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The only just explanation that can be furnished of the abject attitude of these States is, that having taken the first steps of submission to a pitiless despotism, they had been easily cor rupted into its subjects. The lessons of history furnish many exhibitions of how easily the spirit of a community is crushed by submission to tyranny; how the practice of non-resistance makes of men crawling creatures. The mistake is in making the first step of subinission; when that is accomplished, demoralization becomes rapid, and the bravest community sinks into emasculation. Under the experience of non-resistance to the rule of a despot, men become timid, artful, and miserly; they spend their lives in consulting the little ends of personal selfishness. This corruption in Kentucky, as well as in Maryland, had gone on with visible steps. Their history was a lesbon which the South might well remember, of the fatal consequences of any submission to despotic will; for however specious its plea, all records of man's experience have shown that it undermines the virtues of a people, and degenerates at last into servile acquiesconce in its fate.
Our Lines in the Southwest.-Gen. Breckenridge's Attack on Baton Rouge.-Destruction of the Ram Arkansas.-Gen. Price's Reverse at Iuka.-Desperate Fighting.THE BATTLE OF CORINTH.-Van Dorn's hasty Exultations.-The Massacre of College Hill. Wild and terrible Courage of the Confederates.-Our Forces beaten Back.Our Lines of Retreat secured.-The Military Prospects of the South overshadowed. -THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI.-Romance of the War in Missouri.-Schofield's Order calling out the Militia.-Atrocities of the Yankee Rule in Missouri. -Robbery without "Red Tape."-The Guerilla Campaign.-The Affair of Kirksville.-Execution of Col. McCullough.—The Affair of Lone Jack.-Timely Reinforcement of Lexington by the Yankees.-The Palmyra Massacre.-The Question of Retaliation with the South.-THE MILITARY AND POLITICAL SITUATION.-Survey of the Military Situation.-Capture of Galveston by the Yankees.-The Enemy's Naval Power. His Iron-clads.-Importance of Foundries in the South.-Prospect in the Southwest.-Prospect in Tennessee.-Prospect in Virginia.-Stuart's Raid into Pennsylvania.-Souvenirs of Southern Chivalry.-The "Soft-mannered Rebels."-Political Complexion of the War in the North.-Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation."— History of Yankee Legislation in the War.-Political Error of the Emancipation Proclamation.-Its Effect on the South.-The Decay of European Sympathy with the Abolitionists. What the War accomplished for Negro Slavery in the South.-Yankee Falsehoods and Bravadoes in Europe.-Delusion of Conquering the South by Starvation.-Caricatures in the New York Pictorials.-The noble Eloquence of Hunger and Rags.-Manners in the South.-Yankee Warfare.-The Desolation of Virginia.—The Lessons of harsh Necessity.-Improvement of the Civil Administration of the Confederacy.-Ordnance, Manufacturing Resources, Quartermasters' Supplies, etc.
THE crisis in Kentucky was probably hastened by certain disastrous events which had taken place on our lines in the Southwest. A large Confederate force had been left in North Mississippi when Gen. Bragg moved into Kentucky, and the speculation was not remote that, with the Memphis and Charleston railroad open from Chattanooga to a point near the position of our army in Mississippi, that portion of our forces in the West might render important assistance to, or, in some emergency, effect a co-operation with the armies that had been marched into Kentucky.
But the story of the Southwest was one of almost unbroker disaster, owing less, perhaps, to inadequate numbers than to the blind and romantic generalship which carried them into the jaws of destruction. There was one golden link in the chain of events here, and that was the heroic defence of Vicks
burg. But while this famons town so nobly disfated the palm of the Mississippi, her example of victorious resistance was obscured, though not overshadowed, by other events in the Southwest.
On the 5th of August, an attack made by Gen. Breckenridge with less than three thousand men on Baton Rouge, was se verely repulsed by an enemy nearly twice his numbers, fighting behind fortifications which were almost impregnable, and assisted by a fleet of gunboats in the river. The unequal attack was made by our troops with devoted courage; they succeeded in driving the enemy to the arsenal and tower, and to the cover of his gunboats ; but they were compelled to withdraw with diminished and exhausted numbers before a fire which it was impossible to penetrate.
This check (for it deserves no more important or decisive title) was in a measure occasioned, or, at least, was accompanied, by a disaster of real importance. This was the destruction of the great Confederate ram Arkansas, already famous for having run the gauntlet of the hostile fleet at Vicksburg, and the promises of whose future services had given to the South many brilliant but illusory hopes. The Arkansas left Vicksburg to co-operate in the attack upon Baton Rouge. After passing Bayou Sara her machinery became deranged or disabled. But two alternatives were left—to blow her up or buffer her to be captured by the Yankee gunboats. The former was resorted to, and this proud achievement of naval architecture floated a wreck on the Mississippi river.
The failure of another enterprise of attack on the enemy, made by Gen. Price at Iuka on the 20th of September, was much more disastrous than the affair of Baton Rouge. Overmatched by numbers, Gen. Price was, after some partial and temporary success, forced back, with a loss greater than that of the enemy. In this engagement our loss was probably eight hundred in killed and wour led. But never had troops fought with more terrible resolution or wilder energy than the soldiers of Price. The fighting was almost hand to hand ; and as an instance of the close and deadly combat, it may be mentioned that an Ohio battery was taken by our men four different times, and as often retaken by greatly superior numbers of the enemy. The desperation of our soldiers astonished those who, ly the weight of numbers alone, were able to resist them. Several of onr men endeavored to tear the colors from the hands of the Yankees by main force, and either perished in the attempt or were made prisoners. In one spot next morning, there were counted seventeen Confederate soldiers lying dead around one of their officers. Sixteen feet square would cover the whole space where they died.
But there was yet tu unsue the great disaster which was to react on other theatres of the war and cast the long shadow of misfortune upon the country of the West. It was destined to take place at Corinth, where Major.gen. Rosecrans, commanding the Yankee army of the Mississippi and Tennessee, was stationed with at least forty thousand men.
THE BATTLE OF CORINTH.
The armies of Generals Van Dorn and Price under Gen. Van Dorn as the ranking officer-having formed a junction at Ripley, marched thence for the purpose of engaging the enemy in battle, though it was well known that the battle must be waged under the serious disadvantages of great disparity in numbers and strength of position.
On the 2d of October our forces marched from Pocahontas to Chewalla, points on the Memphis and Charleston railroad, thus moving from the west on Corinth, the stronghold of the enemy. That night the soldiers rested on their arms, in eager and confident expectation of ineeting the foe in battle array on the ensuing morning.
On Friday, October 3d, the order of battle was formed the right being held by Gen. Van Dorn's troops, composing only one division, under Gen. Lovell; while the left was occupied by Gen. Price's troops, composed of two divisions—the extreme left under Gen. Herbert, and the right under Gen. Maury, whose division, as thus placed, formed the centre of the whole force. Advancing in this order, at half past 7 o'clock in the morning Gen. Lovell's division arrived within long range of the enemy, who had marched out some miles in front of the extreme onter lines of his fortifications. Immediately the artillery or Gen. Villipigne, whose brigade was in the advance, opened fire npon the enemy, who in a short time began to give way and
fall back, and continued to do so for two hours, under a heavy and effective fire from the advancing batteries of Gen. Lovell's division.
At half-past 9 o'clock, the enemy having made a stand one half mile in front of his fortifications, Gen. Lovell advanced his infantry and poured a destructive musketry fire into the ranks of the Yankees, who replied with spirit; and now, Gen. Price having ordered up his divisions under Generals Maury and Herbert, the battle raged all along the line—the enemy suffering terribly. At length a charge was ordered, Gen. Lovell's division leading. In double-quick time our soldiers, pressing forward with loud cheers, drove the enemy behind his intrenchments. Simultaneously almost, the divisions of Gen. Maury and Herbert, the one after the other, charged the enemy in front of them with equal success.
There was now a strange lull in the battle. The Yankees had withdrawn entirely behind their fortifications, their fire had dropped off, and the tumult of the fierce strife died away. The unexpected quiet lasted for a whole hour. By that time, the Yankees having brought several field batteries in front, pened from these, and at the same time from his heavy artillery, a most tremendons cannonade. This fire was directed chiefly, if not wholly, against the right wing under Gen. Lovell, and, though so tremendous in sound, produced but little effect. Our soldiers remained silent and stood firm. They were waiting for orders. Presently the second charge was ordered. Gallantly was it made by Gen. Lovell’s division, and as gallantly was it supported by charges all along the centre and right wing by the divisions of Generals Maury and Herbert. On, on our glorious columns swept through the leaden rain and iron hail; the first line of fortifications is reached and passed; and the Yankees do not stop until they have reached the next line of intrenchments.
On Friday night the news of a great victory was dispatched by Gen. Van Dorn to Richmond. This announcement was made with an exultation so hasty and extreme, that it is to be supposed that this commander was entirely unaware of the strength of the enemy's works at Corinth, and, consequently, of the supreme trial which yet remained for the courage and devotion of his troops.