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streets. The city on fire. A reckless military order.-Scenes of horror.-Mobs of plunderers.-The scene at the commissary depot.-Weitzel's entry into Richmond. -Suffering of the people.-Scene on Capitol Square.--Devastations of the fire.— The burnt district.-Weitzel's and Shepley's general orders.-Yankee rejoicings over the fall of Richmond.-Bell-ringings, hymns, and dancing in the streets of New York.-A grand illumination in Washington.-Yankee mottoes.-A memorable speech...... PAGE 487

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What the Confederates anticipated on the fall of Richmond.-Two opinions.-Prophetic words of the Richmond Examiner.-Disintegration of Lee's army.-The line of his retreat.-Grant's pursuit.-Sheridan captures prisoners, guns, and wagons.-Sheridan's dispatch.-Change in the movements of both armies.-The situation at Appomattox Court-house.-How Lee was surrounded.-SURRENDER OF THE ARMY OF NORTHEkn Virginia.—A frightful demoralization of the army.-More than two-thirds of the men deserted.-Pickett's division.-Reasons to suppose that General Lee had predetermined a surrender on moving from Richmond and Petersburg. Straggling of his soldiers.-Official correspondence concerning the surrender.-Interview between General Lee and General Grant at McLean's house.-How General Lee looked.-Grant's generous conduct.-Scenes between the lines of the two armies.--An informal conference of officers.-How the news of surrender was received in the Yankee army.-How received at Washington.-Secretary Stanton's dispatch.-President Lincoln's speech.—“ Dixie” in Washington.-General Lee's farewell address to his army.-His return to Richmond.-Effect of Lee's surrender. -General Johnston's department.--MOVEMENTS IN THE SOUTHWEST.--FALL OF MOBILE.-Wilson's cavalry expedition through Alabama and Georgia.—SURRENDER OF JOHNSTON'S ARMY.--Sherman's "basis of negotiations" repudiated at Washington. The policy of the Northern Government unmasked. Sherman's reply.— SURRENDER OF TAYLOR'S ARMY.-SURRENDER OF KIRBY'S SMITH's_ARMY.—“ War meetings" in Texas.-Want of public resolution.-The last act of the war.-A sudden peace, and what it implied...


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'olitical Iconoclasm in America. The two idols Its true value.-It contained a

of "the Constitution" and "the Union."-Extravagant praises of the Constitution.-Its noble principle and glaring defects.-Character of the founders of the Constitution. -Hamilton.-Franklin.-His cookery-book philosophy. His absurdities in the Convention.-The call for the Convention that formed the Constitution.-Three parties in the Convention.-The idea of a “national" government.-Conflict between the small and large States.-The result of this, the distinguishing feature of the Constitution. That feature an accident, and not an a priori discovery.-Enumeration of defects in the Constitution. The weakness and ignorance of its framers. -Its one conspicuous virtue and original principle.—Combination of State-rights


with a common authority.-How involved in the construction of the Senate.-How made more precise in the Amendments.-Particulars in which the element of the States was recognized.-A new rule of construction applied to the American Union. -The necessity which originated it.-The Constitution of the United States not a political revolution.-The creature of the States.-True interpretation of its moral grandeur.-The bond of the Union a voluntary one.-No mission apart from the States. Why coercion of the States was not necessary.-How the Union stood for an American nationality.-Its power to reach individuals.-The Union, in practice, rather a rough companionship than a national identity.-Right of secession. Not necessary to discuss it.-The development of the Union a North and South, and not disintegrated States.-Profound invention of Calhoun of South Carolina.-How it was a Union measure, and not "Nullification.". 529


What the American colonies contended for.--Burke's idea.-The first American Congress.--Its demands.-How the question of independence was developed.-Virginia the first to move for independence.-The Declaration of Independence.-The Articles of Confederation.-Diverse character and circumstances of the colonies.The gentry of Virginia and the Carolinas.-Early type of the Yankee.-Difference of races. Its value in historical inquiries.-Commercial spirit of New England in the revolution.-The nature and the value of "the Confederation."-John Adams' idea.-" Perpetual Union."-The Confederation a makeshift of the war."State-rights" in the treaty of 1788.-How the revolution succeeded.-Its illustration of the value of endurance.-Liberty invariably the fruit of rebellion.-The two conditions of all history....



The times of Thomas Jefferson.-Manners and appearance of the man.-His Demo racy.-Its application to the relations of the States and Federal Government.-Ori gin of the Republican or Democratic party.-The idea of consolidation.-Now York, and the New England States.-Early political preaching in New England.— The Alien and Sedition laws.-How the latter infringed the rights of the States.The Kentucky Resolutions.-A fact not in the rocord.-Mr. Jefferson on "nullifcation."-Why the Kentucky Resolutions were modified.-The Virginia Resolutions. -The replies of the New England States, and of New York.-Jefferson's triumph. -A new era at Washington...... 553


The slavery question.-A libel on political nomenclature.-A brief moral defence of negro servitude in the South.-The history of its establishment.Accommodation of the slavery question in the Constitution.-Political history of the question. The Hartford Convention. Two blows aimed at the South.-Development of the slavery controversy.-Mr. Jefferson's opinion as to slavery in the territories.-The Missouri restriction.-The initial point of the war of sections.— Mr. Jefferson's alarm.-The trace of disunion.-Real causes of conflict between the North and the South.-The slavery question subordinate and yet conspicuous.-Why so?-How it was bound up in the conflict between State-rights and consolidation.-Northern civilization.-An insolent democracy.-Yankee "gentlemen."-Plainness of the South.-A noble type of civilization.-Effect of slavery on the political and social character of the South.-Yankee vulgarity.—Why the South was the nursery of American statesmen.. 563




Review of the Battle of Chancellorsville.-Two Defects in the Victory of the Confederates." The Finest Army on the Planet."-Analysis of the Victory.-Generalship of Lee.-Services and Character of the great Confederate Leader.-His Commonplaces and his Virtues.-The Situation in Virginia.-Lee's Preparations for the Summer Campaign.-Hooker to be Maneuvered out of Virginia.-Reorganization of Lee's Army.-The Affair of Brandy Station.-THE CAPTURE OF WINCHESTER.—The Affair of Aldie's Station.-Lee's Army Crossing the Potomac.-Invasion of Pennsylvania.-Alarm in the North.--Hooker Out-Generalled and Removed.-The Mild Warfare of the Confederate Invaders.-Southern "Chivalry."-General Lee's Error. -His Splendid March from Culpepper Court House to Gettysburg.-Feverish Anticipations in Richmond.-THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG.-First Day's Engagement.A Regiment of Corpses.-Charge of Gordon's Brigade.-The Nine Mississipp Heroes. The Yankees Driven through Gettysburg.-A Fatal Mistake of the Con federates.-General Lee's Embarrassments.-THE SECOND DAY.-Cemetery Hill.Early's Attack Almost a Success.-Adventure of Wright's Brigade.-The Thir DAY.-Sublime Terrors of the Artillery.--Heroic and Ever-Memorable Charge of Pickett's Division on the Heights.-Half a Mile of Shot and Shell.-Pickett's Sup ports Fail.-The Recoil.-General Lee's Behavior.-His Greatness in Disaster.-Immense Carnage.-Death of General Barksdale, “the Haughty Rebel."-General Lee's Retreat.-The Affair of Williamsport.-Lee Recrosses the Potomac.-Success of his Retreat.-Yankee Misrepresentation.-Review of the Pennsylvania Campaign.-Half of Lee's Plans Disconcerted at Richmond.-Results of the Battle of Gettysburg Negative.-Lee's Retreat Across the Potomac an Inconsequence.--Disappointment in Richmond.-The Budget of a Single Day in the Confederate Capital.

In the close of a former volume, we proposed to open the Third Year of the War with a revised and extended account of the battles fought between Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, on the 1st, 2d, 3d and 4th of May, 1863. On examination, however, of what has already been written of these events, we find so little of authentic detail to add to it, that we shall content ourselves with a general reference to this impor tant series of engagements (known collectively as the battle of Chancellorsville), and a concise statement of results.

We have here again the old story of a great and bloody battle, defective in conclusion and barren in practical results. The Confederates had failed to capture Sedgwick's corps by

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not seizing Banks' Ford. The capture of his whı .è corps would then have been inevitable, for we held the access to Fredericksburg guarded. As it was, Hooker was able to cross the river under cover of night with all of his army but what had been lost in the casualties of the fight; and the Southern public were again treated to the old excuse that we had neither the men nor the facilities to pursue him.

But, notwithstanding these deficiencies of our victory, it was a great and brilliant one, and it gave the Confederacy occasion of pride second to none in the war. The Confederates had whipped what Hooker entitled “the finest army on the planet." They had done this with an effective fighting force which, compared with that of the enemy, was as three to ten. They had put thirty thousand of the enemy hors du combat, while our own casualties did not foot up more than one-third of that number. This battle, more than anything else, confirmed the fame of General Lee; for, however it had failed in accomplishing all that was possible, it was at least a victory won against an enemy of superior numbers, who had the advantage of the initiative and naturally secured that of position.

General Hooker had come with eight days' rations and a plan of battle combining all that was essential on paper to a complete success. General Lee had to watch the movements of Hooker until they were developed ; to arrest his progress by attack; to engage him at the same time with a flank movement with a portion of his forces; and then to transfer his blows to Sedgwick. All this was done with a readiness of combination that showed a high order of military ability. Hooker was defeated by two critical circumstances: the flank movement of Jackson, executed with signal rapidity and decision, and the failure of Sedgwick to effect a junction. It was these move ments and interpositions directed by Lee which ranked him among the greatest of modern strategists. He was now recognized as the master military mind of the Confederacy.

General Lee had, by a perceptible progress, risen to be one of the most remarkable men of the revolution. His military life had been one of steady advancement. He had graduated at West Point in 1829, at the head of his class; and it is said that, in that severe school and early test of the soldier, he had never been marked with a demerit or had received a repri

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