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been accompanied by extensive material themselves before the car of their god. growth, especially in the amount of land The pilgrimages have not ceased, but the cultivated, and in the number and value excessive mortality consequent upon of the crops raised.
them has. The strip of coast "depopulated by The building of roads has also added sea-robbers” is now thronged with vil- vastly to the amount of land cultivated lages, and nearly a quarter of the ter- and to the intensity of cultivation. ritory of the northern borderland, which Formerly the peasant only raised suffiformerly no one dared to cultivate, has cient crops for the support of his family been brought under the plough and yields and for the payment of his land-tax. If an annual harvest valued at ninety mil- the old system of regarding him, not as lions of dollars. On fifty thousand square the owner, but as an hereditary tenant of miles of what was till recently wilderness the state, of land which by immemorial or desert, there are now to be found large custom and unwritten law was inalientowns surrounded by artificially irrigated able, had prevailed, his poverty would fields, highly cultivated and bearing crops not have been what it now is. But it was which add yearly over a hundred million one of the mistakes of the British that dollars to the general wealth. The ex- they made land private property, in the ports alone of cotton and tea, the cultiva- expectation that by this means the position of which was practically introduced tion of the peasant proprietor would be by the English, were one hundred and improved and taxation placed on an fifty million dollars in 1905, while as a equitable basis. The immediate effect producer of wheat British India ranks was a sudden rise in the value of land and fourth among the nations of the world. the enrichment of the peasant-farmer.
In the ante-British times there were no But it was soon found that the village roads, only bridle-paths. To-day there money-lender was the one who profited are more than one hundred and eighty most by the new system. The natives, thousand miles of road, and twenty-eight untrained to habits of thrift and unused thousand miles of railway on which two to the possession of money, found themhundred and forty-eight million passen- selves after a brief season of extravagers were carried in 1906. This fact gant spending, dispossessed of the fields means more than lies upon the surface. which they and their ancestors had cultiIn times not very long ago the pilgrim- vated for untold ages, and driven forth ages, which every Hindu endeavors at to become homeless wanderers and daysome time to make, were done mostly on laborers, or, if they remained, hopeless foot. The rivers in their way were rarely serfs to their creditors. The rates of bridged, and if they were swollen by the interest demanded were so high that rains so that the customary fords were even small debts became a terrible burimpassable, the multitudes going and re- den, as is shown by the following inturning from the shrine became congested stance taken from an official report: “A on either bank. Their supplies were soon small farmer borrowed ten rupees, and exhausted, and famine and its attendant after paying one hundred and ten found diseases were the inevitable result. Even himself in ten years still owing two hunwhen there were no extraordinary diffi- dred and twenty rupees on the loan.” So culties to be overcome, the old and feeble, far as our knowledge goes this is the only whose strength was exhausted by the cause of the impoverishment of the Indian journey merely, died in countless num- which can be charged directly to the Britbers by the way. For fifty miles from ish government. An encouraging fact in Juggernaut in every direction the paths this connection is that in 1905 more than were lined with the bodies of those who a million people had $44,690,043 deposhad perished in the attempt to prostrate ited in the Post-Office Savings-Banks
alone, an increase of nearly eleven mil- rulers, however, has been the education lions in five years. That the wealth of the of the people in self-government. What country at large is increasing is shown by progress has been made in this direction? the fact that out of a total value of a bil- In 1905 there were seven hundred and lion dollars for the seaborne commerce in forty-six municipalities with a population 1906, the value of the exports exceeded of over sixteen millions governed by comthat of the imports by one hundred and mittees, the majority of whom are natives, eleven millions. On the other hand the and in many cases all are natives, elected value of the treasure brought into India by the ratepayers. These bodies have the in the last two fiscal years exceeded that care of the roads, water-supply, markets, carried out by one hundred and thirty- and sanitation; they impose taxes, enact one millions. It is interesting to note in by-laws, make improvements, and spend this connection that India's trade with
money, but the sanction of the provincial the United States for the first ten months government is necessary before new taxes of 1906 was over fifty-six million dollars, can be levied or new by-laws brought which was an increase of twenty millions into force. For many rural communities over the corresponding period of the pre- there are similar elected bodies having in vious year. Seven-eighths consisted of charge roads, district schools, and hospiexports from India to this country. tals. There are also representative as
From the fact that ninety out of every semblies or parliaments in two of the hundred Indians live in the rural dis- great native states. According to the lattricts the general educational progress est statistics within my reach there are has been slow. It has also been hampered twenty-one thousand seven hundred and by the grievous mistake of making Eng. three natives holding civil appointments lish the language through which instruc- with salaries above three hundred dollars, tion, even in the primary schools, was the English numbering a few over a thougiven. The higher education has also had sand. Two of the ten members of the till recently for its exclusive aim the pre- council of the Secretary of State for India paration of men for the civil posts, and are Indians, and they are to be found in many more have been graduated from the considerable numbers on the councils of colleges than could obtain positions; con- the Governor-General and the provincial sequently a most dangerous element has
governors. Indians also hold commisbeen planted among the people. This is sions in the British
army. recognized by the Indians themselves, as But perhaps the strongest evidence of is shown by a speech in July, 1907, by the the growth of the ability to govern themMaharajah of Kashmir. He said that selves is the discontent which prevails "the chief cause of disloyalty was the among a certain section of the people in educational system which sent out stu- different parts of the country. It is so far dents with university degrees, but with from being universal or even general, out occupation. The remedy lay in edu- however, that nine-tenths of the natives cation in the arts and sciences, and this are absolutely ignorant of its existence: was the policy” which he intended to that is, it has not reached the rural peasfollow. This conviction of the need of antry. A
antry. A few, consisting almost entirely technical and especially medical training of the educated class known as Baboos, decharacterized Lord Curzon's educational mand absolute freedom from British rule, policỹ; and institutions having these ends - independence. The wiser, and better in view, together with commercial and informed, including the representatives agricultural schools, and normal schools
of the sixty-two million Mohammedans, for training teachers, have been estab- simply ask for a larger share in their own lished throughout the land.
government. This request Mr. Morley, The fundamental aim of the British speaking for his countrymen, has promised shall be granted as speedily as pos- to revolutions. But the spirit in which sible; and the taking of two natives into these warnings were received then as well his Council was a first and most import- as now is shown in the memorable speech ant step in that direction. This Swadeshi of Macaulay in 1833. After an eloquent movement, as it is locally known, is not a prophecy that under the present system sudden and unexpected event. When it of government the public mind of India was announced nearly a hundred years would expand until it had outgrown the ago that the aim of the government was system, and that at some future
their to raise the Indian people to a condition Indian subjects might demand European in which true self-government should be institutions, he added, “Whenever the possible, there were numerous warnings day comes it will be the proudest day in that such a policy would inevitably lead English history."
BY GAMALIEL BRADFORD, JR.
IN 1891 Mr. Davidson published two preface, and in which I have been unable small volumes of extracts from Dumas's to follow her. But no difference of text Memoirs; but the complete work now can justify the omission of the pretty appears in English for the first time.
touch, comme les trois Curiaces, which Mrs. Waller, the translator, her pub- Mr. Davidson justly notes as most Dulishers, and Mr. Andrew Lang, in his mas-like. Deux mille becomes in the graceful introduction, have unquestion- translation “ten thousand.” Comme je ably rendered a considerable service to l'ai fait remarquer does not mean “as I English literature. Certain persons may had noticed ;” and cette æuvre de perfecbe annoyed, or may profess to be an- tion que l'art atteint parfois en dépassant noyed, because a few passages more la nature is not adequately rendered by suited to French than to English taste “that perfect standard to which art have not been omitted; but there are everywhere attains when it surpasses strong arguments in these matters for nature.” Nevertheless, in spite of these the policy of all or none.
and similar lapses, Mrs. Waller contrives Those who are curious in translation to catch a considerable amount of the will compare Mrs. Waller's work and Mr.
grace and ease and lightness of her elusDavidson's with much interest. Some- ive original; and the book is thoroughly times one catches the author's spirit bet- readable, - surely the first essential with ter, sometimes the other. Quite often Dumas, who is always readable, if noneither catches it at all. In literal accu
thing else. racy Mr. Davidson has distinctly the Mr. Davidson, whose excellent voladvantage. Indeed, Mrs. Waller's slips ume on Dumas must be the foundation are rather too frequent. Some of them of any careful study of the subject, dismay perhaps be explained by the extens- misses his author with the remark: “Exive collation to which she refers in her cept for increasing the already ample
means of relaxation, he did nothing to 1 My Memoirs. By ALEXANDRE DUMAS. Translated by E. M. WALLER, with an intro
benefit humanity at large.” But is not duction by ANDREW LANG. London and New this a rather grudging epitaph for the York: The Macmillan Company. 1907-08.
creator of Monte Cristo ? Are the means
of relaxation so ample that we can afford Even in Hugo, in Balzac, in Flaubert, to treat La Tour de Nesle and La Reine in Zola, one has an uneasy feeling that Margot as alms for oblivion ? Would melodrama is not too far away. In DuStevenson have read Le Vicomte de mas it is frankly present always. The Bragelonne six times, would you or I situation
situation — something that shall tear the have read Les Trois Mousquetaires more nerves, make the heart leap and the times than we can count, if other relaxa- breath stop — for Dumas there lies the tion of an equally delightful order were true art of dramatist and novelist. And indeed so easily obtainable? In spite what situations! No one ever had more of the flood of historical novels and all than he the two great dramatic gifts, other kinds of novels that overwhelmed which perhaps are only one, the gift of the nineteenth century, story-tellers like preparation and the gift of climax. “Of Dumas are not born every day, nor yet all dénoûments, past, present, and I will every other day.
say even to come,” writes Sarcey, “that For he was a story-teller by nature, one of Antony is the most brilliant, the most who could make a story of anything, one startling, the most logical, the most rapid; who did make a story of everything, for a stroke of genius.” Henri III, Richard the joy of his own childlike imagination. Darlington, La Tour de Nesle are full of “I am not like other people. Everything effects scarcely inferior. If one thinks interests me.” The round oath of a man, first of the plays, it is only because in the smile of a woman, a dog asleep in the them the action is more concentrated sun, a bird singing in a bush, even a than in the novels. But in novel after feather floating in the breeze, was enough. novel also, there is the same sure instinct Fancy seized it and wove an airy, sun- of arrangement, the same master's hand, bright web about it, glittering with wit, masterly for obtaining the sort of effect
, touched with just a hint of pathos; and which the author has chiefly in view. as we read, we forget the slightness of And perhaps the melodrama is not the substance in the
and delicacy quite all. The creatures are not always of the texture.
mere puppets, wire-pulled, stirring the It is an odd thing, this national French pulse when they clash together, then forgift of story-telling, of seeking by instinct gotten. We hate them sometimes, some the group-effect, as it were, of a set of times love them, sometimes even rememcharacters, their composite relations to ber them. Marguerite and Buridan are one another and the development of these not wholly unreal in their wild passion. relations in dramatic climax. English The scene of reconciliation between the writers, from Chaucer down, dwell by Musketeers on Place Royale has somepreference on the individual character, thing deeper than mere effect. And these force it only with labor and difficulty into are only two among many. Under all the general framework, from which it his gift of technique, his love of startling constantly escapes in delightful but and amazing, the man was not without wholly undramatic human eccentricity. an eye, a grip on life, above all, a heart To the French habit of mind, such in- that beat widely, with many sorrows and dividuality is excrescent and distasteful. many joys. Let the characters develop as fully and Then the style is the style of melo freely as the action requires, no more. drama, but it is also far more. No one They are there for the action, not the knew better how and when to let loose action for them. Hence, as the English sharp, stinging, burning shafts of phrase, defect is dull diffusion and a chaos of like the final speech of Antony, “Elle m'a disorder, so the French is loss of human résisté ; je l'ai assassinée," — shafts which truth in a mad eagerness for forcible situ- flew over the footlights straight to the ations, that is to say, melodrama. heart of every auditor. But these effects
would be nothing without the varied age, the passion of La Reine Margot. And movement of narration, the ease, the if Dumas does not quite anticipate the lightness, the grace, — above all, the per,
seductive melancholy of Loti's tropics, he petual wit, the play of delicate irony, gives hints of it which are really wonderwhich saves sentiment from being senti- ful for a man who had never been south mental and erudition from being dull. of latitude thirty.
Dumas's style has been much abused, Perhaps, outside of the historical novand in some ways deserves it. Mr. Saints- els, we may select four very different bury considers that the plays have “but books as most typical of Dumas's great little value as literature properly so- variety of production. First, in Concalled,” and that “the style of the novels science l’Innocent, we have a simple is not more remarkable as such than that idyllic subject, recalling George Sand's of the dramas.” But how far more dis- country stories : peasant life, rural scenes, cerning and sympathetic is Stevenson's sweet pictures of Dumas's own village characterization of it: "Light as a home at Villers-Cotterets, which he inwhipped trifle, strong as silk; wordy like a troduced into so many of his writings. village tale; pat like a general's dispatch; Second, in the immense canvas of Salwith every fault, yet never tedious; with vator, too little appreciated, we have a no merit, yet inimitably right." As for picture of contemporary conditions, the dialogue, that subtlest test of the nov- Paris of Sue and Hugo, treated with a elist's genius, — which neither Balzac, vividness far beyond Sue and a dramatic nor Flaubert, nor Zola could manage power which Hugo never could comwith flexibility or ease, Dumas may
have mand. Third, comes the incomplete used it to excess, but who has ever car- Isaac Laquedem, the vast Odyssey of the ried it to greater perfection ? In M. Wandering Jew, in which the author Lemaître's excellent, if somewhat cynical, planned to develop epically the whole phrase, Dumas's dialogue has “the won- history of the world, though the censorderful quality of stringing out the narra- ship allowed him to get no further than tive to the crack of doom and at the same the small Biblical portion of it. Few of time making it appear to move with head- Dumas's books illustrate better the really long rapidity.” But let it string out, so it soaring sweep of his imagination, and not moves. And surely Dumas's conversa- many have a larger share of his esprit. tions do move, as no others ever have. Lastly, there is Monte Cristo, which, on
In the hurry of modern reading, few the whole, remains, doubtless, the best people have time to get at Dumas in any example of what Dumas could do withbut his best-known works. Yet to form out history to support him. “Pure meloa complete idea of his powers, one must drama," some will say; in a sense, truly. take a much wider survey. All periods, Yet, as compared with the melodrama of, all nations, all regions of the earth came for instance, Armadale and The Woman at one time or another under his pen. in White, there is a certain largeness, a Of course this means an inevitable super- sombre grandeur, about the vengeance ficiality and inaccuracy. But one over- of Dantès, which goes almost far enough looks these defects, is hardly aware of to lift the book out of the realm of melothem, in the ease, the spirit, the unfailing drama, and into that of tragedy. And humanness of the narrative. Take a then there is the wit! minor story like L'Isle de Feu, dealing But it is on historical romance, whether with the Dutch in Java and with the in drama or fiction, that Dumas's popuhabits and superstitions of the natives, larity must chiefly rest. He himself felt snake - charming, spirit - haunting, etc. it would be so, hoped it would be so; and Everywhere there is movement, life, char- his numerous references to the matter, if acter, the wit of the Impressions de Voy- amusing, are also extremely interesting.