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lating the troops of this command for the triumph over rebellion, gained by their valor, on the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth instant.
For four successive nights, without shelter, during the most inclement weather known in this latitude, they faced an enemy in large force, in a position chosen by himself. Though strongly fortified by nature, all the additional safeguards suggested by science were added. Without a murmur this was borne, prepared at all times to receive an attack, and, with continuous skirmishing by day, resulting ultimately in forcing the enemy to surrender without conditions.
"The victory achieved is not only great in the effect it will have in breaking down rebellion, but has secured the greatest number of prisoners of war ever taken in any battle on this continent.
"Fort Donelson will hereafter be marked in capitals on the map of our United Country, and the men who fought the battle will live in the memory of a grateful people.
"U. S. GRANT, "Brigadier-General Commanding."
MILITARY RESTRICTIONS IN TENNESSEE, By the middle of February, the forces of General Grant were again advancing into the rebel territory. The courts of Tennessee were ordered to be closed, and martial law was declared extended over the western part of the State, but at the same time it was declared that whenever a number of citizens should return to their allegiance, sufficient to maintain law and order, the military restriction would be removed.
On the twenty-third of February, 1862, the following order was published:
HEAD-QUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF MISSOURI, "ST. LOUIS, February 23d, 1862." "The major-general commanding this department desires to impress upon all officers the importance of preserving good order and discipline among these troops and the armies of the West, during their advance into Tennessee and the Southern States.
"Let us show to our fellow-citizens of these States, that we come merely to crush out this rebellion, and to restore to them peace and the benefits of the Constitution and the Union, of which they have been deprived by selfish and unprincipled
leaders. They have been told that we come to oppress and plunder. By our acts we will undeceive them. We will prove to them that we come to restore, not violate, the Constitution and the laws. In restoring to them the glorious flag of the Union, we will assure them that they shall enjoy, under its folds, the same protection of life and property as in former days.
"Soldiers! Let no excesses on your part tarnish the glory of our arms!' The orders heretofore issued from this department in regard to pillaging, marauding, and the destruction of private property, and the stealing and concealment of slaves, must be strictly enforced. It does not belong to the military to decide upon the relation of master and slave. Such questions must be settled by the civil courts. No fugitive slave will, therefore, be admitted within our lines or camps, except when especially ordered by the general commanding. Women and children, merchants, farmers, and all persons not in arms, are to be regarded as non-combatants, and are not to be molested, either in their persons or property. If, however, they assist and aid the enemy, they become belligerents, and will be treated as such. As they violate the laws of war, they will be made to suffer the penalties of such violation.
'Military stores and public property of the enemy must be surrendered; and any attempt to conceal such property by fraudulent transfer or otherwise will be punished. But no private proverty will be touched, unless by order of the general commanding.
"Whenever it becomes necessary, forced contributions for supplies and subsistence for our troops will be made. Such levies will be made as light as possible, and be so distributed as to produce no distress among the people. All property so taken must be receipted fully and accepted for as heretofore directed. "These orders will be read at the head of every regiment, and all officers are commanded strictly to enforce them.
"By command of
"W. H. MCLEAN, Adjutant-General.
By order of
"J. A. RAWLINS, A. A. G."
"Major-General U. S. GRANT.
GENERAL GRANT AT FORT HENRY—A TESTIMONIAL OF REGARD.
After the occupation of Nashville in the latter part of February, 1862, General Grant removed his head-quarters to Fort Henry, where for some time he was engaged in organizing and fitting out important expeditions, his place in the field being assumed during that period by General C. F. Smith.
On the eleventh of March, 1862, General Grant received one of the testimonials of regard of which he has been upon frequent occasions the worthy recipient, the officers at Fort Henry having on that day presented him with a costly sword, the blade of which was of the finest steel and the handle of ivory mounted with gold.
THE BATTLE OF PITTSBURG LANDING. Two days later, General Halleck assumed command of the Department of the Mississippi, a large and important district of which was intrusted to the charge of General Grant. Important reconnoissances were immediately made, and an advance subsequently commenced towards Corinth, Mississippi, which had been strongly fortified by the rebels. As the Union troops advanced they encamped at Savannah and Pittsburg Landing, and other accessible points, until at length the entire army had concentrated ready for battle. The Union forces consisted of five divisions, organized as follows:
MAJOR-GENERAL GRANT, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.
First Division, MAJOR-GENERAL MCCLERNAND.
Second Division, BRIGADIER-GENERAL W. H. L. WAL
Third Division, MAJOR-GENERAL LEWIS WALLACE. Fourth Division, BRIGADIER-GENERAL HURLBUT. Fifth Division, BRIGADIER-GENERAL W. T. SHERMAN. The rebel army was divided into three corps, and was mustered under the following leaders:
GENERAL A. S. JOHNSTON, Commanding General. GENERAL P. G. T. BEAUREGARD, Second in Command. First Army Corps, LIEUT. GENERAL L. POLK.
Second Army Corps, LIEUT. GENERAL Braxton Bragg. Third Army Corps, LIEUT. GENERAL W. T. HARDEE. Reserves, MAJOR-GENERAL G. B. CRITTENDEN.
On the evening of April second, 1862, the videttes of the
Third Division, stationed at Crump's Landing, were driven in and a brisk skirmish ensued, and on the evening of the fourth, another attack was made by two rebel regiments, but after an exchange of volleys they were compelled to retreat. The fifth of April had been set apart by the rebel commander for the day of attack, but in consequence of the failure of reinforcements under command of Price and Van Dorn to arrive as expected, they resolved to wait another day. Their object was to attack the Union army before it could be strengthened by the forces under General Buell, which were then advancing from Nashville, and at an early hour on Sunday morning our pickets were attacked and driven in. Of the protracted and sanguinary battle which followed, an eye-witness gives the following interesting account:
"PITTSBURG LANDING, VIA FORT Henry, "April 9th, 1862, 3.20 a.m.
"One of the greatest and bloodiest battles of modern days has just closed, resulting in the complete route of the enemy, who attacked us at daybreak, Sunday morning, April 6th.
"The battle lasted, without intermission, during the entire day, and was again renewed on Monday morning, and continued undecided until four o'clock in the afternoon, when the enemy commenced their retreat, and are still flying towards Corinth, pursued by a large force of our cavalry.
"The slaughter on both sides is immense. We have lost in killed, wounded, and missing, from eighteen to twenty thousand; that of the enemy is estimated at from thirty-five to forty thousand.
"It is impossible, in the present confused state of affairs, to ascertain any of the details; I, therefore, give you the best account possible from observation, having passed through the storm of action during the two days that it raged.
"The fight was brought on by a body of three hundred of the Twenty-fifth Missouri regiment, of General Prentiss's Division, attacking the advance guard of the rebels, which were supposed to be the pickets of the enemy in front of our camps.
"The rebels immediately advanced on General Prentiss's Division on the left wing, pouring volley after volley of musketry, and riddling our camps with grape, canister, and shell. Our forces soon formed into line and returned their fire vigorously. By the time we were prepared to receive them, the
rebels had turned their heaviest fire on the left centre, Sherman's Division, and drove our men back from their camps; then, bringing up a fresh force, opened fire on our left wing, under General McClernand, This fire was returned with terrible effect and determined spirit by both infantry and artillery, along the whole line, for a distance of over four miles.
"General Hurlbut's division was thrown forward to support the centre, when a desperate conflict ensued. The rebels were driven back with terrible slaughter, but soon rallied and drove hack our men in turn. From about nine o'clock, the time your correspondent arrived on the field, until night closed on the bloody scene, there was no determination of the result of the struggle. The rebels exhibited remarkably good generalship. At times engaging the left, with apparently their whole strength, they would suddenly open a terrible and destructive fire on the right or centre. Even our heaviest and most destructive fire upon the enemy did not appear to discourage their solid columus. The fire of Major Taylor's Chicago artillery raked them down in scores, but the smoke would no sooner be dispersed than the breach would again be filled.
"The most desperate fighting took place late in the afternoon. The rebels knew that, if they did not succeed in whipping us then, their chances for success would be extremely doubtful, as a portion of General Buell's forces had by this time arrived on the opposite side of the river, and another portion was coming up the river from Savannah. They became aware that we were being reinforced, as they could see General Buell's troops from the river bank, a short distance above us on the left, to which point they had forced their way.
"At five o'clock the rebels had forced our left wing back so as to occupy fully two-thirds of our camp, and were fighting their way forward with a desperate degree of confidence in their efforts to drive us into the river, and at the same time heavily engaged our right.
Up to this time we had received no reinforcements, General Lewis Wallace failing to come to our support until the day was over. Being without other transports than those used for quartermaster's and commissary stores, which were too heavily laden to ferry any considerable number of General Buell's forces across the river, and the boats that were here having been sent to bring up the troops from Savannah, we could not even get those men to us who were so near, and anxiously waiting to take part in the struggle. We were, therefore, contesting against fearful odds, our force not exceeding thirty-eight thousand men, while that of the enemy was upwards of sixty thousand.
"Our condition at this moment was extremely critical. Large numbers of men panic struck, others worn out by hard fighting, with the average percentage of skulkers, had straggled towards the river, and could not be rallied,