attested only by the Pass.) In the distant age when it was first traditions of the Trojan war, must be distinused, the declaration may have narrated guished from the Ilium of history, which, rately the facts of the case; but for a long according to Strabo, was founded about the
beginning of the 7th century B. O. The for- | escaping with their families. The opinions mer was afterward designated as Old Ilium, of the principal authorities on the question and the latter as New Ilium. The name was whether the destruction of Troy was a hisshared also by a third place in the same region, torical event have been given in the article the xóun 'IntéWV, “the village of the Iians," HOMEP; we shall confine ourselves here to about 3 m. from New Ilium, which claimed to reviewing the various attempts made to idenoccupy the site of the original lium.—Accord- tify the site of Old Ilium, on the supposition ing to the legend, Dardanus was the mythical that it once existed. Though it was the popuancestor of the Trojan kings, who were of the lar belief of antiquity that New Ilium had been Teucrian race, closely connected with the My- built on the ruins of the Old, yet that town sian. (See Mysia.) Dardanus's son was Erich- never rose to importance, and Demetrius of thonius, who was succeeded by Tros, and he Scepsis and Hestiæa of Alexandria maintained by Ilus, who founded in the plain of Troy the that the remains of Priam's llium were to be city of lium. Ius was succeeded by Laome- found rather in the “ village of the Ilians," don, and to him Neptune and Apollo became which opinion was supported also by Strabo. temporarily subject by command of Jupiter. All were agreed that the ancient city stood on The former built the walls of the city, and the the right bank of the Scamander, the modern latter took care of the herds; but when their Mendereh. New Ilium was on the Scamander time of service had expired, Laomedon treach- near the junction of the Simoïs, which is superously refused to pay what was due them. In posed to be represented by the Gumbrek or revenge Neptune sent a sea monster to kill the Dumbrek, about 12 m. long, now entering the Trojans and ravage their fields, and the treach- Hellespont by a separate channel. The ruins erous king in consequence made a public offer of New Ilium are near the village of Hissarlik, of the immortal horses given by Jupiter to on a small hill. The ancient historians HelTros to any one who could rid the land of the lanicus, Xenophon, and Arrian identified this monster. The oracle declared that a virgin of hill as the citadel of Pergamus; and Xerxes and noble blood must be given up, and the lot fell Alexander, and the Roman consuls and emon Hesione, Laomedon's own daughter; but perors, here offered hecatombs to the Minerva she was rescued by Hercules, who came at this of Ilium and the Trojan heroes. But Horace time and killed the monster. Laomedon gave and Lucan, as well as other Roman authors, the hero mortal horses, and the latter, indig- were firmly convinced that the knowledge of nant at this perfidy, collected six ships, at- the site of Ilomeric Troy had entirely perished. tacked and captured Troy, killed Laomedon, In 1785 Le Chevalier discovered on the left and placed on the throne Priam, who alone bank of the Mendereh, near the village of Bunarof Laomedon's sons had remonstrated against bashi, about 5 m. S. of New Ilium, a hot and the perfidy of his father. To him were born a cold spring or fountain, which he supposed by his wife Hecuba a large number of child to be those mentioned in the Iliad. Beyond dren, one of whom, Paris, brought on by his these springs is a hill, the Balidagh, steep and abduction of Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the lofty, with some ruins on its summit, which ho memorable siege of Troy. To revenge this identified with ancient Troy and the citadel of outrage, the Greeks spent ten years in the col- Pergamus. His view was speedily adopted by lection of a vast armament, and at the end of Heyne, and afterward by Welcker, J. G. von that time a fleet of 1,186 ships, containing Hahn, Choiseul-Gouffier, Texier, Forchhammore than 100,000 men, was assembled at Aulis mer, Tozer, Leake, E. Curtius, and the majoriin Bæotia, and placed under the command of ty of Greek archæologists and philologists, who Agamemnon. The Trojans and their allies until recently warmly defended it as the only were driven within the walls of their city, and possible means of harmonizing the Homeric nine years were spent by the Grecian host in text with the chorography and topography of the reduction of the neighboring towns. But the Troad. But the excavations made on the the gods now brought on the quarrel between Balidagh brought to light only a few terra Agamemnon and Achilles, which proved so cotta figures, lamps, pottery, and coins of no disastrous to the Greeks, and with which the ancient date, without revealing the foundations narrative of the siege in the Iliad opens. of a town or city. In 1871–3 the German Among the principal Greek heroes in the traveller Schliemann undertook to excavate at struggle, besides Agamemnon, Menelaus, and his own expense the hill of Hissarlik. (See Achilles, were Ulysses, Ajax the son of Tela- SCHLIEMANN.) He dug to a depth of about 50 mon, Diomedes, Patroclus, and Palamedes ; ft., and encountered several layers of ruins, and among the bravest defenders of Troy, each of which he considered to be the remains Hector, Sarpedon, and Æneas. The valor of of a distinct city, one built on the ruins of the Achilles, who slew Hector in revenge for the other. He unearthed a vast number of arms, death of Patroclus, and the cunning of Ulysses household utensils, and ornaments of various finally prevailed, with the aid of Juno, Mic degrees of workmanship and kinds of material. nerva, and other divinities hostile to the Tro- He produced a treasure of vases and various jans; and after a siege of ten years (generally ornaments of gold, amber, and silver, which placed at about 1194–1184 B. C.), Troy was he thinks belonged to Priam, the Trojan king. utterly destroyed, Æneas and Antenor alone He maintains that he has laid bare the palace of this king, the Scæan gates before it, the | There is a daily line of steamers to New York walls of Neptune and Apollo, the streets of in summer. In the centre of the city is the the city, houses which must have been two or union railroad depot, one of the largest structhree stories high, sacrificial altars to Miner- tures of the kind in the United States, 404 by va, and 20 fountains, besides inscriptions of 240 ft., with walls at the sides 27 ft. high supvarious dates and in several languages and dia-porting the roof in a single arch. All the raillects. In view of the fact that but few schol-road lines centre at this depot, and 60 trains ars are yet inclined to consider the existence arrive at or depart from it daily. The river and destruction of the Homeric Ilium a histori- is spanned by a bridge 1,600 ft. long, wbieh cal fact, and that almost all authorities are is provided with two carriageways, a railway, agreed that only the Balidagh near Bunarbashi and a walk for foot passengers, and also by a was chosen by the poet as the central scene new iron bridge for pedestrians and carriages, of his epic, the results of Schliemann's ex- costing $250,000.—The iron manufactures of cavations have so far been looked upon, if Troy are of great importance, and by means of not with suspicion, yet with little contidence them the city has become a controlling point in the identification which he claims to have in the iron interest on this side of the Allemade. At present (1876) the opinion general-ghany mountains. One of the largest manuly entertained is that he has accidentally hit facturing establishments of the country is the upon the site of some unknown Hunnic settle- | Albany and Rensselaer iron and steel company, ment, Lydian town, or Phænician trading post. which owns the Albany iron works, the Rens-See Lechevalier, Voyage de la Troade (3 selaer iron works, Bessemer steel works, the vols., 3d ed., Paris, 1802); Forchhammer, De Fort Edward blast furnace, and the Hudson schreibung der Ebene von Troja (Frankfort, blast furnace. The company employs 1,500 1850); Hahn, Die Ausgrabungen auf dem ho- hands, and produces pig iron, merchant and merischen Pergamos (Leipsic, 1865); Tozer, angle iron, merchant steel, nails and spikes, "Lectures on the Geography of Greece" (Lon axles, bolts and nuts, boiler rivets, iron and don, 1873); and Schliemann, “Troy and its steel rails, horse shoes, &c. The Burden iron Remains, edited by Dr. Philip Smith (1875). works, established in 1813, have an annual ca
TROY, a city of New York, capital of Rens- pacity of 40,000 tons, and employ 1,400 hands, selaer co., on the E. bank of the lludson river, producing pig iron, merchant iron, horse and at the head of steamboat navigation, and also mule shoes, and boiler rivets. The other iron at the head of tide water, 151.m. by the course manufactures of the city are carried on by of the river N. of New York city, and 6 m. more than 30 firms, and consist of stoves, holN. of Albany; pop. in 1840, 19,334 ; in 1850, low ware, hot air furnaces, machinery, steam 28,785; in 1860, 39,235; in 1870, 46,465, of engines, scythes, shovels, malleable iron, safes, whom 16,219 were foreigners, including 10,- butts, hinges, steel springs, agricultural imple877 Irish, 1,699 British Americans, 1,576 Eng- ments, &c. The Troy stamping works manulish, and 1,174 Germans; in 1875, 48,821. facture stamped and pressed wares, coal hods, The surface of the city comprises the alluvial shovels, dampers, &c. The Troy car works are flats three fourths of a mile wide on the river, at Green Island, a suburb on the opposite side and the hills on the east known as Mt. Ida. of the river. The annual product of the shirt Wynant's Kill on the south, and Poesten Kill and collar (linen and paper) business, which is
m. N., break through these hills in narrow more extensive here than anywhere else in the ravines and in a series of cascades, the former United States, and employs more than 30 facfurnishing 12 mill sites with 2,000 horse pow- tories, is valued at $3,000,000, requiring the er, the latter 10 sites with 1,000 horse power; labor of 6,000 hands, chiefly women. The larwhile the state dam across the Hudson, at the gest manufactory of mathematical instruments N. part of the city, furnishes 4,000 horse pow in the United States is in this city, as is also one er. There is also an immense amount of steam of the largest of the few American globe manpower in use. The pure water with which the ufactories. There are brass founderies, brewcity is supplied by the Troy water works is eries, two distilleries, two bell founderies, a drawn from Piscawin creek into reservoirs cotton mill, carriage factories, a manufactory high enough to carry the water to the top of of stoneware, and several of boots and shoes, most of the houses. A new city hall, costing fire brick, and hosiery. The total annual value $150,000, is in course of construction. The of the manufactures of Troy is about $10,000,savings bank building is an elegant edifice, 000. The lumber trade is important. There costing $450,000, and there are several fine are ten national banks, with an aggregate capbusiness structures. Troy is situated at the ital of $2,800,000, of which four have savings principal outlet of the Erie and Champlain departments; a state bank, with $300,000 capcanals, and is connected with Lake Champlain ital; and a savings bank, established in 1823. and the north by the Rensselaer and Saratoga, -The city is divided into 13 wards, and is and Troy and Boston railroads, the latter con- governed by a mayor and a board of 26 aldernecting it with the east also; with the west It has horse railroads and a good fire by the New York Central railroad; with the department. The assessed value of propsouth by the Hudson River railroad; and with erty in 1874 was $15,441.845. The taxation the east by the Boston and Albany railroad. / for city purposes was $575,801 25; for state