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elect a Senator opposed to the extension of slavery. The Democrats, seeing that they could not elect Shields, were ready to vote for Governor Matheson. Lincoln feared they would succeed. A great hour had come to him-a time when he could show that personal advantage is nothing, principle everything. If he continued to be a candidate Matheson would be elected, and Douglas and slavery triumphant. He called his true and steadfast friends around him. "Drop my name and vote for Trumbull," he said. It was a great thing to ask. Why should the Whigs give up their candidate and vote for a Democrat? Upon every question, other than that of Nebraska, Trumbull was an uncompromising Democrat. The persuasive words of Abraham Lincoln prevailed. With tears upon their cheeks their votes were cast for Trumbull, and he was elected. The prize which Lincoln hoped to win had passed beyond his grasp; but when he walked to his home in the twilight of the winter evening, with saddened heart and disappointed hopes, he was greater than ever before. He had fought a battle for principle and won the victory. Self had been sacrificed, but Freedom had triumphed.

On a summer night, while attending the Supreme Court in Chicago, Mr. Lincoln sat upon the piazza of the residence of Mr. Norman B. Judd, overlooking Lake Michigan. The labors of the day were over, and host, hostess, guest, and friends were enjoying the evening hour. Daylight was fading in the west, while in the east rose the full moon, seemingly from the lake. They beheld flocks of white-winged gulls; vessels were spreading their sails to the evening breeze. The waves were rippling upon the shore, and the stars shining in the azure depths of heaven. Mr. Lincoln was greatly stirred by the beauty of the scene.

"In that mild, pleasant voice," writes the hostess, "attuned to harmony with his surroundings, and which was his wont when his soul was stirred by aught that was lovely or beautiful, Mr. Lincoln began to speak of the mystery which for ages enshrouded and shut out those distant worlds above us from our own; of the poetry and beauty which was seen and felt by seers of old when they contemplated Orion and Arcturus as they wheeled, seemingly, around the earth in their nightly courses; of the discoveries since the invention of the telescope, which had thrown a flood of light and knowledge on what before was incomprehensible and mysterious; of the wonderful computations of scientists who had meas ured the miles of seemingly endless space which separated the planets in our solar system from our central sun, and our sun from other suns which were now gemming the heavens above us with their resplendent

beauty. He speculated on the possibilities of knowledge which an increased power of the lens would give in the years to come; and then the wonderful discoveries of late centuries, as proving that beings endowed with such capacities as men must be immortal, and created for some high and noble end by Him who had spoken those numberless worlds into existence, and made man a little lower than the angels that he might comprehend the glories and wonders of His creation. When the night air became too chilling to remain longer on the piazza we went into the parlor, and, seated on the sofa, his long limbs stretching across the carpet and his arms folded behind him, Mr. Lincoln went on to speak of other discoveries, and also of the inventions which had been made during the long cycles of time lying between the present and those early days when

the sons of Adam began to make use of material things about them, and invent instruments of various kinds in brass and gold and silver. He gave us a short but succinct account of all the inventions referred to in the Old Testament, from the time when Adam walked in the Garden of Eden until the Bible record ended, 600 B.C. I said, 'Mr. Lincoln, I did not know you were such a Bible student.' He replied, ‘I must be honest, Mrs. Judd, and tell you just how I come to know so much about these early inventions.' He then went on to say that, discussing with some friend the relative age of the discovery and use of the precious metals, he went to the Bible to satisfy himself, and became so interested in his researches that he made memoranda of the different discoveries and inventions; that soon after he was invited to lecture before some literary society (I think in Bloomington); that the interest he had felt in the study convinced him that the subject would interest

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others, and he therefore prepared and delivered his lecture on the 'Age of Different Inventions. Of course,' he added, I could not after that forget the order or time of such discoveries and inventions.'” (†)


(1) Daniel Webster's speech in Congress, March 5, 1850.

(*) Stephen A. Douglas, “Congressional Globe,” Appendix, 1851–52.

(3) "The Last Leaf" was first published 1836. The volume had a limited sale. It seems probable that Mr. Lincoln first became acquainted with it through the "Louisville Journal," the editor of which, being himself a poet, often enriched its columns with choice poems from other writers. Mr. Lincoln for many years was a subscriber to that paper. Mr. Holmes was nearly his own age, both having been born in 1809. —Author.

(*) Archibald Dixon to H. S. Foote, in "Louisville Democrat," October 3, 1858. (*) Mrs. Norman B. Judd, quoted in "Every-day Life of Lincoln,” p. 208.




DEOPLE in the Northern States during the month of July, 1854, were holding meetings to form a new political party which should have for its object resistance to the aggressions of the slave power.


Twenty-three years had passed since William Lloyd Garrison was put in prison for saying the slave traffic was piracy. The Abolitionists, as they called themselves, proposed to bring about the abolition July of slavery by convincing the people that it was morally wronga sin against God and their fellow-men. They denounced the Constitution because it recognized slavery, and they advocated the dissolution of the Union because it was in league with iniquity. They saw the aggression of slavery, but were opposed to any political action to restrict it. The Free Soil Party of 1848 was formed more to avenge the slight put upon President Van Buren by the slave power in not renominating him for a second term than from any deep-seated sentiment in favor of freedom.

The passage of the Nebraska Bill brought spontaneous combustion-a kindling of the fires of freedom throughout the Northern States, resulting in the formation of the Republican Party.


At Ostend, a seaport of Belgium, James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, Minister of the United States to England, Pierre Soulé, of New Orleans, Minister to Spain, and Mr. Mason, of Virginia, Minister to France, Oct. 9, had a conference as to the best way for the United States to gain possession of Cuba. The slave-holders wanted to obtain that island for the purpose of extending the area of slavery and strengthening their political power. They sent a letter to President Pierce suggesting that the United States should offer Spain $120,000,000, and if Spain would not sell, the United States ought to take the island by force. The thought that the United States would be acting the part of a highway robber did not deter them from putting forth the proposition. But President Pierce discovered that Spain, England, and other European

countries might have something to say about such a transaction; besides, such an outburst of indignation was heard from the people of the Northern States that no attempt was made to carry out the plan. The boldness and wickedness of the scheme aroused the people. There must be united action, or slavery would be the controlling political force.

Delegates from the several Northern States met in convention at Philadelphia and formed the Republican Party. They selected John Charles Fremont as their candidate for the Presidency. The June 17, Democratic Party met in Cincinnati and nominated James Buchanan, who had signed the letter in regard to seizing Cuba. Stephen A. Douglas confidently expected to be nominated. He had


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