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stones. The Puritans all over England were resisting the demands of the King. Possibly it was the desire of Charles to get rid of them that led him to grant a charter for a government of their own in America. The persecution of the bishop and the arbitrary acts of the King made life so bitter that thousands of Puritans were ready to quit England forever.
Many of the people of Norfolk and Lincoln counties had sailed for Massachusetts; others were ready to join them. The ships Rose and the John and Dorothy were at Yarmouth, preparing to sail. Francis Lawes resolved to become an emigrant; and it seems probable that Samuel Lincoln was ready to join his brother, who had settled in Hingham, near Boston. (') We see them travelling across the meadows and lowlands, with others, to Yarmouth town. Together the ships sail across the Atlantic, to drop their anchors in Salem Harbor. It is probable that Samuel Lincoln, for lack of wool, did not do
much weaving in the town of Ipswich, where his master settled. The only sheep in Massachusetts were a few which were pastured on the islands in Boston harbor, where the wolves could not get at them.
When the apprentice became of age he joined his brother Thomas in Hingham. He had learned a trade; it is not certain that he followed it, but probably he became a farmer. A maiden named Martha became his wife; her parental name is not known. Their children were Samuel, Daniel, Mordecai, Mary, Martha, Sarah, and Rebecca. (*)
Startling news came that the Indians were murdering the settlers of Swanzey. It was the beginning of the war with the Pequots, under their chief, Philip. Samuel, the oldest son, seized his father's gun and powder-horn and became a soldier. A year passed, in which more than six hundred of the settlers were killed; but the chief was dead, and his head was hanging on a gibbet in Plymouth. The captured Indians were sold as slaves to the Spaniards.
Mordecai Lincoln, the while, was blowing the bellows and making the anvil ring in a blacksmith's shop. When he became of age he set up his own forge in Hull. Perhaps Sarah Jones may have influenced him in settling there, for she soon became his wife. (*)
The year 1686 was a memorable one to the blacksmith, for a son was born to him-Mordecai, junior. Just before his birth the frigate Rose sailed into Boston harbor, bringing Sir Edmund Andros, who had been appointed Governor of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. He had brought over two companies of troops to aid him in upsetting the government of the people. It seems that Mordecai Lincoln could look from his shop door and see the frigate running out its guns and firing a salute, and the cannon of the castle replying. James II. had determined to overthrow the Puritan commonwealth. The people were no longer to assemble in town meeting or make their own laws. We may be sure that the farmers who came to have their horses shod or their ploughshares sharpened, or fishermen who wanted work done, expressed their minds freely upon public affairs, and that the blacksmith had something to say while making the anvil ring by his sturdy blows. Three years passed, and Sir Edmund Andros saw the streets of Boston suddenly swarming with armed men, who came from Cambridge, Roxbury, Hingham, Hull, and other towns, put an end to his government, and re-established their own.
Blacksmith Lincoln thought the time had come when the people of
Massachusetts should no longer be dependent on England for iron. There was an abundant supply of ore in the bogs and meadows of Scituate and Hingham. Through his efforts a furnace was constructed, and the ore dug from a bog and smelted. It was the beginning of an industry which lasted many years. His enterprise went further. He built a mill on Bound Brook, where the water tumbled over the rocks on its way to the sea. The brook at the falls was the boundary
between the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts. It was of great service for a large section of the country in both colonies. (*)
Mordecai Lincoln helped build the Hingham meeting-house. The elders decided just what seats people should occupy, and they assigned an honorable seat to him in the front gallery.
He wanted his grandchildren to be well educated, and in his will bequeathed £10 to aid them in Harvard College. () We do not know in what year the blacksmith's oldest son, Mordecai, junior, married; neither is the maiden name of his wife to be found on any record. We only know that after the birth of a son the husband became a widower.
Although Massachusetts was sparsely settled, people were emigrating from the province. Mordecai Lincoln, with his son John, made his way to Freehold, Monmouth County, N. J. The citizens of that county regarded him as being worthy of their esteem. Hannah Salter, daughter of Richard and Sarah Bowne Salter, gave him her hand in marriage. Mr. Salter was a lawyer, judge, and member of the Provincial Assembly. Hannah's uncle, Captain John Bowne, was rich. He remembered Hannah Salter Lincoln in his will, giving her £250. Her husband was so greatly esteemed that in title-deeds he was styled "gentleman." He was thrifty, and purchased several hundred acres
of land. (') He wanted more, and visited the valley of the Schuylkill, in Pennsylvania, to see for himself whether or not the lands there were as fertile and beautiful as reported. He was so well pleased that he resolved to become a citizen of Pennsylvania, and removed to Amity township.
It seems conclusive that John did not go with his father, but remained in Freehold, and married there. We shall see him, together with his sons, further on. (*)
Mordecai Lincoln became near neighbor to George Boone, who came from England with eleven children. He had such pleasant memories of his old home in the valley of the Exe that he named his new home Exeter, after the old town whose cathedral bells had charmed him with their music. He found that many of his neighbors were Germans who could not speak the English language. Farther down the valley of the Schuylkill the settlers were mostly from Wales, who gave Welsh names to the towns. In Gwynedd were four brothers-Thomas, Robert, Owen, and Cadwallader Evans. They could trace their ancestral line back to Lludd, King of Britain, who fought the Romans when Julius Cæsar was Emperor of Rome. () Cadwallader was the youngest of the brothers. He became a preacher after joining the Friends. Before leaving England he married Ellen Morris, of Bryn Gwyn, which means White Hill. They had a beautiful and queenly daughter, Sarah. We need not think it strange that John
Hanks, of Whitemarsh, found pleasure in her society and asked her to be his wife.
The autumn leaves were changing, and there was glory on the hills, October 12, 1711, when John Hanks and Sarah Evans stood before the congregation of Friends, in Gwynedd, he promising to love and honor her as a husband, she to be a true and faithful wife. The clerk who recorded the marriage put John down as "yeoman," and Sarah as "spinster." (1) Their home was in Whitemarsh. Children made it musical with their prattleJohn, William, Samuel, Jane, and Elizabeth. The eldest reaches manhood, marries whom we do not know; but he finds a home in Union township, on the west bank of the Schuylkill. His neighbor is John Lincoln, from Freehold. Across the river are the homes of Mordecai Lincoln and George Boone, and that of his son, Squire Boone.
Settlers were building their homes in the surrounding country, but there were still vast reaches of forest abounding with game. One of Squire Boone's sons-Daniel-found great pleasure in listening to the singing of the birds, the chattering of squirrels. He loved hunting, and before he was ten years old could bring down a deer when it was upon the run. His parents allowed him to go out alone, for on dark and cloudy days he could keep the points of compass, and was never in danger of being lost. One night he did not return. The second night came, and Daniel was still absent. His father and the neighbors searched the woods, and found that he had built a camp, killed a deer, kindled a fire, and was broiling venison for his dinner. (")
A warm friendship sprang up between the Boone, Lincoln, and Hanks families. They were on the frontier; many of the settlers around them could not speak English. It does not appear that Mordecai or John Lincoln ever joined the Friends, and it is not certain that George Boone was a member of the society; but they attended the meetings, and all lived together in brotherly love. Mordecai Lincoln, in his last will and testament, appointed George Boone to assist in settling the estate. He